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American economy
Dr. Jay Maron, Physicist

Government
Trade
Income
Jobs
Tax
Expenses
Immigration
Presidents
Mining
Universities








Overview
Population on 2014 July 1    =  317.7 million people
Present workforce            =  154.4 million people
Gross Domestic Product       =  17020 billion $/year
Net worth of citizens        =  87250 billion $/year    (2015)
Government revenue           =   3021 billion $/year
Government spending          =   3500 billion $/year
Deficit                      =    483 billion $/year
Dept                         =  18230 billion $/year
Net worth per citizen        = 275000 $/person/year
Tax per working-age person   =  15200 $/person/year

Government

Revenue
                           B$/year
Individual income tax        1395
Social Security tax          1023
Corporate income tax          321
Federal Reserve System         99
Excise tax                     93
Customs duties                 34
Estate and gift taxes          19
Misc                           37
Total individual + corporate 2739
Total                        3021

Spending by department
                       B$                     B$                             B$

Defense              526.6    Agriculture    21.5    EPA                     8.2
Health & Human serv.  78.3    NASA           17.7    Nat. Science Found.     7.6
Education             71.2    Justice        16.3    Army Corps of Engineers 4.7
Veterans affairs      63.5    Transportation 16.3    Corp. Nat & Comm serv   1.1
Homeland Security     39.0    Treasury       12.9    Small Business Admin     .8
Housing & Urban Dev   33.1    Labor          12.1    Disaster costs          6
Intelligence          48.2    Interior       11.7    Other                  19.4
State                 48.1    Social Security 9.1    Total                1235
Energy                28.4    Commerce        8.6
Health & Human Services inclues medicare and medicade.
Debt

Debt as a percentage of GDP



Debt ownership


Inflation


Trade

Overview


Imports and exports
         Export  Import  Balance  Export Import
           B$      B$      B$      frac   frac
                                     %     %
World      1621   2348    -727
EU          276    418    -142
Canada      312    348     -35     76.8   54.5
China       124    467    -343     16.9
Mexico      240    294     -54     80.2   48.8
Japan        67    124     -67     18.9
Germany      49    123     -74
South Korea  44     70     -25
UK           54     54      -1
France       31     47     -16
Saudi Arabia 19     47     -28
India        22     45     -24     13.4
Italy        17     42     -25
Taiwan       27     41     -14
Ireland       8     34     -26     20.6
Switzerland  22     31      -9
Brazil       42     31      12
Malaysia     13     30     -17
Thailand     12     27     -15
Israel       15     23      -8     26.9   11.8
Netherlands  43     21      22
Belgium      35     21      14
Colombia     20     18       2     26.3   28.5
Singapore    30     16      14
Australia    27     11      16
Chile        17      9       7
Hong Kong    41      6      35
Venezuela                          34.6   24.2
Sri Lanka                          25.0
Vietnam                            20.0
Panama                             19.8   25.1
Pakistan                           12.4
Other       290    357     -67

Export frac:  Fraction of the given country's exports that go to the USA
Import frac:  Fraction of the given country's imports that come from the USA

Exports
                     B$                           B$

Cars                53.4    Delivery trucks      18.9    Liquid pumps         8.3
Refined oil         51.9    Blood                18.9    Industrial machinery 8.2
Planes & spacecraft 39.6    Aircraft parts       17.0    Chemical instruments 8.1
Pharmaceuticals     37.9    Coal                 16.2    Centrifuges          8.0
Gas turbines        29.0    Telephones           13.5    Wheat                7.8
Gold                27.2    Valves               10.7    Combustion engines   7.8
Soybeans            23.7    Corn                 10.2    Insulated wire       7.7
Medical instruments 19.8    Orthopaedic devices  10.1    Ethylene             7.6
Integrated circuits 19.4    Scrap iron            9.0    Air pumps            7.3
Computers           19.3    Construction vehicles 8.5    Tractors             6.9

India
         Export  Import  Balance
           B$      B$      B$

World       310    448    -138
China        11.9   60.4   -48.5
USA          42.4   21.8    20.6
UAE          33.0   26.1     6.7
Saudi Arabia 11.2   28.1   -16.9
Switzerland   1.1   22.1   -21.1
Germany       7.5   12.8    -5.3
Hong Kong    13.6    5.6     8.0
Indonesia     4.0   15.0   -11.0
South Korea   4.6   13.5    -8.9
Japan         5.4   10.1    -4.7


                Commodity  Commodity
                export B$  import B$

Refined petroleum  61.2
Oil                41.2     177.5
Vehicles           14.5
Prec. metal, gems  41.2      60
Electronics         9.1      32
Machines, engines  13.6      31
Pharmaceuticals    11.7
Cereals            10.1
Clothing            9.1
Organic chem       12.1      18.3
Plastics                     11.8
Iron, steel         9.1      11.4
Electronics         9.1

China
         Export  Import  Balance
           B$      B$      B$

EU          356    212     145
USA         325    122     202
Hong Kong   268     16     252
Japan       148    195     -46
South Korea  83    163     -80
Brazil       32     52     -21
India        50     23      27
Russia       39     40      -1
Taiwan       35    125     -90


                 Export (B$/yr)                       Export (B$/yr)

Computers            210.2            Transformers          25.2
Broadcast equipment  111.0            Furniture             25.1
Phones                91.8            Knit sweaters         24.2
Office machine parts  47.1            Trunks and cases      23.8
Integrated circuits   41.7            Video displays        21.9
Broadcast accessories 29.5            Vehicle parts         21.7
Semiconductor devices 29.0            Seats                 21.5

Russia
         Export  Import  Balance
           B$      B$      B$

Netherlands  46     <8
China        35     44      -9
Germany      31     46     -15
Ukraine      29     20       9
USA          25     11       4
Italy        24     13      11
Belarus      23     13      10
Poland       21      8      13
Japan        17     14       3
Kazakhstan   16     <8
South Korea <16     12
France      <16     11


                 Export (B$/yr)                 Export (B$/yr)

Crude petroleum    183.7         Wheat                6.2
Refined petroleum   70.6         Gold                 5.8
Natural gas         42.3         Diamonds             4.7
Coal                14.1         Nickel               4.2
Fertilizer          11.7         Copper               5.5
Iron                10.3         Wood                 3.4
Aluminum             6.6         Rubber               2.9

Japan
           Export  Import
             B$      B$

China       127.1  182.0
USA         129.4   71.8
S. Korea     51.8   33.6
Taiwan       40.2   24.4
Australia    14.3   48.4
S. Arabia     7.6   47.8
Thailand     31.6   21.9
UAE           9.6   42.0
Malaysia     14.2   29.4


                 Export (B$/yr)

Cars                 104.3
Vehicle parts         42.2
Integrated circuits   19.2
Industrial printers   17.5
Machinery             13.6
Construction veh.     13.2
Trucks                12.2
Refined petroleum     11.5
Vid recording equip.  11.2
Data for 2014.
Wealth

Wealth, GDP, and currency

        Currency  Currency  Wealth  Wealth    GDP   GDP/prsn  G7   G20
           B$        %        T$    k$/prsn  T$/yr   k$/yr

World                                        73.99
Eurozone   1035    24.3     250.1    52
EU                                           16.48            *    *
USA         851    20.0      85.9   353      18.56   55.8     *    *
China       492    11.6      22.8    22.5    11.38   14.1          *
Japan       762    17.9      19.8   190       4.41   38.1     *    *
UK           87.5   2.05     15.6   320       2.85   41.2     *    *
France                       12.7   262       2.42   41.2     *    *
Germany                      11.9   178       3.47   46.9     *    *
Italy                        10.0   204       1.81   35.7     *    *
Canada       43.8   1.03      6.9   248       1.55   45.6     *    *
Australia    32.4    .76      6.2   365       1.34   47.4          *
Spain                         4.4   112       1.20   34.8
Taiwan                        3.59  195              46.8
S. Korea                      3.54   91       1.38   36.5          *
Switz.       40.3    .95      3.49  567        .66   58.6
India       140     3.29      3.45    4.4     2.07    6.2          *
Brazil       37.3    .88      2.44   17.6     1.77   15.6          *
Neth.                         2.38  183        .75   49.2
Sweden                        2.29  311        .49   47.9
Belgium                       2.19  259        .45   43.6
Russia      111     2.60                      1.33   25.4          *
Poland       37.7    .89                       .47   26.5
Mexico       34.3    .81      1.96   25.9     1.14   17.5          *
Indonesia                     1.46    9.0      .86   11.1
Pakistan     17.6    .42                       .27    5.0
Argentina                                      .55   22.6          *
Indonesia                                      .86   11.1          *
S. Arabia                                      .65   53.6          *
S. Africa                                      .31   13.2          *
Turkey                                         .72   20.4          *
Other       537    12.9
Total      4259   100
Currency data for 2008
GDP data for 2015
GDP/person data for 2015
Income

Overview


Gini number

The Gini number characterizes inequality in a distribution. G=0 corresponds to perfect equality (wealth is shared equally) and G=1 corresponds to perfect inequality (all wealth is possessed by one person).


Income inequality


Tax

Jobs

Overview

Labor participation. Blue=men, Red=women, Black=total


Professions (U.S. data)
Fraction of fatalities that are men          =  93%
Fatality rate averaged over all professions  =  35 fatalities per 1 million workers
Total fatalities in 2011                     =  4609

                 Men (%)   Fatalities per million workers

Logging           97.2      1024
Coal mining       94.8       124
Sawmills          94.8
Construction      91.1        97
Steel production  89         269
Sewage            88.9
Truckers          88.6       240
Fishing, hunting  88.4      1212
Taxi driver       87.4       197
Paper mills       87.4
Mining            86.9       124
Oil mining        81.7
Power lines       77.9       203
Farming           76.3       232
Pilots            66.3       570
Baker             34.6
Nurse              9.4
Receptionist       8.5
Secretary          4.7
Garbage collection           412
Roofers                      318
Finance                        9
Information                   15
Education                      7
Hospitality                   19

Average                       33
Men work on average 53 more minutes per day than women.
Job creation
              New jobs per year (%)

Harding/Coolidge  4.23
Roosevelt         4.17
Johnson           3.90
Kennedy/Johnson   2.64
Clinton           2.59
Truman            2.27
Coolidge          2.13
Reagan            2.06
Eisenhower        1.10
Nixon/Ford        1.84
Obama             1.12
Bush I             .62
Bush II            .12
Hoover           -5.41

Present workforce = 154.4 million people

Job creation by state
           Index  Red/Blue            Index  Red/Blue             Index  Red/Blue

North Dakota  40    2      Ohio          22   -1       Alaska        17    3
DC            30   -3      Wyoming       22    3       Montana       17    1
South Dakota  30    2      Indiana       22    1       New Jersey    17   -2
Delaware      29   -2      Georgia       22    1       Mississippi   17   +2
Nebraska      29    3      Maryland      21   -2       Pennsylvania  17   -1
Minnesota     28   -1      Colorado      21    0       Arkansas      16    0
Texas         27    2      California    21   -2       Alabama       16    2
Iowa          25    0      Illinois      21   -2       Kentucky      16    1
Michigan      25   -1      Oklahoma      21    3       New Hampshire 16    0
Arizona       23    1      Oregon        20   -2       N. Carolina   16    1
Wisconsin     23   -1      S. Carolina   20    2       Maine         16   -2
Hawaii        23   -3      Idaho         19    3       Connecticut   15   -2
Utah          22    3      Missouri      19    0       New York      15   -3
Washington    22   -2      Louisiana     19    1       West Virginia 14    0
Florida       22    0      Nevada        18    0       Vermont       13   -3
Tennessee     22    1      Kansas        18    2       New Mexico    13   -1
Massachusetts 22   -3      Virginia      18    1       Rhode Island  12   -3

The Red/Blue column denotes the average margin of victory for the past 5
presidential elections.

