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Natural disasters
Dr. Jay Maron

Plate tectonics

Dots represent volcanoes and lines represent plate boundaries
Earthquakes

The largest earthquakes occur at subduction zones and they cause the largest tsunamis. The pacific plate is being subducted by continental plates all around its circumference, making every city on the Pacific coast vulnerable to tsunamis.

The Atlantic Ocean is expanding and doesn't have subduction zones.

Volcanoes tend to form behind subductions zones, for example the mountains in Washington and Japan.

Earthquake tsunamis are more frequent than asteroid tsunamis.

The largest earthquakes have magnitude 10. Only an asteroid can cause a larger tsunami than this.

Historical volcanoes

Pinatubo
Santorini, Greece
Krakatoa
Krakatoa

```
Region        Volcano     Volume   Index   Year
(km3)

Philippines   Pinatubo        25     6     1991   Largest recent volcano
Washington    St. Helens        .2   5     1980   7 Mtons TNT
Indonesia     Krakatoa        20     6     1883   Audible worldwide
Indonesia     Tambora        160     7     1815   200 Mtons TNT. Caused the "Year without a summer"
Indonesia     Rinjani                7     1258   Caused the Little Ice Age that ended the Viking era
Aegean Sea    Santorini       60     7    -1575   Possible cause of the Greek dark age
New Zealand   Taupo         1170     8   -24500   Most recent magnitude 8 event
Indonesia     Lake Toba     2800     8   -72000   Largest eruption in past 2 million years
Yellowstone   Yellowstone   1000     8  -640000

Volume:  Volume of rock ejected
Index:   Volcanic Explosivity Index
```

Imminent eruptions

Mount Saint Helens
Mount Saint Helens
Mount Rainier
Mount Garibaldi

Lassen Peak
Mount Meager
Mount Cayley
Lava flow

United States volcanic eruptions (excluding Alaska):

```State        Volcano            Year

Washington   Mount St. Helens   2008
Hawaii       Mauna Loa          1984
Hawaii       Kilauea            1983    Continuously active since 1983
Washington   Mount St. Helens   1980
California   Lassen Peak        1915
Washington   Mount Rainier      1894
Washington   Mount Baker        1880
Oregon       Mount Hood         1866
California   Mount Shasta       1786
California   Cinder Cone        1680
```

Hawaii

Atoll formation

Mauna Loa

Mauna Loa is the most active volcano in Hawaii.

Kilauea

Yellowstone National Park

Magma

Subduction volcanic zones

Canary Islands, La Palma Volcano
Taupo Volcano, New Zealand
Lake Toba, Indonesia

Earth temperature

Pinatubo eruption occurs at 1991
Mount Rinjani eruption occurs at 1258

Long-term eruptions

Io

```               Volume      Age
(103 km3)  (Myears)

Washington       180        16
Arabia           350        28.5
S.W. USA        5500        32.5
N. Atlantic     6600        55.5
India           1500        66
Caribbean       4000        88
Indian Ocean   17000       112
S.W. Pacific   68000       121
Parana          2300       133
S. Africa       2500       183
C. Atlantic     2000       200
Siberia         2500       249.4
S.W. China      1000       256.6
```

Earthquakes

San Andreas fault

```                   Magnitude   Year   Megathrust

Japan, Tohoku Region    9.0    2011      *        Fukushima nuclear disaster
Chile, Offshore Maule   8.8    2010      *
Indonesia, Sumatra      9.1    2004      *        Tsunami
Chile, Valdivia         9.5    1960      *        Largest quake in recorded history
San Francisco           7.8    1906
South Carolina          7.3    1886               Intraplate
Missouri                8.1    1811               Intraplate
Portugal, Lisbon        8.8    1755      *
Pacific Ocean, Cascadia 9.0    1700      *
China, Shaanxi          8.3    1556               Deadliest earthquake in recorded history
Sparta Earthquake       7.2    -464               Lead to a Helot revolt and the Peloponnesian War
```
A megathrust earthquake occurs when a subduction fault breaks.
Largest Earthquakes

```Chile, Valdivia         9.5    1960    Largest Earthquake of the seismometer era
Indonesia, Sumatra      9.1    2004    Tsunami
Japan, Tohoku Region    9.0    2011    Fukushima nuclear disaster
Kamchatka               9.0    1952
Portugal, Lisbon        8.8    1755
Himalayas               8.7    1950
```

