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Stone Churches
Dr. Jay Maron

Largest churches

Saint Peter's Basilica
Saint Joseph's Oratory
Seville Cathedral

Cathedral of Saint John the Divine
Liverpool Cathedral
Milan Cathedral

Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls
Saint Paul's Cathedral
Lincoln Cathedral
Washington National Cathedral

                               Volume    Area   Nave  Tower  Year
                               (k m3)   (k m2)  (m)   (m)

Saint Peter's Basilica            5000   15.2   46    136.6  1626   Vatican
Seville Cathedral                  500   11.5   42    105    1528   Spain    Seville
Cathedral of St. John the Divine   480   11.2   39     70.7  1941   USA      Manhattan
Milan Cathedral                    440   10.2   45    108.5  1965   Italy    Milan
Abbey of Santa Giustina                   9.7          75    1606   Italy    Padua
Liverpool Cathedral                450    9.7         101.0  1978   UK       Liverpool
Basilica St. Paul Outside th Walls        8.5   30     73    1823   Italy    Rome
Florence Cathedral                        8.3   45    114.5  1436   Italy    Florence
Ulm Minster                        190    8.3   41   *161.5  1890   Germany  Ulm
Basilica Cat. Lady of the Pillar          8.3                1872   Spain    Zaragoza
Hagia Sophia                       256    8.0                 537   Turkey   Istanbul
Cathedral of Our Lady                     8.0                1521   Belgium  Antwerp
Cologne Cathedral                  407    7.9   43   *157.4  1880   Germany  Cologne
San Petrino Basilica               270    7.9   45           1479   Italy    Bologna
Saint Paul's Cathedral                    7.9   38    111.3  1708   UK       London
Washington National Cathedral             7.7   31     92    1990   USA      DC
Amiens Cathedral                   200    7.7   42    112.7  1270   France   Amiens
Basilica of the National Shrine           7.1                1961   USA      DC
Palma Cathedral                    160    6.7                1346   Spain    Palma
Reims Cathedral                           6.7                1275   France   Reims
Strasbourg Cathedral                      6.0        *142.0  1439   France   Strasbourg
Bourges Cathedral                         5.9                1230   France   Bourges
Notre Dame de Paris                       5.5                1345   France   Paris
Chartres Cathedral                        5.2                1220   France   Chartres
Winchester Cathedral                      5.0                1525   UK       Winchester
Saint Mary's Church                190    5.0                1502   Poland   Gdansk
Westminster Abbey                         3.0                1018   UK       London
Basilica of Saint John Lateran                               1735   Italy    Rome
Oliwa Cathedral                                              1350   Poland   Gdansk
Cluny III                                                    1130   France   Cluny
Canterbury Cathedral                                         1077   UK       Canterbury
York Minster                                                 1472   UK       York
Lincoln Cathedral                                            1311   UK       Lincoln
Peterborough Cathedral                                       1237   UK       Peterborough
Rouen Cathedral                                              1202   France   Rouen

*:  Held the status of world's tallest building.
All churches larger than 7000 meters2 are listed, plus the largest churches constructed before 1500 CE. The appendix contains an expanded list of churches.

Among these types of buildings the cathedral is probably the best known, to the extent that the word "cathedral" is often mistakenly applied as a generic term for any large and imposing church. In fact, A cathedral doesn't have to be large or imposing, though many are. The cathedral takes its name from the word "cathedra", or "bishop's throne".


Church towers
Ulm Minster
Cologne Cathedral
Lincoln Cathedral
                       Height (m)  Year