+3   Republican  >20
+2   Republican 10-20
+1   Republican  3-10
+0   Neutral
-1   Democrat    3-10
-2   Democrat   10-10
-3   Democrat    >20
Data for the job creation index
Economic sectors
                        GDP %   Job %

Real estate & renting     13      1
State & local government   9      6
Finance and insurance      8      4
Health/social care         8      9
Durable manufacturing      6     <1
Retail trade               6     10
Wholesale trade            6      4
Non-durable manufacturing  6      3
Federal government         5      2
Information                4      2
Arts & entertainment       4      1
Construction               4      4
Waste services             3      5
Other services             3     29
Utilities                  2     <1
Mining                     2     <1
Corporate management       2      1
Education services         1      3
Agriculture                1      ?
Data for 2011. The total is 13.56 trillion dollars.
Employers
               Thousands                  Thousands                     Thousands

Wal Mart          2200     JPMorgan Chase     241     Starbucks             191
McDonalds          420     Citigroup          241     Ford Motor            187
IBM                413     Deloitte           225     Starwood Hotels       180
Kroger             400     Bank of America    224     Walt Disney           180
Home Depot         371     Lowe's             220     CVS Health            178
Target             347     General Motors     216     Verizon               177
UPS                336     Aramark            216     Publix Super Markets  175
Berkshire Hath.    316     Walgreens          213     UnitedHealth Group    170
General Electric   305     Ernst & Young      212     Johnson Controls      168
Yum! Brands        303     United Tech.       212     Macy's                167
Hewlett-Packard    302     Cognizant Tech.    212     Boeing                166
FedEx              298     PricewaterhouseC.  208     Hilton World Holdings 157
PepsiCo            271     Darden Restaurants 206     Amazon.com            154
Albertsons         265     TJX                198     Costco Wholesale      154
Wells Fargo        264     HCA Holdings       197     Cargill               153
AT&T               244     Sears Holdings     196     Xerox                 148

Minimum wage


Banks
                Assets   Profit    Employees
                  B$       B$      thousands

JP Morgan Chase   2359    21.3      259
Bank of America   2209     4.2      277
Citigroup         1865     7.4      259
Wells Fargo       1422    18.9      265
Goldman Sachs      923     7.5       58
Morgan Stanley     750     -.1       58
U.S. Bancorp       353     5.6       63
Bank of NY Mellon  359     2.6       49
HSBC N. America    319     n/a       43
Capital One        287     3.5       36
Data for 2012.
Food stamps


Tax

Percentile  Income  Payroll  Capital  Frac of US    Frac of US      Tax
             (k$)   tax (%)  tax (%)  earnings (%)  tax income (%)  paid
                                                                    (k$)
 1-20        18.4    2.0       1.3      4.0         1.0              .607
21-40        42.5    9.1       1.6      8.4         4.4             4.55
41-60        64.5   12.7       2.5     13.1         9.2             9.80
61-80        94.1   15.7       3.7     19.3        16.5            18.26
81-100      265.7   20.1      21.4     53.9        68.9           110.3
91-100      394.5   20.7      26.7     42.0        55.0           187.0
96-100      611.2   20.9      32.1     32.3        44.3           323.9
100-100    1873     20.6      43.4     19.4        28.1          1199
Top 400  344832     16.6      81.3                             337600

Income                =  Mean income for the tax bracket
Payroll tax           =  Mean payroll tax for the tax bracket
Capital tax           =  Fraction of payroll earnings going to tax
Capital tax           =  Fraction of capital gains going to tax
Frac of US earnings   =  Fraction of individual and corporate earnings
Frac of US tax income =  Fraction contributed to total US tax income

Tax revenue           =  2400 billion $
Tax paying households = 118.7 million
Tax per household     = 20200 $

Tax distribution by quartile
          1-20   21-40   41-60   61-80   81-100   96-100   1-100

Asian      .624    .593    .786    .871   1.265    .366    4.140
White    16.940  18.424  18.978  19.215  19.721   5.029   92.702
Hispanic  3.023   3.130   2.863   1.931   1.204    .269   12.838
Black     4.474   3.339   2.637   2.053   1.287    .236   13.792
Numbers in millions of people.
Expenses

Economic necessities

Source


Middle income family spending

Percent change from 2007 to 2014.

Health care       24.8
Food at home      -3.6
Housing           -6.0
Transport         -6.4
Total food        -7.6
Food not at home -13.4
Clothing         -18.8
Total             -6.3

College tuition


Health care


Obamacare premiums
           2015  2016   % change

Bronze      292   319     9
Silver      341   389    14
Gold        397   459    16

U.S. age distribution
Age    Fraction

0-14    .198         Each year of age contains a fraction of .0132 of the population
15-64   .668
65-200  .134

U.S. demographics
        Population   Births/women/year
         fraction

White      .724       .0188
Hispanic   .163       .0213
Black      .126       .0187
Asian      .0475      .0172
Native     .0112      .0129
Data from Wikipedia for 2014.
Presidents

Economy
          GDP     Job    Workforce  Home  Fed spend  Budget surplus
         growth  growth  particip.  own    per GDP      per GDP
          %/yr    %/yr     %/yr     %/yr      %           %/yr

Carter     3.0    3.1     .8        .2      19.5        -2.0
Reagan     3.8    2.2     .4       -.2      21.0        -3.5
Bush I     2.0     .6     .0        .1      20.5        -3.5
Clinton    4.2    2.6     .1        .4      18.5        -2.0
Bush II    2.1     .0    -.2        .0      18.5        -1.5
Obama      2.0     .9    -.5       -.5      22.0        -5.5
Data
President rankings from Wikipedia

                    Party  Rank     Losing     Party   Electoral
                                    candidate          margin

 1  1789  Washington    -   3       J. Adams   -    69    0
    1793  Washington    -           J. Adams   F   132    0
 2  1797  J. Adams      F  12       Jefferson  DR   71   68
 3  1801  Jefferson     DR  4       Burr       DR   73   65
    1805  Jefferson     DR          Pinckney   F   162   14
 4  1809  Madison       DR 14       Pinckney   F   122   47   6
    1813  Madison       DR          Clinton    F   128   89
 5  1817  Monroe        DR 16       King       F   183   34
    1821  Monroe        DR          J.Q. Adams DR  231    1
 6  1825  J.Q. Adams    DR 21       Jackson    DR   84   99  41  37
 7  1829  Jackson       D   8       J.Q. Adams NR  178   83
    1833  Jackson       D           Clay       NR  219   49  11   7
 8  1837  Van Buren     D  24       W.Harrison W   170   73  26  14  11
 9  1841  W. Harrison   W  39       Van Buren  D   234   60
10    VP  Tyler         W  37
11  1845  Polk          D  10       Clay       W   170  105
12  1849  Tayler        W  35       Class      D   163  127
13    VP  Filmore       W  38
14  1853  Pierce        D  41       Scott      W   254   42
15  1857  Buchanan      D  43       Fremont    R   174  114   8
16  1861  Lincoln       R   1       Breckin.   SD  180   72  39  12
    1865  Lincoln       NU          McClellan  D   212   21
17    VP  Johnson       NU 40
18  1869  Grant         R  36       Seymour    D   214   80
    1873  Grant         R           Hendricks  D   286   42  18   2
19  1877  Hayes         R  25       Tilden     D   185  184
20  1881  Garfield      R  31       Hancock    D   214  155
21    VP  Arthur        R  28
22  1885  Cleveland     D  18       Blaine     R   219  182
23  1889  B. Harrison   R  29       Cleveland  D   233  168
24  1893  Cleveland     D  18       B.Harrison R   277  145  22
25  1897  McKinley      R  19       Bryan      DP  271  176
    1901  McKinley      R           Bryan      D   292  155
26    VP  T. Roosevelt  R   5
    1905  T. Roosevelt  R           Parker     D   336  140
27  1909  Taft          R  23       Bryan      D   321  162
28  1913  Wilson        D   7       Roosevelt  P   435   88   8
    1917  Wilson        D           Hughes     R   277  254
29  1921  Harding       R  42       Cox        D   404  127
      VP  Coolidge      R  30
    1925  Coolidge      R           Davis      D   382  136  13
31  1929  Hoover        R  32       Smith      D   444   87
32  1933  F. Roosevelt  D   2       Hoover     R   472   59
    1937  F. Roosevelt  D           Landon     R   523    8
    1941  F. Roosevelt  D           Willkie    R   449   82
    1945  F. Roosevelt  D           Dewey      R   432   99
      VP  Truman        D   6
33  1949  Truman        D           Dewey      R   303  189  39
34  1953  Eisenhower    R   9       Stevenson  D   442   89
    1957  Eisenhower    R           Stevenson  D   457   73
35  1961  Kennedy       D  11       Nixon      R   303  219  15
36    VP  Johnson       D  13
    1965  Johnson       D           Goldwater  R   486   52
37  1969  Nixon         R  33       Humphrey   D   301  191  46
    1973  Nixon         R           McGovern   D   520   17   1
      VP  Ford          R  26
39  1977  Carter        D  27       Ford       R   297  240
40  1981  Reagan        R  15       Carter     D   489   49
    1985  Reagan        R           Mondale    D   525   13
41  1989  Bush          R  22       Dukakis    D   426  111
42  1993  Clinton       D  20       Bush       R   370  168
    1997  Clinton       D           Dole       R   379  159
43  2001  Bush          R  34       Gore       D   271  266
    2005  Bush          R           Kerry      D   286  251
44  2009  Obama         D  17       McCain     R   365  173
    2013  Obama         D           Romney     R   332  206
45  2017  Trump         R           Clinton    D   306  232


            Rank  Party              Rank  Party            Rank  Party

Lincoln        1   R      Monroe      16  D-R     Garfield    31   R
Roosevelt, F.  2   D      Obama       17   D      Hoover      32   R
Washington     3   I      Cleveland   18   D      Nixon       33   R
Jefferson      4  D-R     McKinley    19   R      Bush II     34   R
Roosevelt, T.  5   R      Clinton     20   D      Taylor      35   W
Truman         6   D      Adams, JQ   21  D-R     Grant       36   R
Wilson         7   D      Bush I      22   R      Tyler       37   W
Jackson        8   D      Taft        23   R      Fillmore    38   W
Eisenhower     9   R      Van Buren   24   D      Harrison, W 39   W
Polk          10   D      Hayes       25   R      Johnson, A  40   D
Kennedy       11   D      Ford        26   R      Pierce      41   D
Adams, J.     12   F      Carter      27   D      Harding     42   R
Johnson, L.   13   D      Arthur      28   R      Buchanan    43   D
Madison       14  D-R     Harrison, B 29   R
Reagan        15   R      Coolidge    30   R

R    Republican
D    Democrat
W    Whig
D-R  Democratic-Republican party
I    Independent


Presidental 4-year terms:

Republican            23
Democrat              22
Democratic Republican  7
Whig                   4
Independent            2
Federalist             1
National Union         1

Presidents that pledged to serve 1 term and honored their pledge

James K. Polk
Rutherford B. Hayes


Landslides
                    Party  Rank     Losing     Party   Electoral       Fraction
                                    candidate          margin          of votes