United States earthquakes

```              Mag  Year

California    7.9  1906   San Francisco
Hawaii        7.9  1868
California    7.9  1857   Halfway between San Francisco and Los Angeles
California    7.8  1872   East California, halfway between San Francisco and Los Angeles
Missouri      7.7  1811   Intraplate
California    7.5  1952   North of Los Angeles near Bakersfield
Wyoming       7.4  1959
Idaho         7.3  1983
S. Carolina   7.3  1886   Intraplate
Hawaii        7.2  1975
California    7.1  1999   Halfway between Los Angeles and Los Vegas
California    7.0  1992   East of Los Angeles near Palm Springs
```
The list doesn't include Alaskan earthquakes because they dwarf the earthquakes of the continental United States and Hawaii.

All earthquakes with a magnitude of 7.0 or higher are included. These earthquakes occur around 7 times per century.

Most of the Earthquakes are on the west coast or the Yellowstone Caldera, with rare exceptions such as Missouri and South Carolina.

Tsunamis

Fukushima tsunami

2004 tsunami

Tsunami speed
```Gravity constant           =  g  =  9.8 m/s2
Ocean depth                =  H  =  3700 meters (average)
Wavelength                 =  λ
Wave period                =  T
Wavespeed (shallow water)  =  Vshallow =  (g H)½                          (shallow if λ > H)
Wavespeed (deep water)     =  Vdeep    =  (2π)-½ (g λ)½  =  g T / (2π)    (deep if λ < H)
Tsunami speed              =  190 m/s =  Mach  .56         (Shallow wavespeed and H=3700 meters)
Commercial airplane speed  =  300 m/s =  Mach  .9
Speed of sound             =  340 m/s =  Mach 1.0
Tsunami distance in 1 hour =  680 km
```

Hurricanes

Hurricane Katrina

Breached Levee
Breached Levees. Red dots indicate deaths

Floods

The Netherlands
The Netherlands if the dykes fail

Wind
```          Wind speed  Pressure  Pressure
(m/s)     (Bars)    (Pascals)

Storm            18   .0014     14
Hurricane 1      33   .0047     48
Hurricane 2      43   .0080     81
Hurricane 3      50   .0108    110
Hurricane 4      58   .0146    150
Hurricane 5      70   .0212    215
Fastest cyclone 113   .055    5600    Cyclone Olivia
Tornado T11     135   .079    7961    Fastest wind speed recorded
Sound speed     340   .50    51000

TORRO Index      =  T
TORRO wind speed =  VTORRO =  2.365 (T+4)3/2
Atmos. pressure  =  Patm   =  101300 Pascals
Air density      =  D     =  1.22 kg/m^3
Air gamma number =  γ     =  7/5
Wind speed       =  V
Sound speed      =  Vsound =  340 m/s  =  (γ Patm/D)½
Mach number      =  M     =  V / Vsound
Cross section    =  A
Drag coefficient =  C     =  1            (Assume C=1.  Usually between ½ and 1)
Drag pressure    =  Pdrag  =  ½ C D V2
=  ½ C γ M2 Patm
Drag force       =  F     =  ½ C D A V2  =  A Pdrag

Rule of thumb:  Pdrag  ≈  ½ M2 Patm
```
Tornadoes are classified with the TORRO scale and hurricanes are classified with the Saffir-Simpson scale.
Fire

Meteors

Largest craters

Dinosaur extinction 66 Myears ago
Popigai Crater, responsible for a mass extinction 35 MYears ago