Ulm Minster                161.5   1890 *
Lincoln Cathedral          159.7   1311 * Collapsed in 1549
Our Lady of Peace Basilica 158.0   1989
Cologne Cathedral          157.4   1880 *
Beauvais Cathedral         153.0   1569   Collapsed in 1573
Saint Mary's Church        151.0   1478 * Collapsed in 1647
Rouen Cathedral            151.0   1876 *
Old St. Paul's Cathedral   150.0   1240 * Collapsed in 1561
Saint Nikolai, Hamburg     147.3   1874 *
Strasbourg Cathedral       142.0   1439 *
Basilica Lady of Lichen    141.5   2000
Saint Peter's Basilica     136.6   1626
Saint Stephen's Cathedral  136.4   1433
New Cathedral, Linz        134.8   1924
Notre Dame et St. Lambert  134.5   1433   Destroyed in 1794
Saint Peter's Church       132.2   1878
Saint Michaelis Church     132.1   1786
Malmesbury Abbey           131.3   1180   Collapsed around the year 1500
*: Held the status of world's tallest building.
Saint Peter's Basilica

Saint Peter's Basilica was designed principally by Bramante, Michelangelo, Maderno, and Bernini. It is the most renowned work of Renaissance architecture and is the largest stone church in the world.


Arch


Catenary

Sir Robert Hooke
Blue: catenary      Red: parabola
Sir Christopher Wren

The catenary arch was discovered by Sir Robert Hooke.

Hooke: As hangs a flexible cable so, inverted, stand the touching pieces of an arch.


Parabola

A suspension bridge under zero load hangs as a catenary and under infinite load it hangs as a parabola.


Nave

Lincoln Cathedral
Saint Paul's Cathedral
Salisbury Cathedral

Bristol Cathedral
Salisbury Cathedral
Laon Cathedral


Flying buttress

A flying buttress delivers the compression force from the arch to the ground.


Organs

Sydney Town Hall
LDS Conference Center


Organ frequency
Pipe length    =  L              =  8.5 meters
Wavelength     =  W  =  2L       = 17.0 meters
Sound speed    =  V              =  340 meters/second
Pipe frequency =  F  =  ½ V / L  =   20 Hertz    (Lower limit of human sensitivity)

Marble

Marble is metamorphic limestone (CaCO3).

Marble Canyon, Colorado River

Masonic Temple, Washington DC
George Washington
Marble Arch, London

Tomb of the Unknown Soldier
Vietnam War Memorial, Illinois


Stained glass

NaO2       Colorless
FeO        Green                  Beer bottles
S          Amber
S + B2O3   Blue
S + Ca     Yellow
MnO2       Purple
Co         Blue
CuO        Turquoise
Ni         Blue or violet or black
Cr         Dark green or black
Au         Red
Cu         Dark red
Se         Pink
AgNO3      Orange
Cd         Yellow
U          Yellow
SnO        White


Tallest structure in the world
                     Height   Year
                      (m)
Gobekli Tepe, Turkey   15   -11500
Pyramid of Djoser      62    -2650
Meidum Pyramid         93.5  -2610
Bent Pyramid          101.1  -2605
Red Pyramid           105    -2600
Great Pyramid of Giza 146    -2560
Lincoln Cathedral     160     1311-1549   Collapsed
St. Mary's Church     151     1549-1647   Collapsed
Strasbourg Cathedral  142     1647-1874
St. Nikolai           147     1874-1876
Rouen Cathedral       151     1876-1880
Cologne Cathedral     157     1880-1884
Washington Monument   169     1884-1889
Eiffel Tower          300     1889-1930
Chrysler Building     319     1930-1931
Empire State Building 381     1931-1967
During the years 1311-1884 the tallest structure in the world was always a church.
Obelisks

San Jacinto Monument
Washington Monument
Lincoln Tomb

Bunker Hill Monument
Perry's Memorial
Wellington Monument

                        Height  Base   Year

San Jacinto Monument    172.92  15     1939   Texas. Topped by a 220 ton star
Washington Monument     169.05  16.80  1884   Washington DC
Perry's Memorial        107            1915   Perry's Vicry and Int. Peace Memorial
Jefferson Davis Mon.    107.0          1924   Kentucky
Capas National Shrine    70            2003   Philippines
High Point Monument      67            1930   New Jersey
Bunker Hill Monument     67            1843   Massachusetts
Wellington Monument      62            1861   Dublin
Wellington Monument      53.34  24     1854   Somerset
Nelson's Column          51.6          1843   London
Lateran Obelisk          45.7         -1500   Rome
Vendome Column           42            1810   Paris
Flaminio Obelisk         36.5         -1300   Rome
Lincoln Tomb             36            1874   Illinois
Trajan's Column          35.1    3.7    113   Rome
Obelisk of Montecitorio  34.0          -592   Rome
Solare Obelisk           33.97         -592   Rome
Veteran's Memorial       33.5          1876   Pennsylvania
Vatican Obelisk          25.5           -29   Rome
Pompey's Pillar          20.46   2.71   297   Egypt
Nelson's column
Lateran Obelisk
Trajan's Column
Montecitorio Obelisk