 1  1793  Washington    -   3       J. Adams   F   132    0             1
 1  1789  Washington    -   3       J. Adams   -    69    0             1
 5  1821  Monroe        DR 16       J.Q. Adams DR  231    1              .996
32  1937  F. Roosevelt  D   2       Landon     R   523    8              .985
40  1985  Reagan        R  15       Mondale    D   525   13              .976
37  1973  Nixon         R  33       McGovern   D   520   17              .97
 3  1805  Jefferson     DR  4       Pinckney   F   162   14              .92
40  1981  Reagan        R  15       Carter     D   489   49              .91
16  1865  Lincoln       NU  1       McClellan  D   212   21              .91
36  1965  Johnson       D  13       Goldwater  R   486   52              .90
32  1933  F. Roosevelt  D   2       Hoover     R   472   59              .89
34  1957  Eisenhower    R   9       Stevenson  D   457   73              .86
14  1853  Pierce        D  41       Scott      W   254   42              .86
32  1941  F. Roosevelt  D   2       Willkie    R   449   82              .85
 5  1817  Monroe        DR 16       King       F   183   34              .84
31  1929  Hoover        R  32       Smith      D   444   87              .84
34  1953  Eisenhower    R   9       Stevenson  D   442   89              .83
18  1873  Grant         R  36       Hendricks  D   286   42  18   2      .82
28  1913  Wilson        D   7       Roosevelt  P   435   88   8          .82
32  1945  F. Roosevelt  D   2       Dewey      R   432   99              .81
 9  1841  W. Harrison   W  39       Van Buren  D   234   60              .80
41  1989  Bush          R  22       Dukakis    D   426  111              .79
 7  1833  Jackson       D   8       Clay       NR  219   49  11   7      .77
29  1921  Harding       R  42       Cox        D   404  127              .76

Secretaries of State that subsequently became president
President     Secretary of State

Washington    Jefferson
Jefferson     Madison
Madison       Monroe
Monroe        J.Q. Adams
Jackson       Van Buren
Polk          Buchanan

Red and blue states


U.S. government for 2017-18
           Republican   Democrat   Independent

President       1
U.S. House    241         194
U.S. Senate    52          46           2
Governor       31          18           1
State houses   33          16
State senates  35          14                     One tie

U.S. government for 2009-11
           Republican   Democrat

President                   1
U.S. House    179         255
U.S. Senate    41          59
Governor       22          28

United Kingdom Parliament, 2016
                  Commons   Lords

Conservative        328      255
Labour              230      204
Scottish National    54
Liberal Democrat      9      103
Democratic Unionist   8        3
Sinn Fein             4
Plaid Cymru           3        1
Soc. Demo. & Labour   3
Ulster Unionist       2        2
UK Independence       1        3
Green                 1        1
Intl. Labour                   2
Ind. Social Democrat           1
Ind. Ulster Unionist           1
Bishops                       26
Independent           5
Crossbenchers                179
Non-affiliated                28
Total               650      809

Senatorial elections in 2018
Republican incumbents    8
Democratic incumbents   23
Independent incumbents   2


         Incumbent   Presidential
           party    election margin
                        (%)

West Virginia D        R 42    Joe Manchin
Montana       D        R 20    Jon Tester
Indiana       D        R 19    Joe Donnelly
Missouri      D        R 19    Claire McCaskill
Ohio          D        R  8    Sharrod Brown
Florida       D        R  1    Bill Nelson
Pennsylvania  D        R  1    Bob Casey
Wisconsin     D        R  1    Tammy Baldwin
Michigan      D        R  0    Debbie Stabenow

Minnesota     D        D  1    Amy Klobuchar
Maine         I        D  3    Angus King
Virginia      D        D  5    Tim Kaine
New Mexico    D        D  8    Martin Heimrich
Delaware      D        D 11    Tom Carper
New Jersey    D        D 14    Bob Menendez
Connecticut   D        D 14    Chris Murphy
Rhode Island  D        D 15    Sheldon Whitehouse
Washington    D        D 16    Maria Cantwell
New York      D        D 22    Kirstin Gillibrand
Vermont       I        D 26    Bernie Sanders
Maryland      D        D 26    Ben Cardin
Massachusetts D        D 27    Elizabeth Warren
California    D        D 30    Dianne Feinstein
Hawaii        D        D 32    Mazie Hirono

Wyoming       R        R 46    Joe Barrasso
North Dakota  R        R 36    Heidi Heitkamp
Tennessee     R        R 26    Bob Corker
Nebraska      R        R 25    Deb Fischer
Mississippi   R        R 18    Roger Wicker
Utah          R        R 18    Orrin Hatch
Texas         R        R  9    Ted Cruz
Arizona       R        R  4    Jeff Flake

Nevada        R        D  2    Dean Heller
For example, in West Virginia, Trump received 68.6% of the vote and Clinton received 26.5%, for a difference of 42.1%.
U.S. presidential election of 2016 by state
Wyoming       R 46       D.C.          D 86
West Virginia R 42       Hawaii        D 32
North Dakota  R 36       California    D 30
Oklahoma      R 36       Massachusetts D 27
Idaho         R 32       Maryland      D 26
Kentucky      R 30       Vermont       D 26
S. Dakota     R 30       New York      D 22
Alabama       R 28       Illinois      D 17
Arkansas      R 27       Washington    D 16
Tennessee     R 26       Rhode Island  D 15
Nebraska      R 25       Connecticut   D 14
Kansas        R 21       New Jersey    D 14
Montana       R 20       Delaware      D 11
Louisiana     R 20       Oregon        D 11
Indiana       R 19       New Mexico    D  8
Missouri      R 19       Virginia      D  5
Mississippi   R 18       Colorado      D  5
Utah          R 18       Maine         D  3
Alaska        R 15       Nevada        D  2
S. Carolina   R 14       Minnesota     D  1
Iowa          R  9       N. Hampshire  D  0
Texas         R  9
Ohio          R  8
Georgia       R  5
N. Carolina   R  4
Arizona       R  4
Florida       R  1
Pennsylvania  R  1
Wisconsin     R  1
Michigan      R  0

Immigration

Immigration by country

        Citizens    Recent   Population  Ratio
                  immigrants

Jamaica               .508     2.72   .187
El Salvador  1.25     .68      6.40   .106
DR            .991    .90     10.5    .086
Cuba         1.14     .67     11.2    .060
Haiti                 .537    10.9    .049
Mexico      11.58    5.55    121.7    .046
Guatemala             .353    16.2    .0218
Philippines  1.84    1.48    102      .0145
Canada                .395    30.5    .0130
South Korea  1.07     .609    50.4    .0121
Vietnam      1.28     .96     91.8    .0105
Peru                  .321    31.2    .0103
Colombia              .499    48.5    .0103
Cambodia              .106    15.4    .0069
UK                    .383    64.1    .0060
Russia                .476   146.5    .0032
Japan                 .173   127      .00136
India        2.03    1.32   1275      .00104
China        2.38    1.40   1371      .00102
Australia             .013    23.9    .00054

Numbers in millions.
Citizens          =  Number of U.S. Citizens from the given country
Recent immigrants =  Number of immigrants from 1986 to 2012
Population        =  Population of country of origin
Ratio             =  Recent immigrants / Population of country of origin

Countries that reject deportees from the U.S.
        Lower bound on the number of deportees

China       35000
Cuba        35000
Haiti       30000
Brazil      25000
India       15000
Pakistan     5000
Vietnam      5000
Bangladesh   5000

Number of deportees to recalcitrant countries  = 242772   (57029 are convicted criminals)
Total number of deportees awaiting deportation = 953806
Data from Lifezette
Estimated spending on illegal aliens
                  Billion $
Social services       90
Food assistance       22
Education             12
Welfare             ~ 11
Medicade               2.5
Incarceration          1.1
Total                139

Estimated wages earned by illegal aliens                  = 200 billion $
Estimated money sent by illegal aliens out of the country =  45 billion $
Data
DACA
             Accepted   Denied

2012             1700     N/A
2013           470500   11000
2014 initial   136200   21100
2014 renewed    22200   Data withheld
2015 initial    90800   19200
2015 renewed   419800    2300
2016 initial    52900   11500
2016 renewed   146100    3100
Data from Lifezette
Most recent Republican mayor
               Year   Murders/mil/yr

Saint Louis    1949   499
Detroit        1962   435
New Orleans    1872   387
Baltimore      1967   338
Chicago        1931   151
Milwauke       1908   150
New York City  2007    39
San Diego      2016    23

Military

World military budget

             B$/yr   % GDP                        B$/yr   % GDP

World        1676     2.3           Japan          40.9   1.0
USA           597     3.3           Germany        39.4   1.2
China         215     1.9           South Korea    36.4   2.6
Saudi Arabia   87.2  13.7           Brazil         24.6   1.4
Russia         66.4   5.4           Italy          23.8   1.3
UK             55.5   2.0           Australia      23.6   1.9
India          51.3   2.3           UAE            22.8   5.7
France         50.9   2.1           Israel         16.1   5.4

Military equipment

Ronald Reagan, Kitty Hawk, and Abraham Lincoln (front to back)

Virginia class nuclear submarine
Virginia class: the "North Dakota"

      Nuclear  Diesel  Aircraft   Military   F-22  F-35  B-2  Combat   Nuclear
       subs     subs   carriers  Satellites                  aircraft  devices

Total     148   228       20     320        184         20  20089    15913
USA        72             10     123        184   71    20   3680     7100
Russia     45    18        1      74                         1337     7700
UK         11              1       7              18*         278      225
France     10              1       8                          395      300
China       9    46        1      68                         2571      260
India       1    13        2       5                          928      110
Japan            17                4               5*         777       TC
Israel            3                8              33*         440       80
Italy             6        2       6               8*         258
Germany           4                7                          245
S. Korea         12                                           587       TC
Egypt                                                         569
N. Korea                                                      563        8
Taiwan            2                1                          485
Pakistan          5                                           460      120
Iran              3                                           337
Turkey           14                1               6*         335
S. Arabia                                                     313       TC
Syria                                                         277
Greece            8                                           244
Ukraine                                                       203
UAE                                2                          175
Spain             4                                           166
Australia         6                1              72*         146
Myanmar                                                       155       TC
Thailand                   1                                  143
Sweden            5                                           134
Singapore         4                                           126
Argentina         3                                           123       TC
Kazakhstan                                                    122
Algeria           4                                           120
Poland            5                                           113       TC
Finland                                                       107
Canada            4                1                           95
Chile             4                1
Netherlands       4                               10*
Norway            6                                4*
Mexico                             1                                    TC
Spain                              2
Brazil            5        1                                            TC
Malaysia          2
Portugal          2
Romania           1
Vietnam           1
Colombia          2
Ecuador           2
Indonesia         2
Peru              6
S. Africa         3
Venezuela         2

*:  On order
TC: Does not possess nuclear devices but is technologically capable of building them
The aircraft with stealth technology are the F-22, F-35, and B-2.
For the "combat aircraft" column, only countries with at least 100 combat aircraft are listed.
Data
Air Force
       F-22 F-35 F-15 F-16 F-18 F-4 F-5 F-2 MiG31 MiG25 MiG29 MiG29 MiG21 Su35 Su30  J7 J10

USA     195 121  449  983   885         561
Russia                                       152         252              48
China                                                                     24        728 240
Japan        42* 154             71      64
S. Korea     40*  58  169        71 158
India                                          5               108   245       241
Singapore         40   60            27
Taiwan                115            23
Thailand               53            30
Indonesia              16             2
Malaysia                      8      18
Philip.
Total                4500
*: On order

Submarines

Virginia class nuclear submarine
Virginia class: the "North Dakota"