Sudbury, Canada, site of a Platinum mine
Manicougan
Acraman

Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay

```                        Diameter   Age
(km)   (Myears)

Australia                  600     545
India       Shiva Crater   500      65
Antarctica  Wilkes Land    490     400    Permian-Triassic
S. Africa   Vredefort      300    2023
Australia   West offshore  250     250
Australia   South          200     300
Mexico      Chicxulub      180      66    12 km asteroid. Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction
Scotland    Offshore       150    1170
Greenland   Maniitsoq      100    3000
Siberia     Popigai        100      35    Eocene-Oligocene extinction
Quebec      Manicouagin    100     214    5 km diameter asteroid
Australia   Acraman         90     580
S. Africa   Morokweng       70     145
Russia      Kara            65      70
Tajikstan   Karakul         52     <25
```

Recent impacts

Elgygytgyn
Lonar
Bosumtwi

Chelyabinsk
Tunguska
Meteor Crater, Arizona

```                        Crater diam    Age
(km)      (Myears)

Chelyabinsk                   -       .00001  19 meter asteroid
Tunguska                      -       .0001   50 meter asteroid
S. Arabia   Wabar             .1      .0001
Estonia     Kaali             .1      .004
Australia   Henbury           .2      .0042
Australia   Boxhole           .2      .0054
Russia      Macha             .3      .007
Poland      Morasco           .1      .0099
Sahara      Tenoumer         1.9      .021
Arizona     Meteor Crater    1.2      .049
China       Xiuyan           1.8      .050
India       Lonar Crater     1.2      .052
Argentina   Rio Cuarto       4.5      .100
S. Africa   Tswaing          1.1      .220
Kazakhstan  Zhamanshin      14        .9
Ghana       Bosumtwi        10.5     1.1
SE Pacific  Eltanin impact  35       2.5     3 km asteroid. May have caused ice age
Siberia     Elgygytygn      18       3.5
Russia      Karla           10       5
Kazakhstan  Bigach           8       5
Germany                     24      14.4
USA         Chesapeake Bay  40      35
Siberia     Popigai        100      35       Eocene-Oligocene extinction
Russia      Siberia         20      40
Russia      Southwest       25      49
India       Shiva Crater   500      65
Ukraine                     24      65
Mexico      Chicxulub      180      66       12 km asteroid. Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction
```
The crater for the Eltanin impact has not been found.
Damage
```Asteroid  Energy  Interval  Crater  Airburst
diam    (Mtons             diam   altitude
(m)     TNT)    (years)    (km)     (km)

4       .003      1.3            42.5
7       .016      4.6            36.3
10       .047     10              31.9
15       .159     27              26.4
20       .376     60              22.4
30      1.3      185              16.5
50      5.9      764               8.7
70     16       1900               3.6
85     29       3300                .58
100     47       5200     1.2       0
130    103      11000     2.0
150    159      16000     2.4
200    376      36000     3.0
250    734      59000     3.8
300   1270      73000     4.6
400   3010     100000     6.0
700  16100     190000    10
1000  47000     440000    13.6
5000            10 mil   100

1 Mton TNT               = 4.2e15 Joules
Magnitude 9 earthquake   =   2e22 Joules
1 kiloton TNT explosion  =  Magnitude 4.0 earthquake
```
Asteroids less than 200 meters in size can produce tsunamis but earthquake tsunamis are more frequent. Asteroids larger than 200 meters can produce tsunamis beyond any earthquake tsunami. Such events occur once every 36000 years.

Asteroid probabilities can be estimated from moon cratering. One expects 60 objects of at least 5 km in size to strike in last 600 million years. 3 such craters have been found.

Mass extinctions

```                                Age      Cause
(Myears)

Holocene extinction               Now    Industrial age
Quaternary extinction I           .0013  Hunting. Smote the megafauna
Quaternary ice age maximum        .0265
Quaternary ice age I              .071   Ended .012 million years ago
Quaternary extinction II          .074   Hunting
Quaternary ice age II             .200   Ended .130 million years ago
Quaternary ice age III            .476   Ended .424 million years ago
Quaternary extinction III         .64    Glaciation and hunting
Quaternary ice age IV             .676   Ended .621 million years ago
Quaternary ice age V             1.3     Ended .800 million years ago
Quaternary ice age start         2.5     Asteroid, 3 km. Ended 12 thousand years ago
Middle miocene extinction       14.5     Global cooling
Eocene-Oligocene extinction     34       Asteroid, Popigai crater. Global cooling
Paleocene-Eocene extinction     56       Global heating
Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction 66       12 km asteroid. Chixulub crater. Smote the dinosaurs
Triassic-Jurassic extinction   201       Volcanism
Permian-Triassic extinction    252       Asteroid, Bedout crater. Volcanism. Global warming
Karoo ice age                  360       Lasted until 260 million years ago
Late Devonian extinction       370       Global cooling
Ordovician-Silurian extinction 445       Global cooling
Andean-Saharan ice age         460       Lasted until 420 Myears ago
Cryogenian ice age             850       Snowball Earth. Lasted until 630 Myears ago
Huronian ice age              2400       Great Oxygenation Event. 300 million year snowball earth
```