Trinity nuclear test site
Pompei's Column
Raising the obelisk


Wind

For a solid granite obelisk with a square cross section, we estimate the wind force required to topple the obelisk.

Height            =  H
Base side length  =  L
Pillar density    =  D     =  2650  kg/meter3  (Granite)
Air density       =  d     =  1.22  kg/meter3
Pillar mass       =  M     =  D H L2
Wind speed        =  V     =    80  meters/second   (Extreme hurricane)
Gravity consant   =  g     =   9.8  meters/second2
Gravity force     =  Fgrav  =  M g
Wind force        =  Fwind  =  ½ d L H V2
Gravity torque    =  Τgrav  =  ½ L Fgrav
Wind torque       =  Τgrav  =  ½ H Fwind

Gravity torque  =  Wind torque
  ½ D H L3 g    =  ¼ L H2 d V2

H  =  2 g L2 D / (d V2)
L2 =  ½ H V2 d / (D g)
If H = 169 meters (Washington Monument), then L = 25.4 meters.
Eiffel Tower


The Pyramids


Churches of Manhattan

Church of Saint John the Devine
Riverside Church
Saint Patrick's Cathedral

Broadway Presbyterian Church
Saint Paul's Chapel
Holy Trinity Lutheran Church
Trinity Church
Saint Patrick's Old Cathedral

Saint Thomas Church
Saint Luke's Lutheran Church
West End Collegiate Church
Advent Lutheran Church

The Brick Presbyterian Church
Holy Trinity Church, St. Christopher House and Parsonage
First Baptist Church in the City of New York
Greek Orthodox Cathedral of the Holy Trinity

                                    Year  Length   Avenue           Street   Capacity
                                          meters

Cathedral of St. John Devine        1909   183     Amsterdam          110
Riverside Church                    1930           Riverside          120      2100
St. Patrick's Cathedral             1879   121     5                   50      2200
St. Paul's Chapel                   1766           Financial district
Abyssian Baptist Church             1923           7                  138     10000
Church of Notre Dame                1909           Riverside          114
Basilica of St. Patrick's Old Cath. 1815           Lower Manhattan
St. Peter's Roman Catholic          1836           Financial district
Saint Thomas Church                 1914    65     5                   53
Trinity Church                      1846           Financial district
First Baptist Church                1893           Broadway            79
Our Lady of Lebanon Maronite        1846
Cathedral of St. Sava               1855           6                   25
Grace Church                        1847           Broadway            10
Saints Kyril & Metodi               1899    30     10                  50
Holy Trinity Lutheran Church        1902           Upper West Side
St. Bartholomew's Episcopal         1916           Park                50
Cathedral of the Holy Trinity       1932           2                   74
St. Vartan Cathedral                1968           2                   34
Christ Church United Methodist      1933           Park                60
Brick Presbyterian Church           1768           Park                91
St. Mark's Church in the Bowery     1795           2                   10

Manhattan schist bedrock

Skyscrapers indicate the location of Manhattan bedrock. Many Manhattan churches are made from this bedrock.

Manhattan schist in Central Park


Deformation

The deformation of a solid is characterized by shear strain, tensile strain, and bulk compression.

Tensile strain
Shear strain
Bulk compression

Tensile strength relates to the strength of wires.

Two vices pull on a wire

Shear strength relates to the strength of beams and columns.

Bending of a beam
Buckling of a column
Human humerus

The maximum force on a beam is determined by the shear strength.