                  Speed  Power   Mass  Depth  Len   Wid   Hei  Drag  Year   #   Power
                  km/h   MWatts  Mkg     m     m     m     m

USA     Virginia     46   30      7.9   240  115    10.0             2004  13   Nuclear
USA     Ohio         46   45     18.8   240  170    13    10.8  .73  1981  18   Nuclear
USA     Los Angeles  37   26      6.9   290  110    10     9.4  .63  1976  36   Nuclear
Russia  Akula        65   32     13.8   520  113.3  13.6   9.7  .55  1986  10   Nuclear
Russia  Oscar        59   73.1   19.4        155    18.2   9   1.02  1981   5   Nuclear
Russia  Borey        56          24     450  170    13.5  10         2010   3   Nuclear
Russia  Delta 4      44.4               320                          1981   7   Nuclear
UK      Vanguard     46   41     15.9        149.9  12.8  12         1993   4   Nuclear
France  Triomphant   46          14.3   400  138    12.5  10.6       1997   4   Nuclear
India   Arihant      44   83     ~7     300  112    11    10   1.73  2016   1   Nuclear
China   Type 93      55.6         7.0        110    11     7.5       2006   5   Nuclear
China   Type 95                                                      2015   5   Nuclear
China   Type 94                  11          135    12.5             2007   4   Nuclear

India   Shishumar    41   10.6    1.85  260   64.4                   1986   4   Diesel electric. German
Germany Type 212     37    2.85   1.83  700   57.2   7     6         2002  10   AIP, Fuel cell
India   Kalvari      37           1.87        61.7   6.2   5.8       2016   1   AIP, Fuel cell
Japan   Soryu        37    6.0    4.2         84.0   9.1   8.5       2009   9   AIP, Stirling
Japan   Oyashio      37    5.78   4.0         81.7   8.9   7.4  .20  1998  11   Diesel electric
Australia  Collins   37    5.37   3.41 >180   77.4   7.8   7    .23  1996   6   Diesel electric
India   Sindhughosh  31   10.2    3.08  300          9.9   6.6  .36  1986   9   Diesel electric. Kilo class
Taiwan  Hai Lung     22           2.66  300   66.9   8.4   6.7       1987   2   Diesel electric. Dutch Zwaardvis class
"Depth" refers to the "Test depth", which is typically 2/3 of the crush depth.
"Drag" is the drag coefficient defined below.
Submarine speed
Height           =  H
Width            =  W
Cross section    =  A  =  π H W / 4
Water density    =  D  =  1025 km/meter3       Typical for seawater
Speed            =  V
Drag coefficient =  C
Propeller power  =  P  =  ½ C D A V3

Submarines by country

      Nuclear  Diesel  Aircraft
       subs     subs   carriers

Total     148   228       20
USA        72             10
Russia     45    18        1
UK         11              1
France     10              1
China       9    46        1
India       1    13        2
Japan            17
Turkey           14
S. Korea         12
Greece            8
Italy             6        2
Norway            6
Peru              6
Australia         6
Pakistan          5
Sweden            5
Brazil            5        1
Poland            5
Germany           4
Singapore         4
Spain             4
Algeria           4
Canada            4
Chile             4
Netherlands       4
S. Africa         3
Israel            3
Iran              3
Argentina         3
Taiwan            2
Malaysia          2
Portugal          2
Colombia          2
Ecuador           2
Indonesia         2
Venezuela         2
Romania           1
Vietnam           1

Torpedoes
                  Speed   Range   Mass  Warhead  Length  Diam   Depth  Year  Fuel
                  km/h     km     ton     ton    meter   meter  meter

UK      Spearfish  150     54     1.85    .30     7.0    .533          1992  Otto fuel 2
China   Yu-6       120.4   45                            .533          2012  Otto fuel 2
USA     Mark 48    102     38     1.68    .29     5.8    .53     800   2008  Otto fuel 2
Germany DM2A4       92.6   50             .26     6.6    .533                Silver zinc battery
USA     Mark 54     74.1           .276   .044    2.72   .324          2004  Otto fuel 2
S Korea White Shark 63     30     1.1             2.7    .48           2004
Inaia   Varunastra  74     40      1.5    .25      7.0   .533    400   2016  Electric

Speed of a battery-powered submarine

Lithium batteries deliver a high power/mass ratio and have the potential to outperform nuclear power for stealthiness. We give sample parameters for a battery-powered submarine using the properties of the battery in the Tesla Model S. This is the most powerful battery among road cars.

Battery energy/mass       =  e    =  .57  MJoule/kg
Battery power/mass        =  p    =  .74  kWatt/kg
Battery energy/dollar     =  Q    =  .007 MJoule/$
Battery dollar/mass       =  q    =  81.4 $/kg
Battery density           =  Dbat = 2500  kg/meter3
Seawater density          =  Dwat = 1025  kg/meter3
Submarine drag coefficient=  C    =  .33       Typical value
Submarine speed           =  V
Submarine max speed       =  Vmax
Submarine cross section   =  A
Battery cross section     =  a    =  .8 A      Assume the battery fills most of the compartment
Battery compartment length=  L    =   10  meters
Battery mass              =  M    =  L a Dbat
Battery power             =  Pbat =  p M  =  p L a Dbat
Drag power                =  Pdrag=  ½ C Dwat A V3
The maximum speed occurs when the battery maximum power is equal to the drag power.
Pdrag = Pbat   ↔   p a Dbat L = ½ C Dwat A V3max

Z  =  V3max / L  =  p (a/A) (Dbat/Dwat) / (½ C)  ≈  740 ⋅ .8 ⋅ 2.5  ≈  8900

Vmax  =  (L Z)1/3  ≈  20.7 L1/3 m/s  =  44.6 m/s  =  161 km/h
The speed doesn't depend on the cross sectional area of the submarine.

The range of the submarine as a function of speed is:

Battery endurance time  =  T  =  e/p  =  770 seconds  =  12.8 minutes      Time to drain the battery when at maximum power
Range at speed Vmax     =  R  =  T Vmax  =  34.3 km
Drag power              =  P  =  Pbat V3 /V3max
Travel time at speed V  =  t  =  T Pbat/P =  T V3max / V3
Range at speed V        =  r  =  t V  =  T V3max / V2  =  R V2max / V2
A lithium battery has an endurance of 12.8 minutes.

A submarine moving at 1/10 its maximum speed travels 100 times as far as it does when at maximum speed. At this speed the range is more than 1000 km.


Supreme court
               Appointed by   Born   Appointed

Antonin Scalia    Reagan      1936     1986      Deceased 2016
Anthony Kennedy   Reagan      1936     1988
Clarence Thomas   Bush I      1948     1991
Ruth Ginsburg     Clinton     1933     1993
Stephen Breyer    Clinton     1938     1994
John Roberts      Bush II     1955     2005      Chief Justice
Samuel Alito      Bush II     1950     2006
Sonia Sotomayor   Obama       1954     2009
Elena Kagan       Obama       1960     2010

The Trump Cabinet
                                                  Confirmation date

Vice President                      Mike Pence         Jan 20
Secretary of State                  Rex Tillerson      Feb  1
Secretary of the Treasury           Steven Mnuchin     Beb 13
Secretary of Defense                James Mattis       Jan 20
Attorney General                    Jeff Sessions      Feb  9
Secretary of the Interior           Ryan Zinke         Mar  1
Secretary of Agriculture            Sonny Perdue
Secretary of Commerce               Wilbur Ross        Feb 28
Secretary of Labor                  Alexander Acosta
S. Health & Human Services          Tom Price          Feb 10
S. Housing & Urban Development      Ben Carson         Mar  2
Secretary of Transportation         Elaine Chao        Jan 31
Secreatry of Energy                 Rick Perry         Mar  2
Secretary of Education              Betsy DeVos        Feb  7
S. Veterans Affairs                 David Shulkin      Feb 14
S. Homeland Security                John Kelly         Jan 20
-------------------------------------------------------------
White House Chief of Staff          Reince Priebus     Jan 20
Dir. Office of Management & Budget  Mick Mulvaney      Feb 16
Environmental Protection Agency     Scott Pruitt       Feb 17
U.S. Trade Representative           Robert Lighthizer
Ambassador to the United Nations    Nikki Haley        Jan 27
Chair Council of Economic Advisors
Admin. Small Business Admin.        Linda McMahon      Feb 14
Director of the CIA                 Mike Pompeo        Jan 23
The Cabinet consists of the positions above the horizontal line. Positions below the line are not part of the Cabinet but are considered to be Cabinet-level positions. All positions require Senate confirmation except the Vice President and the White House Chief of Staff.

The National Security Advisor is H. R. McMaster.


Cabinet nominations withdrawn
Trump     1
Obama     3
Bush 43   2
Clinton   5
Bush 41   1

State tax
           Total   Income  Election  Inbound
           tax %   tax %   of 2016   move %

Alaska        6.5   0          R
S. Dakota     7.1   0          R     68
Wyoming       7.1   0          R
Tennessee     7.3   6.00       R
Texas         7.6   0          R
Louisiana     7.6   3.50       R
New Hampshire 7.9   5.00       D
Nevada        8.1   0          D     58
S. Carolina   8.4   6.01       R     61
Mississippi   8.6   4.70       R
Oklahoma      8.6   4.62       R
Alabama       8.7   4.92       R
Montana       8.7   5.79       R
New Mexico    8.7   4.34       D
Arizona       8.8   3.06       R     57
Colorado      8.9   4.63       D
Florida       8.9   0          R
North Dakota  9.0   1.34       R
Georgia       9.1   5.62       R
Iowa          9.2   5.68       R
Nebraska      9.2   5.14       R
Missouri      9.3   5.55       R
Washington    9.3   0          D     58
Virginia      9.3   5.24       D
Idaho         9.3   6.9        R     65
Michigan      9.4   4.25       R
Kentucky      9.5   5.43       R     42
Kansas        9.5   4.03       R
Indiana       9.5   3.3        R
Utah          9.6   5.0        R     44
N. Carolina   9.8   5.75       R     58
Ohio          9.8   2.43       R
W. Virginia   9.8   4.35       R
Arkansas     10.1   5.08       R
Delaware     10.2   4.78       D
Pennsylvania 10.2   3.07       R     44
Hawaii       10.2   6.76       D
Maine        10.2   6.45       D
Mass.        10.3   5.1        D
Vermont      10.3   4.21       D     67
Oregon       10.3   8.53       D     67
Rhode Island 10.8   3.75       D
Minnesota    10.8   6.19       D
Maryland     10.9   4.65       D
California   11.0   4.29       D
Illinois     11.0   3.75       D     37
Wisconsin    11.0   5.67       R
New Jersey   12.2   2.54       D     37
Connecticut  12.6   4.6        D     40
New York     12.7   5.8        D     37

Total tax %     =  Effective tax % when including individual, business, and property tax
Effective tax % =  Income tax % on an individual that makes $50000/year
Inbound move %  =  Among people moving into or out of the state, fraction that is moving in
States with low tax burdens tend to be Republican. People tend to migrate to states with lower tax burdens.

Tax data. Moving data.