Megafauna

Woolly Mammoth

Argentavis
American Lion
Megatherum

Deinotherium
Macrauchenia

```Extinction        Myears ago

Haast's Eagle       .0006     Year 1400 CE
Woolly Mammoth      .0040
Mastodon            .010
Macrauchenia        .010
American Lion       .011
Glyptodon           .011
Diprotodon          .046      Marsupial
Titanis            1.8
Deinotherium       7
Argentavis       ~10
```
;

Dinosaur extinction

Luis Alvarez
Luis and Walter Alvarez at the K-T boundary and irridium layer

Asteroids that have passed close to the Earth
```Q = Radius of closest approach / Radius of Earth

Q    Diameter  Date    Energy
(meters)         (Mtons TNT)
Chelyabinsk      1.0      19     2013      .44
Tunguska         1.0      50     1908    12         Flattened a forest
Arizona asteroid 1.0      50   -50000    10         1 km crater
1972 Fireball    1.0089  ~ 6     1972               Skimmed the upper atmosphere
2011-CQ1         1.87      1     2011
2008-TS26        1.96      1     2008
2011-MD          2.94     10     2011
2012-KT42        3.26    ~ 7     2004
Apophis          4.9     325     2029   510
2013-DA14        5.35     30     2013
2012-KP24        8.99     25     2004
2012-BX34       10.3       8     2012
2012-TC4        14.9      17     2012
2005-YU55       60.00    400     2005
```

How much does an asteroid impact heat the atmosphere?
```Heat capacity of air ~ 1.0$\cdot 103$  Joules/kg/Kelvin
Mass of atmosphere  ~  5.1$\cdot 1018$ kg
```
Let F = the fraction of the asteroid's kinetic energy that goes into heating the atmosphere. The atmospheric heating is
```                                Mass of asteroid      Speed of asteroid
Heating  ~  40 kelvin  *  F  *  ----------------  * ( ----------------- )^2
10^15 kg               20 km/s
```
A 10 km asteroid has a mass of ~ 10^15 kg. If the asteroid is less massive than this then you don't have to worry about cooking the atmosphere. The dinosaur-extinction asteroid was ~ 10 km in size.
Natural disasters by death toll
```                    Toll    Year

China floods         4      1931
Yellow River flood   1.5    1887
Shaanxi Earthquake    .83   1556
Tsangshan Earthquake  .45   1976
India, Cyclone        .3    1839
India, Cyclone        .3    1737
Indian Ocean tsunami  .28   2004
Haiyuan Earthquake    .27   1920
Antioch Earthquake    .25    526
China, Typhoon        .23   1975   Typhoon Nina
Haiti, Earthquake     .16   2010
Yangtze River Flood   .14   1935
Japan, Earthquake     .14   1923   Great Kanto Earthquake
Netherlands           .1    1530
Netherlands           .07   1287
Netherlands           .06   1212
Netherlands           .04   1219
```