F  =  Maximum force applied to the center of a beam before it breaks
X  =  Beam length
Y  =  Beam thickness
Z  =  Beam height
x  =  Deflection of the beam at the center when under force "F"

ShearStrength  =  3 F X / (2 Y Z2)
If a column is short then it squashes before it buckles and if it is long then it buckles before it squashes.

A column's resistance to squashing is determined by the Bulk strength.

A  =  Area of the column
B  =  Bulk strength of the column
F  =  Force required to squash a column
   =  B A
A column's resistance to buckling is determined by the Young's modulus. Suppose a column is a hollow cylinder.
L  =  Length of the column
R  =  Outer radius of the column
r  =  Inner radius of the column   (r=0 if the cylinder is not hollow)
Y  =  Young's modulus
Q  =  Dimensionless effective length of the column
   =   .5      if both ends are fixed
   =  2        if one end is fixed and the other end is free to move laterally
   =  1        if both ends are pinned  (hinged and free to rotate)
   =   .699    if one end is fixed and the other is pinned
F  =  Force required to buckle the column
   =  ½ π3 Y (R4-r4) / (Q L)2
If a column's buckling limit is equal to its squashing limit then (assume r=0)
R/L  =  (Q/π) * (2B/Y)1/2

Building materials

The figure of merit for materials for beams and columns is:

Tensile strength  =  y             Pressure required to break the material
Young's modulus   =  Y             A measure of a material's rigidity
Density           =  D
Beam quality      =  y D-2
Column quality    =  Y D-2


             Density  Tensile   Young's   Beam    Column   Compression
                      strength  modulus  quality  quality   strength
             g/cm^3     GPa       GPa                         GPa

Balsa            .12     .020     3.7   1.39     257
Cedar            .34     .054     8.2    .47      71
Pine             .37     .063     9.0    .46      66
Mahogany         .67     .124    10.8    .28      24
Spruce, red      .41     .072    10.7    .43      64
Walnut, black    .56     .104    11.8    .33      38
Oak, swamp       .79     .124    14.5    .20      23
Hickory          .81     .144    15.2    .22      23
Bamboo           .85     .169    20      .23      28
Ironwood        1.1      .181    21      .15      17

Magnesium alloy 1.8      .25     45      .077     13.9
Aluminum + Be   2.27     .41     70      .080     13.6
Aluminum alloy  2.8      .40     70      .051      8.9
Titanium alloy  4.6     1.20    120      .057      5.7
Steel + CoNi    8.6     2.07    211      .028      2.9
Moly + WHa     14.3     1.8     330      .009      1.6

Polyamide       1.14     .11      4.5    .085      3.5
Polyimide       1.42     .085     2.5    .042      1.2
Acrylic         1.18     .07      3.2    .050      2.3
Polycarbonate   1.21     .07      2.6    .048      1.8
Carbon fiber    1.75    3.0

Quartzite                .025
Granite         2.7      .020                                 .13
Basalt          2.9      .020
Marble                   .015
Limestone       2.7      .015                                 .06
Gneiss                   .015
Shale           2.5      .007
Cement                   .0035                                .02
Slate                    .0035                                .095
Concrete                 .003                                 .015
Brick                    .003                                 .08
Sandstone       2.3      .002                                 .06
Wood is better than metal because of its lower density, but metal is easier to make into hollow tubes.

For metal, wood, and plastic, the tensile strength is similar to the compression stength. For rock the tensile strength is much less than the tensile strength.


Appendix

Full list of large stone churches
                               Volume    Area   Nave  Tower  Year                     Length Width Nave Interior
                               (k m3)   (k m2)  (m)   (m)          (m) (m) (m)  (m)
        