Federal land


Gun ownership


Hunting statistics for 2014
              Hunters   Deaths

Michigan       800000     0
Pennsylvania   750000     1
New York       600000     0
Wisconsin      589830     0
West Virginia  250000     0
Maine          224039     0

Total         3213869     1

U.S. geography

U.S. Territories

Wake Island

                   km2   Population

Puerto Rico       9104   3667084    Caribbean
Guam               543    159358    West Pacific
N. Mariana Is.     464     77000    West Pacific
US Virgin Is.      346    106405    Caribbean
American Samoa     197     55519    West Pacific
Guantanamo Bay     117         -    Caribbean
Misc Islands        34       300
Kingman Reef        18         0    East Pacific
Palmyra Atoll       12         0    East Pacific
Wake Island          7.4       0    West Pacific
Midway               6.2       0    West Pacific
Navassa Island       5.4       0    Caribbean
Howland Island       4.5       0    West Pacific
Jarvis Island        4.5       0    East Pacific
Johnston Atoll       4.5       0    West Pacific
Baker Island         2.1       0    West Pacific

Interstate freeways


United Nations
U.N. Budget              = 2.8  B$/year
U.N. Peacekeeping Budget = 8.27 B$/year
U.N. Peacekeeping troops = 82813

      U.N. Budget   U.N. Peacekeeping
          %             Budget %

USA       22.0            28.4
Japan      9.7            10.3
China      7.9             6.6
Germany    6.4             7.1
France     4.9             7.2
UK         4.46            6.7
Brazil     3.82
Italy      3.75            4.45
Russia     3.09            3.15
Canada     2.92            2.98
Spain      2.44            2.97
Australia  2.34
S. Korea   2.04
Neth.      1.48
Mexico     1.44
S. Arabia  1.15
Switz.     1.14
Other     19.1

Miscellaneous

South China Sea Islands

Paracel Islands
Spratley Islands
Spratley Islands

                          km2   Population  Nearest     Occupied
                                            nation         by

Pratas Is.                   1.7       0    China       Taiwan
Batanes Arc.               219     17246    Philippines Philippines
Taiwan Str. Amoy          1699   3531000    China       China
Tiawan Str. Quemoy         153    127723    China       Taiwan
Taiwan Str. Pescadores     141    101758    Taiwan      Taiwan
Paracel     Woody Is.        2.1            China/Viet  China
Paracel     Lincoln Is.      1.6            China/Viet  China
Paracel     Triton Is.       1.2            China/Viet  China
Paracel     Duncan Is.        .48           China/Viet  China
Paracel     Passu Keh         .40           China/Viet  China
Paracel     Money Is.         .36           China/Viet  China
Paracel     Pattle Is.        .31           China/Viet  China
Paracel     Robert Is.        .30           China/Viet  China
Paracel     Tree Is.          .22           China/Viet  China
Paracel     Drummond Is.      .21           China/Viet  China
Paracel     South Is.         .17           China/Viet  China
Paracel     Middle Is.        .13           China/Viet  China
Paracel     Rocky Is.         .08           China/Viet  China
Paracel     South Sand        .06           China/Viet  China
Paracel     Palm Is.          .06           China/Viet  China
Paracel     Middle Sand       .05           China/Viet  China
Paracel     West Sand         .04           China/Viet  China
Paracel     North Is.         .04           China/Viet  China
Paracel     Pyramid Rock      .04           China/Viet  China
Paracel     North Sand        .02           China/Viet  China
Paracel     All Wealth        .02           China/Viet  China
Paracel     Little Basket     .01           China/Viet  China
Paracel     Observation Bank  .01           China/Viet  China
Paracel     He Duck           .01           China/Viet  China
Paracel     S. South Sand     .004          China/Viet  China
Paracel     New West Sand     .002          China/Viet  China
Paracel     Lesser Silver Is. .002          China/Viet  China
Paracel     Stone Islet       .002          China/Viet  China
Spratley    Itu Aba Is.       .46           Phil/Malay  Taiwan
Spratley    Thitu Is.         .37           Phil/Malay  Philippines
Spratley    West York Is.     .18           Phil/Malay  Philippines
Spratley    Spratley Is.      .13           Phil/Malay  Vietnam
Spratley    Northeast Cay     .13           Phil/Malay  Philippines
Spratley    Southwest Cay     .12           Phil/Malay  Vietnam
Spratley    Sin Cowe Is.      .08           Phil/Malay  Vietnam
Spratley    Nanshan Is.       .08           Phil/Malay  Philippines
Spratley    Sand Cay          .07           Phil/Malay  Vietnam
Spratley    Loaita Is.        .06           Phil/Malay  Philippines
Spratley    Namyit Is.        .05           Phil/Malay  Vietnam
Spratley    Amboyna Cay       .02           Phil/Malay  Vietnam
Spratley    Flat Is.          .01           Phil/Malay  Philippines
Spratley    Lankiam Cay       .004          Phil/Malay  Philippines
Senkaku     Uotsuri-shima    4.32           Japan       Japan
Senkaku     Kuba-shima       1.08           Japan       Japan
Senkaku     Minami-kojima     .46           Japan       Japan
Senkaku     Kita-kojima       .33           Japan       Japan
Senkaku     Taishoo-too       .06           Japan       Japan
Senkaku     Oki-no-Kita-iwa   .02           Japan       Japan
Senkaku     Oki-no-Minami-iwa .005          Japan       Japan
Senkaku     Tobise            .001          Japan       Japan
Natuna Arc.               1993     69319
Anambas Gp.                637     37493    Malaysia    Indonesia

Twitter superpowers

          Tweets   Followers

Obama      15400  86700000
Modi       14700  29000000
Trump      34700  27800000
POTUS        361  16200000
White House  116  13700000
H. Clinton  9809  13000000
B. Clinton   540   7020000
Sanders    16100   4200000
Trudeau    13400   2820000
Gingrich    9831   1930000
Warren      1568   1540000
Le Pen     11900   1210000
Ryan        9517   1080000
Pelosi      4472    956000
Pence       5138    824000
Netanyahu   2230    724000
Turnbull   10000    716000
Abe         1213    618000
Priebus    10600    581000
Farage     10600    562000
Putin       1381    499000
Juppe       9747    446000
Geun-hye     509    408000
Schumer     9275    316000
Khomenei    8323    247000     twitter.com/khamenei_ir
McConnell   1540    209000
May          183    192000
Duterte      278    145000
Jong-un     3835    140000     twitter.com/DPRK_News
Merkel      2604     79300
al-Assad    4089     29300     twitter.com/presidency_sy?lang=en
Hussain    19500     20400     twitter.com/pid_gov
Xi             1       459

Fox News  300000  13800000
Hannity    34500   2260000
Kelly      12800   2240000
O'Reilly   10900   1670000
Coulter    24800   1440000
Ingraham   29000   1420000
Conway      6607   1420000
Breitbart  73400    668000
Giuliani      46     82000

2016 Primaries
            Votes   Candidates  States   Popular     Super    Debates
          (millions)                    delegates  delegates

Democrat     31.22       3        50      4051        712        9
Republican   30.64      17        50      2472          0       12
Libertarian    .03      13         6       n/a        n/a       21
Green          .02       6        35       402          0        4


          Votes   Vote %   Delegates   States

Trump    14013998   44.9     1441       36
Cruz      7822100   25.1      551       11
Kasich    4290448   13.8      161        1
Rubio     3515576   11.3      173        1

Clinton  16912545   55.2     2842       28
Sanders  13206428   43.1     1865       22
O'Malley        ?    ?          0        0

Johnson     22642   59.6      n/a        5
McAfee       3391    8.9      n/a        0
Peterson     3066    8.1      n/a        0

Stein       13231    ?        269.5     34
Kreml           ?    ?         18.5      1


Democratic superdelegates:

Clinton        570.5
Sanders         44.5
O'Malley         1
No endorsement  96
The Green Party is not green. One of their planks is respect for the environment and the other 19 planks have nothing to do with the environment. A party schism is likely.
Mining

Red:     low price
Yellow:  medium price
White:   high price
Blue:    not naturally occuring because there are no long-lived isotopes
Dot size inversely scales with abundance in the Earth's crust.

The "rare Earth elements" are the elements in the bottom two rows of the above table. Many are not rare. They are vital to the electronics industry.


         Price   Production   Reserves   Price
         $/kg     109 kg/yr    109 kg     109 $/yr

Iron           .3 1700          ∞     510      Sold as steel
Aluminum      1.7   49.3        ∞      84      Produced from electricity
Copper        6.2   18.7        ∞     116
Zinc          2     11.2   200000      22
Manganese     2.3   11.0    20000      25
Magnesium     2.85   5.96       ∞      17
Lead          2      3.9                7.8
Nickel       15      2.1               32
Tantalum    100      1.0                1.0
Zirconium    20       .9       60      18
Chromium      2.3     .75               1.7    Sold as stainless steel
Molybdenum   24       .25               6.0
Tin          22       .25               5.5
Titanium     10       .137      ∞       1.4
Antimony      6       .135               .8
Cobalt       30       .11               3.3
Thorium      25       .01       1.9      .25
Vanadium     12       .079               .95
Uranium      75       .070              5.2
Niobium      40       .063              2.5
Tungsten     50       .061              3.0
Lithium     200       .036     40       7.2
Cadmium       1.9     .03                .06
Strontium     5       .03                .15
Silver      590       .026             15
Arsenic       1.9     .02
Neodymium    25       .01                .25
Yttrium      45       .0071     9
Mercury      16       .003
Bismuth      18       .009
Gold      24000       .0028            67
Selenium     60       .002       .093    .12
Indium      750       .0005      .006
Beryllium   805       .0004      .4
Tellurium    50       .0002              .01
Gallium     280       .000273   1        .076
Palladium 13600       .00025            3.4
Platinum  88000       .000245          22
Germanium  1950       .000118            .23
Hafnium     500       .0001              .05   Extracted from zirconium ore
Rhenium    6200       .00005             .3
Rhodium   88000       .000030           2.6
Iridium   13000       .000012            .16
Ruthenium  5600       .000012    .005    .07
Lutetium 100000       .000010           1.0
Thallium    480       .000010            .005  Byproduct of Cu, Zn, and Pb production
Scandium  14000       .000002            .03
Osmium    12000       .000001            .012

Rare Earth:
Cerium        2.5    ~.1                 .25
Lanthanum     3       .0125              .04
Samarium      3       .0007     2        .002
Gadolinium   20       .0004     1        .008
Dyspros      80       .0001              .008
Praseo       30       ?
Europium    300       ?
Terbium     600       ?
Erbium     5400       ?
Holmium    8600       ?          .4
Ytterbium 14000       .00005    1        .7
Thulium   70000       .00005     .1     3.5
Prometh    Huge       .000000001               No stable isotopes. Created in nuclear reactors

Argon         5       .7                3.5
Helium       50       .030              1.5    169e6 million meters3 of gas at .179 kg/m3
Xenon      1200       .00006             .07
Neon        330       ?
Krypton     330       ?

Carbon            7900          ∞              Coal
Nitrogen           158          ∞              450e9 kg/yr of NH3NO3, 95% for fertilizer
Sulfur              69          ∞              Byproduct of oil refining.
Phosphorus          63      24000              Sold as phosphate, P mass fraction = 1/3.
Potassium      .6   18       4700              Sold as potash (KCl) for .31 $/kg.  Assume potash is 1/2 K.
Boron                1.2
Chlorine             ?
Fluorine   2000       .017
Selenium              .002
Synth diamonds        .000080                  Synthesized in a laboratory
Rough diamonds        .000020                  Mined diamonds, unsuitable for gemstones
Gem diamonds          .000004                  Mined diamonds, suitable for gemstones
The world total rare Earth ore mined is .14 Gkg/yr.

Neodymium magnets supporting steel spheres
Composition of a neodymium magnet: Nd2Fe14B.


Elements as currency

Metals are useful for currency because they are uncounterfeitable and immutable. 1 trillion dollars of metals are mined per year. The elements are listed below sorted by $/year mined. The metals that have the largest value are steel, copper, aluminum, and copper.

            $/kg    Bkg/year   B$/year

Steel           .3 1700         516
Copper         6.2   18.7       116
Aluminum       1.7   49.3        84
Gold       24000       .0028     67
Nickel        15      2.1        32
Manganese      2.3   11.0        25
Platinum   88000       .000245   22
Zinc           2     11.2        22
Zirconium     20       .9        18
Magnesium      2.8    5.96       17
Silver       264       .026       6.9
Lithium      200       .036       7.2
Molybdenum    24       .25        6.0
Tin           22       .25        5.5
Uranium       75       .070       5.2
Thulium    70000       .00005     3.5
Palladium  13600       .00025     3.4
Cobalt        30       .11        3.3
Tungsten      50       .061       3.0
Rhodium    88000       .000030    2.6
Niobium       40       .063       2.5
Titanium      10       .137       1.4
Lutetium  100000       .000010    1.0
Tantalum     100      1.0         1.0
Neodymium     25       .01         .25
Selenium      60       .004        .24
Germanium   1950       .000118     .23
Gallium      280       .000273     .076
Tellurium     50       .0002       .01
Indium       750       .0005       .006

Elements for electronics

Elements of interest to electronics are:

            $/kg    Produce    Produce  Electronics  Solar  Invest  Jewelry  Catalyst
                    (109 kg/yr) (109 $/yr)

Copper         6.2  18.7       116         .16       .08
Gold       24000      .0028     67         .08                .36     .53
Platinum   88000      .000245   22         .02                .06     .35      .40
Lithium      200      .036       7.2       .23
Silver       264      .026       6.9       .26       .06      .28     .22
Neodymium     25      .01         .25      .88                                 .01
Germanium   1950      .000118     .23      .72                                 .20

Chemical synthesis
                  109 kg/year

Polyethylene        80
Nitrogen            50     Synthesized as ammonium nitrate.  95% becomes fertilizer
Polypropylene       50
Polyvinyl chloride  40     Corrosion-resistant pipes
Polystyrene         15

Rare Earth elements

The rare Earth elements are the ones in the row from Lanthanum to Lutetium and they tend to occur together in minerals. They are vital to electronics and 95% of the world's supply comes from the Bayan Obo deposit in China. Uranium and thorium are often found in rare Earth ore.

            Protons   $/kg

Scandium      21    14000      Alloys
Lanthanum     57        3      Glass, catalysts, lighters
Cerium        58        2.5    Lighters
Praseodymium  59       30      Magnets, alloys
Neodymium     60       25      Magnets, lasers, glass
Promethium    61        -      No stable isotopes
Samarium      62        3      Magnets, catalysts, lighters
Europium      63      300      Phosphors, lasers
Gadolinium    64       20      Alloys, phosphors, fuel cells
Terbium       65      600      Fuel cells, magnetomechanical transducers, phosphors
Dyspros       66       80      Magnets, hard drive memory, LEDs
Holmium       67     8600      Magnets, lasers
Erbium        68     5400      Fiber optics
Thulium       69    70000      Lasers
Ytterbium     70    14000      Lasers, steel alloy
Lutetium      71   100000      Catalysts, X-ray phosphors
Thorium       90       25      Nuclear fuel
Uranium       92       75      Nuclear fuel

Monazite

Monazite quartz
Monazite reserves

Monazite ore contains 55-60% rare earth metal oxides along with 24 to 29% P2O5, 5 to 10% ThO2, and 0.2 to .04% U3O8. Due to the alpha decay of thorium and uranium, monazite contains a significant amount of helium, which can be extracted by heating. Some monazite ores have a thorium fraction in the range of 0.25.

The density of monazite ore is between 4.6 and 5.7 g/cm3. Because of their high density, monazite minerals will concentrate in alluvial sands when released by the weathering of pegmatites. These so-called placer deposits are often beach or fossil beach sands and contain other heavy minerals of commercial interest such as zircon and ilmenite. Monazite can be isolated as a nearly pure concentrate by the use of gravity, magnetic, and electrostatic separation.

Among the metals found in mozanite, a typical fractional distribution is

            Fraction

Cerium        .46
Lanthanum     .24
Neodymium     .17
Phosphorus    .10
Thorium       .08
Praseodymium  .05
Uranium       .002
Samarium      .001
Gadolinium    .001
Yttrium       .001
Europium      .0005
Thorium reserves in units of 109 kg.
World total  1.91
India         .963
USA           .44
Australia     .30
Canada        .10
South Africa  .035
Brazil        .016
Malaysia      .0045
Other         .090
The total energy of thorium reserves is
Energy  =  1.91e9 kg * 8.e12 J/kg  =  15.3e21 Joules

Mountain Pass Mine

The Californian Mountain Pass mine close in 2002. In 2010 China restricted rare Earth exports, prompting subsidies from the U.S. Government to reopen the mine. Mining resumed in 2015 and then ceased in 2016 when the mining corporation went bankrupt.


Precious metal

The metals sorted by price/kg are:

         Price   Production   Reserves   Price
         $/kg     109 kg/yr    109 kg     109 $/yr

Lutetium 100000       .000010           1.0
Platinum  88000       .000245          22
Rhodium   88000       .000030           2.6
Thulium   70000       .00005     .1     3.5
Gold      24000       .0028            67
Scandium  14000       .000002            .03
Ytterbium 14000       .00005    1        .7
Palladium 13600       .00025            3.4
Iridium   13000       .000012            .16
Osmium    12000       .000001            .012
Holmium    8600       ?          .4
Rhenium    6200       .00005             .3
Ruthenium  5600       .000012    .0005   .07
Erbium     5400       ?
Fluorine   2000       .017
Germanium  1950       .000118            .23
Xenon      1200       .00006             .07
Beryllium   805       .0004      .4
Indium      750       .0005      .006
Terbium     600       ?
Silver      590       .026             15
Hafnium     500       .0001              .05   Extracted from zirconium ore
Thallium    480       .000010            .005  Byproduct of Cu, Zn, and Pb production
Neon        330       ?
Krypton     330       ?
Europium    300       ?
Gallium     280       .000273
Lithium     200       .036              7.2
Tantalum    100      1.0                1.0
Dyspros      80       .0001              .008
Uranium      75       .070              5.2
Selenium     60       .002       .093    .12
Tellurium    50       .0002              .01
Tungsten     50       .061              3.0
Helium       50       .030              1.5
Yttrium      45       .0071     9
Niobium      40       .063              2.5
Praseo       30       ?
Cobalt       30       .11               3.3
Thorium      25       .01       1.9      .25
Neodymium    25       .01                .25
Molybdenum   24       .25               6.0
Tin          22       .25               5.5

Noble gases

Noble gases are obtained by cooling air to a liquid and then distilling it, except for helium, which is obtained from natural gas.

            Atmosphere    Boil    Price   Atomic   Liquid     Gas
                %        Kelvin   $/kg     mass    density  density
                                                   g/cm3     g/cm3
Argon     Ar   .934       87.3       5      40     1.395    .00178
Neon      Ne   .001818    27.1     280      20     1.207    .000900
Helium    He   .000524     4.23     50       4      .125    .000179
Krypton   Kr   .000114   119.7     330      84     2.413    .00375
Xenon     Xe   .0000087  165.1    2100     131     2.94     .00589

Metal production

The metals that are produced in the largest quantities, in units of 1 billion kg per year:

           Steel   Al    Cu     Zn     Mn    Mg    Ni

World      1600   49.3  18.5   11.2   18.5  6.97  2.45
USA          79    1.7   1.36    .74    -    -     -
China       804   23.3   1.76   3.10   2.9  4.9    .102
Canada       12    2.9    .70    .70    -    -     .240
Australia     5    1.7    .97   1.29   3.0   .13   .234
Russia       71    3.5    .74    .22    -    .4    .240
India        90    2.1    -      .70    .95  .60   -
Brazil       33    1.0    -      .17   1.0   .15   .110

Production of rare metals

Rare metals in units of millions of kg per year:

            Cu    Au    Pt     Ag    Li    Ti   Sn

World     18500   .99   .161  26.0  36.0  222  296
USA        1360   .21   .004   1.1        
China      1760   .09          4.0        100
Canada      700   .15   .007    .7               ?
Australia   970   .27          1.7  13.0         6
Russia      740   .25   .025   1.7         45
S. Africa         .15   .110
Mexico      520   .12          5.4
Chile      5750                1.2  12.9
Peru       1380   .14          3.5              24
Data
Potassium

"Potash" is mostly potassium chloride.

         Potash   Potash reserves
       (109 kg/yr)  (109 kg)

World      37.0    9500
Canada     11.2    4400
Russia      7.4    3300
Belarus     5.5     750
Germany     3.3     150
China       3.3     210
Israel      2.0      40
Jordan      1.4      40
USA         1.1     130
Chile        .8      70
UK           .43     22
Spain        .42     20
Brazil       .4     300
Other                50

Phosphate (P2O5)
        MTons/yr  MTons

World     225     71000
China     100      3700
Morocco    30     50000
USA        27.1    1400
Russia     10      1300
Brazil      6.8     310
Egypt       6       715
Jordan      6      1300
Tunisia     5       100
Israel      3.6     130
Australia   2.6    1030
Peru        2.6     240
Iraq               5800
Algeria            2200
Syria              1800
S. Africa          1500
http://investingnews.com/daily/resource-investing/agriculture-investing/phosphate-investing/top-phosphate-producing-countries
American metal production

The cost of metal production is dominated by the cost of electricity and heat. If you can produce cheap electricity then you can be competitive for metal exports, and you can manufacture goods that use metals as raw materials.

The most significant metals mined in America are copper, gold, and iron. Materials mined in America are:

            Billion $/year

Coal             31.3
Sand and gravel  15.5
Crushed rock     13.8
Cement            9.8
Copper            7.6
Gold              7.6
Iron ore          3.8
America has abundant ore for most metals. In the table below, "American mining %" is the fraction of the world's supply that is mined in America.
      Available   American  Source of ore in America
      in America  mining %

Lithium     *     -         Nevada brine, Wyoming Rock Springs Uplift
Beryllium   *    88         The Utah Spor Mountain Mine dominates world production
Magnesium   *     -         Utah brine
Aluminum          3.4       America mines negligible aluminum
Scandium          -         America mines negligible scandium
Titanium    *     -         Titanium-rich sands in Florida and Virginia
Vanadium          1         America produces negligible vanadium
Chromium    *     -         Montana Stillwater igneous complex
Manganese         -         America produces negligible manganese
Steel       *     4.9       Iron ore is everywhere
Cobalt            -         America has negligible cobalt mining
Nickel            -         America has one nickel mine, the Michigan Eagle Mine
Copper      *     7.4       Utah Bingham Canyon Mine, New Mexico El Chino Mine
Zinc        *     6.6       The Alaskan Red Dog mine dominates world production
Arsenic           -
Zirconium   *     -         Available in titanium-rich sands in Florida and Virginia
Niobium           -         America mines negligible niobium
Molybdenum  *    24         Colorado Henderson mine and Climax mine. Utah Bingham Canyon Mine
Ruthenium   *     -         Platinum group. Montana Stillwater igneous complex
Rhodium     *     -         Platinum group. Montana Stillwater igneous complex
Palladium   *     6         Platinum group. Montana Stillwater igneous complex
Silver      *     4.2       The Alaskan Red Dog mine and Greens Creek mine are world silver heavyweights
Indium      *     -         Obtained from the Alaskan Red Dog zinc mine
Cadmium     *     -         Obtained from the Alaskan Red Dog zinc mine
Tin               -         There are no American tin mines. The last mine closed in 1993
Antimony          -
Rare Earths *     2         California Mountain Pass Mine
Hafnium     *     -         Mined from zirconium ore, such as the titanium-rich stands of Florida and Virginia
Tantalum          -         America mines negligible tantalum
Tungsten    *     -         California Mountain Pass Mine
Rhenium     *    15
Osmium      *     -         Platinum group. No good source in the U.S.A.
Iridium     *     -         Platinum group. No good source in the U.S.A.
Platinum    *     2.5       Platinum group. No good source in the U.S.A.
Gold        *    21.2       Nevada gold mine
Mercury           -         The last U.S. mine (Nevada McDermitt) closed in 1992
Lead        *    11
Bismuth           -
Thorium     *     -         America has 1/4 of the world's thorium reserves
Uranium     *     3.4       America has many uranium mines

"-" means that American production is less than 1% of world production.
The rare Earth metals are the ones from lanthanum to lutetium and they can all be obtained from the California Mountain Pass Mine.