Saint Peter's Basilica            5000   15.2   46    136.6  1626   Vatican              212  150  91  186
Seville Cathedral                  500   11.5   42    105    1528   Spain    Seville     132  100  60
Cathedral of St. John the Divine   480   11.2   39     70.7  1941   USA      Manhattan   183   71  70
Milan Cathedral                    440   10.2   45    108.5  1965   Italy    Milan       158   93      148
Abbey of Santa Giustina                   9.7          75    1606   Italy    Padua       118
Liverpool Cathedral                450    9.7         101.0  1978   UK       Liverpool   189   60  59  146
Basilica St. Paul Outside th Walls        8.5   30     73    1823   Italy    Rome        150   80      132
Florence Cathedral                        8.3   45    114.5  1436   Italy    Florence    153   90
Ulm Minster                        190    8.3   41   *161.5  1890   Germany  Ulm
Basilica Cat. Lady of the Pillar          8.3                1872   Spain    Zaragoza    127   67
Hagia Sophia                       256    8.0                 537   Turkey   Istanbul    110
Cathedral of Our Lady                     8.0                1521   Belgium  Antwerp     119   75      101
Cologne Cathedral                  407    7.9   43   *157.4  1880   Germany  Cologne     135   86  58
San Petrino Basilica               270    7.9   45           1479   Italy    Bologna
Saint Paul's Cathedral                    7.9   38    111.3  1708   UK       London      158   75
Washington National Cathedral             7.7   31     92    1990   USA      DC          160
Amiens Cathedral                   200    7.7   42    112.7  1270   France   Amiens      145   70
Basilica of the National Shrine           7.1                1961   USA      DC          139   73
Cathedral of La Plata                     7.0                1932   Argen.   La Plata    120
Saint Joseph's Oratory             660    6.8                1967   Canada   Montreal
Palma Cathedral                    160    6.7                1346   Spain    Palma
Reims Cathedral                           6.7                1275   France   Reims       149   90      139
Mexico City Metropolican Cathedral        6.7                1813   Mexico   Mexico City 120   54      110
Strasbourg Cathedral                      6.0        *142.0  1439   France   Strasbourg
Bourges Cathedral                         5.9                1230   France   Bourges
Esztergom Basilica                        5.6                1869   Hungary  Esztergom   118   49
Notre Dame de Paris                       5.5                1345   France   Paris       130   69
Sagrida Familia                           5.4   45    170    2026   Spain    Barcelona
Primate Cathedral of Bogota               5.3                1823   Colombia Bogota
Chartres Cathedral                        5.2                1220   France   Chartres    130   46
Cathedral of Christ the Savior            5.2                1883   Russia   Moscow
New Cathedral, Linz                       5.2         134.8  1924   Austria  Linz
Winchester Cathedral                      5.0                1525   UK       Winchester  170
Saint Mary's Church                190    5.0                1502   Poland   Gdansk      104   66
Westminster Cathedral                     5.0                1910   UK       London      110   52
Dresden Cathedal                          4.8                1755   Germany  Dresden
Basilica of St. Therese, Lisieux          4.5                1954   France   Lisieux
Ely Cathedral, Cambridgeshire             4.3                1375   UK       Ely         165       75
Basilica de San Martin de Tours           4.3                1878   Philip.  Taal
Frauenkirche                       190    4.2                1525   Germany  Munich
Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis           4.1                1914   USA      St. Louis   111   62
Saint Isaac's Cathedral                   4.0                1858   Russia   St. Petersb 111   98
St Gregory the Illuminator Cath.          3.8                2001   Armenia  Yerevan
Church of Saint Sava               170    3.5                1989   Serbia   Belgrade
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral                3.2                1912   Sofia    Bulgaria
Westminster Abbey                         3.0                1018   UK       London      162           156
Medak Cathedral                           2.8                1926   India    Medak
Our Lady of Dolours Syro-Malabar          2.3                2005   India
Basilica of St John the Baptist     64    2.1                1855   Canada   St. John's
All Saint's Cathedral               32    1.8                1910   Canada   Halifax      78   26  41   65
Cluny III                                                    1130   France   Cluny       187
Saint Alban's Cathedral                                      1200   UK       St Albans   168   58  84
Canterbury Cathedral                                         1077   UK       Canterbury  158
York Minster                                                 1472   UK       York        158
Lincoln Cathedral                                            1311   UK       Lincoln     156
Peterborough Cathedral                                       1237   UK       Peterborough147
Rouen Cathedral                                              1202   France   Rouen       144   62  60  137
Durham Cathedral                                             1133   UK       Durham      143
Norwich Cathedral                                            1145   UK       Norwich     140
Basilica of the National Vow                                 1924   Ecuador  Quito       140   35
Salisbury Cathedral                                          1258   UK       Salisbury   135
Tournai Cathedral                                            1255   Belgium  Tournai     134   67  48
Speyer Cathedral                                             1858   Germany  Speyer      134   43
San Petrino                                                  1658   Italy    Bologna     133   66
Gloucester Cathedral                                         1499   UK       Gloucester  130
Saint Vitus Cathedral                                        1929   Czech    Prague      124   60
Sint Janskerk                                                1300   Neth.    Gouda       123   49
Toledo Cathedral                                             1500   Spain    Toledo      122   59
Basilica of Saint John Lateran                               1735   Italy    Rome        122  140
Uppsala Cathedral                                            1431   Sweden   Uppsala     119
Ferrara Cathedral                                            1493   Italy    Ferrara     118
Wells Cathedral                                              1490   UK       Wells       117
Saint Mary's Cathedral                                       2000   Austral. Sydney      115   33    107  St
Saint John's Cathedral, s-Hertogenbosch                      1550   Neth.    d-Hertogen  115   62
Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli                         1679   Italy    Assisi      115   65
Berlin Cathedral                                             1905   Germany  Berlin      114   73
Troyes Cathedral                                             1905   France   Troyes      114   50
Cathedral of Mary our Queen                                  1959   USA      Baltimore   113   40
San Paulo Cathedral                                          1967   Brazil   San Paulo   111   46
Cathedral Basilica of Saint Louis                            1914   USA      Saint Louis 111   62
Santa Chiara                                                 1340   Italy    Napoli      110   40  85
Oliwa Cathedral                                              1350   Poland   Gdansk      107   98       19
Saint Patrick's Cathedral                                    1858   Austral. Melbourne   104   56
Cathedral of the Holy Cross                                  1875   USA      Boston      104   27
Nidarosdomen                                                 1300   Norway   Trondheim   102
Saint Patrick's Cathedral                                    1878   USA      Manhattan   101   53
Aarhus Cathedral                                             1300   Denmark  Aarhus       93   52  67
Saints Kyril & Metodi                                        1899   USA      Manhattan    30    9
Cathedral of St. Sava                                        1855   USA      Manhattan         20
Basilica of St. Patrick's Old Cath.                          1815   USA      Manhattan
Cathedral of Saint John the Evangelist          24           1954   USA      Spokane