For aluminum, ore is imported and then extracted with electricity in America.

America can produce metals such as aluminum, titanium, and zinc even though ore is not available, because the ore has a high fraction of the metal and is easily transported. In this case America produces the electricity and hydrocarbon energy required to extract the metal.

For some metals, America possesses high quality ore that can be sold to other countries that have cheap energy available for extraction. These metals are berylium, zinc, molybdenum, copper, and silver.

U.S. Geological Survey


Platinum group metals


American element deficiencies

Strategic elements are elements that are vital for technology and for which America doesn't have enough ore. The elements in order of importance are:

Phosphorus
Rare Earths
Platinum group metals:  Platinum, osmium, iridium, ruthenium, rhodium, and palladium.
Scandium
Mercury
Carbon:  Oil, natural gas, and coal.
Phosphorus is a major component of fertilizer and half the world's reserves are in Morocco. Biomass energy hinges on phosphorus. The other components of fertilizer, potassium and nitrogen, are abundant.
Embodied energy

The "embodied energy" is the energy required to produce a material. For metals this is the energy required to produce pure metal from ore. For plastics and chemicals this is the energy required for the synthesis plus the energy content of the hydrocarbons that serve as raw input materials.


Elements and electricity

The elements sorted by embodied energy per mass are:

            MJoules   Ore     Price   EJoules  Electricity
              /kg   dilution   $/kg    /year     factor

Platinum     300000  2000000  80000     <.1       1
Gold         200000 10000000  24000      .5        .5
Palladium     80000  2000000  14000     <.1       2
Silicon wafer  2000        4   >100     <.1       1         Price depends on purity
Silver          800   200000    600     <.1        .6
Titanium        800              10     1.5        .8
Magnesium       250               2.8             2.8
Aluminum        150        6      1.7   7         1
Nickel          150      200     15      .5       1
Zinc             70       20      2     1
Stainless        57                     2.5
Copper           42      800      6.2   1
Iron             25                     <.1
Steel            20        4       .3  32         1
Lead             12       40      2     <.1
Mercury                  700     16     <.1
Molybdenum               300     24     <.1
Tungsten                 100     50     <.1
Manganese                  8      2.3   <.1
Chromium                   6      2.3

EJoules/year:     World energy used in the synthesis of the material.
MJoules/kg:       Energy requirement for synthesis.
Dilution:         Inverse of the ore concentration.
Electric factor:  Ratio of electricity energy to hydrocarbon energy in the synthesis.
Data from this fine paper
Non-metallic materials

Most plastics have an energy/mass of 150 MJoules/kg.

          MJoules  EJoules   Electricity
            /kg    /year       factor

PE           150     5         1.5
PVC          150     4         1.5
PP           150     4         1.5
Polyester    150     3         1.5
Paper         25     9
Glass         10     1
Wood           9    <.1
Cement         4   12
Brick          2     .2
Butyl rubber        2
PS                  1.5
Natural rubber      1
ABS                 1
PA                  1
Phenolics           1
PET                 1

World energy

Materials sorted by world production energy per year are:

           EJoules  MJoules
            /year     /kg

Steel         32       25
Cement        12        4
Paper          9       25
Aluminum       7      150
PE             5      150
PVC            4      150
PP             4      150
Polyester      3      150
Stainless      2.5
Butyl rubber   2
Titanium       1.5    800
PS             1.5

Green building material

A material is "green" if it has a low value for embodied energy/mass. It is also helpful if electricity is the dominant energy input, because electricity can come from a green source such as hydro, solar, or wind. Materials sorted by greenness are:

            MJoules   Price   Electricity
             /kg      $/kg      factor

Brick           2
Cement          4
Wood            9
Glass          10
Steel          25        .3      1
Zinc           70       2
Aluminum      150       1.7      1
PE            150                1.5
PVC           150                1.5
PP            150                1.5
Polyester     150                1.5
Nickel        150      15        1
Magnesium     250       2.8
Wood, steel, and aluminum are the most useful for prefabricated houses.
Remote synthesis of metals, plastics, and chemicals

Suppose you generate electric power at a remote place like Antarctica and you use it to synthesize materials. The ideal qualitites for such a material are:

High ore concentration, which makes it easy to ship the ore to the synthesis plant.
Large electricity requirement per kilogram for synthesis.
Large world demand.
Large price/kg.

The metals that qualify are aluminum, chromium, manganese, titanium, zinc, and silicon.

Plastics, chemicals, and paper are also good candidates because they have a high energy cost for synthesis. Plastics require more electricity energy than hydrocarbon energy. The input raw materials are usually natural gas, oil, and coal.

A synthesis plant should ideally be located near a source of natural gas, since natural gas has the lowest carbon footprint among hydrocarbons.

             Ore     MJoules   EJoules   Price   Electricity
           dilution    /kg      /year    $/kg      factor

Silicon wafer   4     2000       <.1    >100         1     Price depends on purity
Steel           4       25      32          .3       1
Aluminum        6      150       7         1.7       1
Chromium        6
Manganese       8                <.1
Titanium       10      800       1.5      10          .8
Zinc           20       80       1         2
Nickel        200      150        .5      15         1

U.S. industrial electricity

The fraction of U.S. industrial electricity used for metals, plastic, and chemicals is:

                   Fraction

Chemical synthesis   .078
Petroleum refining   .073
Steel                .019
Aluminum             .009
Other metals         .007
Plastic and rubber   .007

Steel

Input energy fractions for the production of steel:

Electricity    .18
Natural gas    .33
Coal           .01
Coke           .18
Other          .27
Residual       .02

Universities

Rank, tuition, and endowment

         Rank   In    Out of  Students  Endow  Endow/    SAT   Student/  Choice   Free
               state  state     (k)     (B$)   student         faculty   rank     (k$)
               (k$)    (k$)                    (M$/prsn)

Princeton     1   -     40     8.1    22.7    2.81       1500    6      5        60
Harvard       2   -     42    21.0    36.4    1.74       1505    7      3        65
Yale          3   -     44    12.3    25.6    2.07       1505    6      4        65
Columbia      4   -     49    29.9     9.6     .32       1480    6     12        60
Stanford      4   -     44    16.8    22.2    1.32       1475    5      1       125
U. Chicago    4   -     48    15.2     7.5     .50       1510    6     12
MIT           7   -     43    11.3    13.5    1.19       1495    8      2
Duke          8   -     49    14.8     7.3     .49       1460    7     10
U. Penn       9   -     46    21.3    10.1     .48       1455    6      7
Caltech      10   -     42     2.21    2.2    1.00       1550    3      6
J. Hopkins   11   -     49    21.7     3.4     .16       1445          24
Dartmouth    12   -     47     6.3     4.7     .74       1455          15       100
Northwestern 12   -     49    20.3    10.2     .50       1475          33
Brown        14   -     49     9.2     3.1     .34       1440          14
Cornell      15   -     45    21.8     6.0     .28       1420          34
Vanderbilt   15   -     44    12.7     4.1     .33       1465          34
Wash. U      15   -     48    14.5     6.8     .47       1465    7     30
Rice         18   -     42     6.6     5.6     .84       1470    6     40
Notre Dame   18   -     48     8.4      .83    .68       1465
UC Berkeley  20  13     38    37.6     1.5     .041      1390          19
UCLA         23  13     36    43.2     1.86    .043                    25
Carnegie Mel 23   -     50    13.3     1.74    .13       1440          49
USC          23   -     50    42.5     4.7     .111                    28
Virginia     26  15     44    23.7     6.2     .26                     73
Michigan     29  14     43    43.6    10.0     .23       1380          38
UNC          30   8.6   34    29.1     3.0     .103                    60
NYU          32   -     46    57.2     3.6     .062
Rochester    33   -     48    11.1     2.0     .18
William Mary 34  17     41     8.4                                     88
Georgia Tech 36  12     32    23.1     1.9     .080
UCSB         37  14     39    23.1                                     84
UC Irvine    39  15     37    30.1                                     79
UCSD         39  14     38    29.9                                     70
Illinois     41  16     31    45.1                                     77
Wisconsin    41  10     30    43.2     2.47                            70
Penn State   47  18     31    47.0
Florida      47   6     29    50.4
Ohio State   52  10     27    64.9     3.6     .056
Texas        52  10     35    51.3                                     60
U. Wash      52  12     34    44.8                                     86
Yeshiva      52   -     40     6.4     1.06                      6
BYU          62   -      5    30.5                                     37
Fordham      66   -     44    15.2
Stony Brook  89   9     24    24.6
Hoffstra    135   -     44    11.0
New School  135   -     42    10.2
SanDiego St 149   7     18
Wyoming     161   5     15    12.8
Harvey Mudd       -     49                               1494    8      23
CUNY City         6
CUNY BMCC         5                                             17
CUNY York         6     13

Rank             Rank according to US News
In state         In-state tuition
Out of state     Out-of-state tuition
Endow            Endowment
Endow/student    Endowment per student
Student/faculty  Student/faculty ratio
Choice rank      ELO ranking of student choice (see the ELO section)
Free             Free if your parents make less than the given amount
Full table

Matchup ranking

Chess-style ELO rankings were applied to students who had multiple choices of colleges to determine which universities are favored by students.