Length:   Outside length
Width:    Outside width
Nave:     Length of the nave
Interior: Inside length
Modern churches (not stone).
Basilica of Our Lady of Aparecida 1200   12     40    100.0  1980   Brazil   Aparecida   173  168      168
Basilica of Our Lady of Lichen     300    9.2   45    141.5  2004   Poland   Lichen      139   77      120
Church of the Most Holy Trinity    130    8.7                2007   Portugal Fatima
Basilica of Our Lady of Guatalupe         8.2   34     42    1976   Mexico   Mexico City
Basilica of Our Lady of Peace             8.0         158    1989   Ivory C. Yamoussoukro195  150
Basilica of the Sacred Heart              8.0          90    1970   Belgium  Brussels    141  108
Padre Pio Pilgrimage Church               6.0                2004   Italy    San Giovani
Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels       6.0   32           2002   USA      Los Angeles 121
De Hoeksteen, Barneveld             43    6.0                2008   Neth.    Barneveld
Holy Trinity Cathedral             137    5.0                2004   Georgia  Tbilisi

Large churches by date
                                 Area    Tower  Year
                                 (k m2)  (m)
        
Hagia Sophia                        8.0            537   Turkey   Istanbul
Westminster Abbey                   3.0           1018   UK       London
Canterbury Cathedral                              1077   UK       Canterbury
Cluny III                                         1130   France   Cluny
Durham Cathedral                                  1133   UK       Durham
Norwich Cathedral                                 1145   UK       Norwich
Saint Alban's Cathedral                           1200   UK       St Albans
Rouen Cathedral                                   1202   France   Rouen
Chartres Cathedral                  5.2           1220   France   Chartres
Bourges Cathedral                   5.9           1230   France   Bourges
Peterborough Cathedral                            1237   UK       Peterborough
Tournai Cathedral                                 1255   Belgium  Tournai
Salisbury Cathedral                               1258   UK       Salisbury
Amiens Cathedral                    7.7    112.7  1270   France   Amiens
Reims Cathedral                     6.7           1275   France   Reims
Nidarosdomen                                      1300   Norway   Trondheim
Sint Janskerk                                     1300   Neth.    Gouda
Aarhus Cathedral                                  1300   Denmark  Aarhus
Lincoln Cathedral                                 1311   UK       Lincoln
Santa Chiara                                      1340   Italy    Napoli
Notre Dame de Paris                 5.5           1345   France   Paris
Palma Cathedral                     6.7           1346   Spain    Palma
Oliwa Cathedral                                   1350   Poland   Gdansk
Ely Cathedral, Cambridgeshire       4.3           1375   UK       Ely
Uppsala Cathedral                                 1431   Sweden   Uppsala
Florence Cathedral                  8.3    114.5  1436   Italy    Florence
Strasbourg Cathedral                6.0   *142.0  1439   France   Strasbourg
York Minster                                      1472   UK       York
San Petrino Basilica                7.9           1479   Italy    Bologna
Wells Cathedral                                   1490   UK       Wells
Ferrara Cathedral                                 1493   Italy    Ferrara
Gloucester Cathedral                              1499   UK       Gloucester
Toledo Cathedral                                  1500   Spain    Toledo
Saint Mary's Church                 5.0           1502   Poland   Gdansk
Cathedral of Our Lady               8.0           1521   Belgium  Antwerp
Winchester Cathedral                5.0           1525   UK       Winchester
Frauenkirche                        4.2           1525   Germany  Munich
Seville Cathedral                  11.5    105    1528   Spain    Seville
Saint John's Cathedral, s-Hertogen                1550   Neth.    s-Hertogenbosch
Abbey of Santa Giustina             9.7     75    1606   Italy    Padua
Saint Peter's Basilica             15.2    136.6  1626   Vatican
San Petrino                                       1658   Italy    Bologna
Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli              1679   Italy    Assisi
Saint Paul's Cathedral              7.9    111.3  1708   UK       London
Basilica of Saint John Lateran                    1735   Italy    Rome
Dresden Cathedal                    4.8           1755   Germany  Dresden
Mexico City Metropolican Cathedral  6.7           1813   Mexico   Mexico City
Basilica of St. Patrick's Old Cath.               1815   USA      Manhattan
Basilica St. Paul Outside th Walls  8.5     73    1823   Italy    Rome
Primate Cathedral of Bogota         5.3           1823   Colombia Bogota
Basilica of St John the Baptist     2.1           1855   Canada   St. John's
Cathedral of St. Sava                             1855   USA      Manhattan
Saint Isaac's Cathedral             4.0           1858   Russia   St. Petersburg
Speyer Cathedral                                  1858   Germany  Speyer
Saint Patrick's Cathedral                         1858   Austral. Melbourne
Esztergom Basilica                  5.6           1869   Hungary  Esztergom
Basilica Cat. Lady of the Pillar    8.3           1872   Spain    Zaragoza
Cathedral of the Holy Cross                       1875   USA      Boston
Saint Patrick's Cathedral                         1878   USA      Manhattan
Basilica de San Martin de Tours     4.3           1878   Philip.  Taal
Cologne Cathedral                   7.9   *157.4  1880   Germany  Cologne
Cathedral of Christ the Savior      5.2           1883   Russia   Moscow
Ulm Minster                         8.3   *161.5  1890   Germany  Ulm
Saints Kyril & Metodi                             1899   USA      Manhattan
Berlin Cathedral                                  1905   Germany  Berlin
Troyes Cathedral                                  1905   France   Troyes
Westminster Cathedral               5.0           1910   UK       London
All Saint's Cathedral               1.8           1910   Canada   Halifax
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral          3.2           1912   Sofia    Bulgaria
Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis     4.1           1914   USA      St. Louis
Cathedral Basilica of Saint Louis                 1914   USA      Saint Louis
New Cathedral, Linz                 5.2    134.8  1924   Austria  Linz
Basilica of the National Vow                      1924   Ecuador  Quito
Medak Cathedral                     2.8           1926   India    Medak
Saint Vitus Cathedral                             1929   Czech    Prague
Cathedral of La Plata               7.0           1932   Argen.   La Plata
Cathedral of St. John the Divine   11.2     70.7  1941   USA      Manhattan
Basilica of St. Therese, Lisieux    4.5           1954   France   Lisieux
Cathedral of St John the Evangelist               1954   USA      Spokane
Cathedral of Mary our Queen                       1959   USA      Baltimore
Basilica of the National Shrine     7.1           1961   USA      DC
Milan Cathedral                    10.2    108.5  1965   Italy    Milan
Saint Joseph's Oratory              6.8           1967   Canada   Montreal
San Paulo Cathedral                               1967   Brazil   San Paulo
Liverpool Cathedral                 9.7    101.0  1978   UK       Liverpool
Church of Saint Sava                3.5           1989   Serbia   Belgrade
Washington National Cathedral       7.7     92    1990   USA      DC
Saint Mary's Cathedral                            2000   Austral. Sydney
St Gregory the Illuminator Cath.    3.8           2001   Armenia  Yerevan
Our Lady of Dolours Syro-Malabar    2.3           2005   India
Sagrida Familia                     5.4    170    2026   Spain    Barcelona