          Rank   ELO score                   Rank   ELO score

Stanford     1    2419           Army          16   2103
MIT          2    2370           Pomona        17   2090
Harvard      3    2363           Haverford     18   2085
Yale         4    2307           UC Berkeley   19   2081
Princeton    5    2306           Williams      20   2078
Caltech      6    2255           Swathmore     21   2049
U. Penn      7    2227           Bates         22   2047
Air Force    7    2227           Harvey Mudd   23   2046
Middlebury   9    2184           Johns Hopkins 24   2045
Duke        10    2138           UCLA          25   2043
Bowdoin     11    2134           Navy          26   2040
Columbia    12    2128           Amherst       27   2036
U. Chicago  12    2128           USC           28   2027
Brown       14    2110           Mount Holyoke 29   2024
Dartmouth   15    2107           Washington U. 30   2017
Data for 2016
SAT scores
 1  Caltech       1550            17  U. Penn        1455
 2  U. Chicago    1510            17  Williams Col.  1455
 3  Harvard       1505            20  Amherst        1450
 3  Yale          1505            20  Swathmore      1450
 5  Princeton     1500            22  Johns Hopkins  1445
 6  MIT           1495            22  Bowdoin        1445
 7  Harvey Mudd   1494            24  Carnegie Mel.  1440
 8  Columbia      1480            24  Tufts          1440
 9  Stanford      1475            24  Brown          1440
 9  Northwestern  1475            27  Claremont McK. 1435
11  Rice          1470            28  Cornell        1420
12  Vanderbilt    1465            28  Georgetown     1420
12  Washington U. 1465            28  Northeastern   1420
12  Notre Dame    1465            37  Berkeley       1390
15  Duke          1460            42  Michigan       1380
15  Pomona        1460            44  Cooper Union   1375
17  Dartmouth     1455
Data
Student-faculty ratio
Caltech       3        Yale             6
MSM           3        Yeshiva          6
Juilliard     5        Duke             7
Stanford      5        Emory            7
Columbia      6        Harvard          7
Princeton     6        U.S. Mil. Acad.  7
Rice          6        Washington U.    7
Bard College  6        Harvey Mudd      8
U. Chicago    6        MIT              8
U. Penn       6        CUNY BMCC       17

Mathematics skill of 15-year-olds

            6     5     4     3     2     1     0

Singapore 19.0  21.0  22.0  17.5  12.2   6.1   2.2
Taiwan    18.0  19.2  19.7  17.1  13.1   8.3   4.5
Hong Kong 12.3  21.4  26.1  19.7  12.0   5.9   2.6
S. Korea  12.1  18.8  23.9  21.4  14.7   6.4   2.7
Japan      7.6  16.0  23.7  24.7  16.9   7.9   3.2
Lichten.   7.4  17.4  23.2  22.7  15.2  10.6   3.5
Switz.     6.8  14.6  23.9  24.5  17.8   8.9   3.6
Belgium    6.1  13.4  20.6  22.4  18.4  12.0   7.0
Poland     5.0  11.7  21.3  25.5  22.1  11.1   3.3
Germany    4.7  12.8  21.7  23.7  19.4  12.2   5.5
Canada     4.3  12.1  22.4  26.4  21.0  10.2   3.6
Finland    3.5  11.7  23.2  28.8  20.5   8.9   3.3
France     3.1   9.8  18.9  23.8  22.1  13.6   8.7
UK         2.9   9.0  18.4  24.8  23.2  14.0   7.8
Italy      2.2   7.8  16.7  24.6  24.1  16.1   8.5
USA        2.2   6.6  15.8  23.3  26.3  17.9   8.0
Hungary    2.1   7.1  14.4  23.0  25.3  18.2   9.9
Brazil     0      .7   2.9   8.9  20.4  31.9  35.2
Mexico     0      .6   3.7  13.1  27.8  31.9  22.8
Argentina  0      .3   1.8   9.2  22.2  31.6  34.9
Columns indicate level of mathematical proficiency.
Data for 15-year-old students on the PISA mathematics literacy scale.

Core requirements

Caltech
MIT
Juilliard
Manhattan School of Music

                         Caltech  MIT  U. Chicago  CUNY  Harvard  Juilliard  MSM

Biology                     *      *       *        *       *
Lab                         *      *       *        *       *
Mathematics                 *      *       *        *       *
Calculus                    *      *       *
Chemistry                   *      *
Multivariable Calculus      *      *
Mechanics (with Calculus)   *      *
Electromag (with Calculus)  *      *
Sports                      *      *
Differential equations      *
Quantum Mechanics           *
Thermodynamics              *
Caltech has a colossal chamber music scene and Juilliard has zero mathematics classes.

World universities

Harvard        1    Cornell       21    U. Queensland    52    Erasmus U. Rot.  82
MIT            2    U.Col. London 22    McGill           53    Monash U.        84
UC Berkeley    3    UCSF          23    U. Munich        53    Kyoto U.         86
Stanford       4    UCSB          24    U. Manchester    56    U. Paris-Sud     88
Oxford         5    Northwestern  25    EPF Lausanne     58    U. Barcelona     90
Cambridge      6    Wisconsin     26    Tsinghua         59    U. New S. Wales  90
Caltech        7    Swiss Tech    27    King's College   61    U. Groningen     93
UCLA           8    UNC           28    U. Copenhagen    61    Mayo Clinic      94
Columbia       9    Minnesota     29    Tech U. Munich   64    Fudan U.         96
Chicago       10    Texas         30    U. Hong Kong     64    Ghent U.         97
U. Wash       11    U. Tokyo      31    Humbolt Berlin   68    Lund U.          97
Johns Hopkins 12    U. Brit Colum 33    Utrecht U.       69    U. Freiburg      99
Princeton     13    Heidelberg U. 37    Karolinska Inst. 72    U. Helsinki     101
U. Penn       14    U. Eidenburgh 37    Nanyang Tech     74    U. Glasgow      102
Yale          14    U. Melbourne  40    U. Bristol       74    VU U. Amsterdam 102
Toronto       16    Peking U.     41    Leiden U.        77    U. Geneva       104
Michigan      17    KU Leuven     42    U. Zurich        77    Seoul Nat. U.   105
Imperial Col. 18    N. U. Singap. 49    U. Amsterdam     79    U. Alberta      106
UCSD          19    Curie U.      49    Australian Nat U 80    Zhejiang U.     106
Duke          20    U. Sydney     51    Free U. Berlin   81    U Paris Diderot 109
U.S. News

Administrators

         Teachers     Administrators   Administrators
        per student    per student      per teacher

Public     .064           .073             1.14
Private    .07            .102             1.46
Data from the "Delta Cost Project".
Competitions
         Physics     Math    Putnam math  Science   Science talent    Siemens
         Olympiad  Olympiad  winners      Olympiad  search finalists  Competition
           (%)        (%)     (%)

Asian      81         81       50          50          64             61
White      19         29       50          50          36             39
Other       0          0        0           0           0              0
Data
Degrees and SATs
         Batchelor  Master  PhD  SAT   SAT   SAT    Mean tax    Frac paying  Public education $
            (%)      (%)    (%)  math  read  write  per person  zero tax     spent per student
                                                     (k$)        (%)          (k$)
Asian         51.0   20.4   6.4   598   525  531      50         35.5         11.5
White         32.6   11.5   3.1   534   529  513      35         37.6         10.8
Hispanic      13.3    3.9   1.0   457   448  438      18         52.0         11.0
Black         19.8    6.2   1.3   428   431  418      17         50.7         11.4
Native Indian 14.8    5.0   1.4   482   481  460
Indian        70
S. Korean     53
Chinese       51
Filipino      47
Japanese      46
Vietnamese    26
SAT data      Public education spending data      Income data

SAT bias

According to the Wall Street Journal, Harvard adjusts SAT scores by race.

         Adjustment

Asian         0
White      +140
Hispanic   +270
Black      +450
Article

The Asian American Coalition for Education has filed a complaint with the Department of Education requesting that they investigate Harvard admissions.

A group of individuals is running for Harvard's Board of Overseers with the platform of making Harvard admissions more fair. The candidates are Ralph Nader, Ron Unz, Stephen Hsu, Stuart Taylor, and Lee Cheng. Article

One of the few schools with race-blind admissions is Caltech, and it is reflected by the fact that they have the best SAT scores.


University demographics
         Asian  White  Hispanic  Black  International

Caltech    44    28       6       1        9
MIT        30    34      15      10
U. Chicago 17.0  42.8     9.0     4.5      9.7
Princeton  20    46       9       6       11
Penn       19.7  44.7    10.3     7.1     11.3
Columbia   17.1  38.1    12.8     7.2
Cornell    16
Harvard    17
Dartmouth  14
Brown      12
Numbers are percentages.
Professor's party affiliation

A survey of professors was conducted in the departments of economics, history, journalism, law, and psychology, and the ratio of Democrats to Republicans was tallied.

              D/R                           D/R

Pepperdine    1.2             NYU           16
Case Western  3.1             Carnegie-Mel  16
Ohio State    3.2             Yale          16
Penn state    6.0             MIT           19
Penn          6.4             UNC           23
UCLA          8.8             Princeton     30
UCSB          8.9             Columbia      30
Harvad       10               Tufts         32
Stanford     11               Johns Hopkins 35
Dartmouth    12               Rochester     35
Caltech      13               Boston U.     40
Cornell      13               Brown         60
UC Berkeley  14
The College Fix: Top 40 universities refuse to address survey showing campuses dominated by Democrat professors
Professor's party affiliation by department
        Democrat/Republican

History       33.5
Journalism    20
Psychology    17.4
Economics      4.5
Law            8.6
Total         11.5

Budgets

                        Teachers  Admins  Aid  Students  Operating

University of California  .38      .30    .14
Santa Clara University    .26      .25    .16    .018      .17
University of Montana     .48      .13    .09
Caltech expenses:
Teaching    42%
Research    40%
Admin       13%
Auxiliary    5%
Caltech revenue:
Grants    56%
Endowment 17%
Gifts      8%
Tuition    6%
Other     13%

City University of New York, Borough of Manhattan Community College
                         #     M$    k$ per   Frac of    Frac classes
                                     person   spending   taught
Students               26606     -      -
Full time teachers       534   48.2   90.3     .43         .488
Part time teachers      1054   21.2   20.1     .19         .512
Full time non-teachers   703   42.4   60.3     .38         .0
Total                  28897  111.8     -     1.00        1.00


Students / Teachers            =  16.8
Students / Full time teachers  =  49.8
Course cost                    =  265 $/credit
In state tuition               = 5169 $
Out of state tuition           = 9969 $
Classes offered per semester   = 5300

U.C. Berkeley research budget

         Millions of $

Federal       370
Non-profit    115.3
State         108
Industry       63.3
U.C.           17.3
Total         673.9
Data for 2015-16
Most inebriating cities
 1  Appleton     Wisconsin
 2  Oshkosh      Wisconsin
 3  Green Bay    Wisconsin
 4  Madison      Wisconsin        University of Wisconsin
 5  Fargo        North Dakota     North Dakota State University
 6  La Crosse    Wisconsin
 7  Fond du Lac  Wisconsin
 8  Ames         Iowa             Iowa State University
 9  Eau Claire   Minnesota
10  Mankato      Minnesota
11  Wausau       Wisconsin
12  Sheboygan    Wisconsin
13  Missoula     Montana          University of Montana
14  Grand Forks  North Dakota     University of North Dakota
15  Racine       Wisconsin
16  Janesville   Wisconsin
17  Milwaukee    Wisconsin
18  Lincoln      Nebraska         University of Nebraska
19  Iowa City    Iowa             University of Iowa
20  Corvallis    Oregon           Oregon State University
Data
Politically correct universities
Harvard        Oberlin         UC Berkeley
Princeton      Wisconsin       UC Santa Cruz
Yale           DePaul          UC Irvine
Columbia       Carnegie Mellon
Barnard
Brown

Politically indifferent universities

Caltech          Purdue
MIT              BYU
Chicago          Auburn
Army             Texas A&M
Navy             Kansas State
                 Baylor

TheFire.org free speech rankings
Green             Yellow             Red

Arizona State     Auburn             Barnard
Carnegie Mellon   CUNY Brooklyn      Brown
Duke              Caltech            Columbia
Purdue            Claremont Mc.      Cornell
Oregon State      Dartmouth          Fordham
William & Mary    Georgia Tech       Harvard
U. Chicago        Harvey Mudd        NYU
Florida           Indiana            Penn State
Maryland          Kansas State       Princeton
North Carolina    MIT                Rice
U. Penn           Michigan State     Michigan
Virginia          Northwestern       Notre Dame
                  Oberlin            Texas
                  Stanford
                  Stony Brook
                  Texas A&M
                  CUNY City College
                  Berkeley
                  UC Irvine
                  UCLA
                  UCSD
                  UCSB
                  UC Santa Cruz
                  Wisconsin
                  Yale

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