Cement
CaO             Calcium oxide          Lime
Al2O3           Aluminum oxide
SiO2            Silicon dioxide        Rock, quartz
CaCO3           Calcium carbonate      Limestone
CO2             Carbon dioxide
Al2O3⋅SiO2       Aluminum silicate      Volcanic ash, andalusite, kyanite, sillimanite
CaSO4⋅2(H2O)                            Gypsum
Fe2O3           Iron(III) oxide        Rust
Non-hydraulic cement hardens upon contact with CO2 in the air and cannot be set in the presence of water.

Hydraulic cement hardens upon contact with water.

Aluminum silicates are compounds derived from aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) and can be found in volcanic ash.

The Ancient Romans made hydraulic cement from volcanic ash and lime.

Non-hydraulic cement:

CaCO3          →  CaO + CO2           Heat for 10 hours at above 825 Celcius
CaO + H2O      →  Ca(OH)2             Add water and then let dry
Ca(OH)2 + CO2  →  CaCO3 + H2O          Hardens in the presence of CO2
Hydraulic cement is made from a mixture of
2(CaO)⋅SiO2         Belite
3(CaO)⋅SiO2         Alite
3(CaO)⋅Al2O3        Tricalcium aluminate
4(CaO)⋅Al2O3⋅Fe2O3   Brownmillerite
Portland cement is a hydraulic cement.

History of cement:

Ancient Babylon            Bitumen (asphalt). Viscous petroleum
Ancient Egypt              Sand and burnt gypsum
Ancient Greece and Rome    Hydraulic cement
1780                       James Parker advances the art of hydraulic cement
1840                       Aspdin develops "Portland cement"
Portland cement:
CaO      .63
SiO2     .219
Al2O3    .069
Fe2O3    .03
MgO      .025
SO3      .017
Portland cement is the most widely used modern cement. It is made by heating limestone (calcium carbonate) with other materials (such as clay) to 1450 Celsius. The resulting hard substance is ground into powder and mixed with gypsum and water, after which it hardens.

Concrete is cement mixed with gravel and sand.


Glass composition
                Egypt     Rome   Europe    Modern
                1500 BC   0 AD   1300 AD

Silica    SiO2    65      68       53       73
Soda      NaO2    20      16        3       16
Potash    K2O      2        .5     17         .5
Lime      CaO      4       8       12        5
Magnesia  MgO      4        .5      7        3
Numbers are percentages.
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