Plague
```                   Year    Year   Toll (millions or %)
begin   end

Plague of Athens    -429  -426      .1
Antonine Plague      165   180      30%      Europe, Western Asia, Northern Africa
Plague of Cyprian    250   266               Europe
Plague of Justinian  541   542      40%      Europe
Black Death         1346  1350      50%      Europe
Cocoliztli          1545  1548      80%      Mexico
Cocoliztli          1576  1576      50%      Mexico
Spain               1596  1602
London              1603  1603
New England         1616  1619      60%
China               1641  1644               Helped end the Ming Dynasty
Spain, Seville      1647  1652
Plage of London     1665  1666      .1
France              1668  1668      .04
Austria             1679  1679      .076
Balkans             1738  1738      .05
Russia              1770  1772      .05
1st cholera pandem. 1816  1826      .2       Europe, Asia
2nd cholera pandem. 1829  1851      .2       Europa, Asia, North America
3rd cholera pandem. 1852  1860     1         Russia
Flu pandemic        1889  1890     1         Worldwide
6th cholera pandem. 1899  1923     1         Europe, Asia, Africa
China               1910  1912      .04
Flu pandemic        1918  1920    75         Worldwide
Asian flu           1957  1958     2         Worldwide
Hong Kong flu       1968  1969     1         Worldwide
HIV                 1960   now    30         Worldwide
Flu pandemic        2009  2009      .014     Worldwide
Ebola               2013  2016      .011     West Africa
Zika virus          2015   now               Americas
```

Solar flare

Energy

Meteor Crater, Arizona
Dinosaur extinction

```                              Energy
(Joules)

Largest chemical bombs        5⋅1010
Tornado                       2⋅1013    1 km in size, 180 m/s wind
Uranium bomb, 10 kTon TNT     4⋅1013
Avalanche                     2⋅1015
Hydrogen bomb, 10 MTon TNT    4⋅1016
100 meter asteroid            2⋅1017    20 km/s, 2 g/cm3
Krakatoa volcano, 1883        8⋅1017
Apophis asteroid, 270 meters  2⋅1018
Tambora Volcano, 1815         3⋅1018    Largest eruption since Lake Taupo, 180 CE
1 km asteroid                 2⋅1020    20 km/s, 2 g/cm3
Civilization energy/year      6⋅1020
Hurricane                     1⋅1021
Indonesia earthquake 2004     4⋅1022
Magnitude 9.5 earthquake      1⋅1023    Valdivia, Chile, 1960. Largest earthquake in the last century
10 km asteroid                2⋅1023    20 km/s, 2 g/cm3. Size of "dinosaur extinction" asteroid
Supernova, type 1A            2⋅1044
Gamma ray burst               1⋅1047
Small black hole merger       1⋅1048
Supermassive black hole merge 1⋅1056
Higgs catastrophy             1⋅1070
```
The largest earthquakes are at subductions zone in the Pacific rim and they dwarf volcanoes for energy.
Marauding stars
```                  Present   Closest    Date of closest approach
distance  approach   (thousands of years)

Barnards Star       6.0       3.7         10
Alpha Centauri      4.4       3.1         28
Ross 248           10.3       3.024       36
Gliese 445         17.6       3.5         45
Gliese 710         64.2       1.1       1400
```
Distances in lightyears.
Black hole

A black hole has a minimum mass of 3 solar masses. A black hole approaching the solar system would be detected through its influence on Neptune and the Kuiper belt objects. It would be noticed at a range of at least 100 AU.

Supernovae

Future cosmic disasters

Early Earth
Venus

Billions of years from now.

```      .000001 The Wilkes ice basin melts and the ice of East Antarctica follows.
.0001   The constellations disappear because of motions of the stars
.00025  A new volcanic island will form in the Hawaiian chain
.050    California disappears into the Pacific
.100    Rings of Saturn disappear
.230    Limit of predictions of planet orbits
1.0      The sun's luminosity increases by 10% and the oceans evaporate
1.5      Mars warms to above freezing
2.3      Earth's outer core freezes and the magnetic field disappears
2.8      The Earth heats to the point where all life becomes extinct
3.0      The moon spirals outward far enough so that the Earths tilt
is free to wander, causing extreme seasons
4.0      Milky Way and Andromeda collide
5.0      The sun runs out of hydrogen and expands into a red giant
7.5      Earth becomes tidally locked with the sun
7.59     The sun consumes the Earth
7.9      The sun reaches its maximum size and consumes Mars.
Titan warms to above freezing
8.0      The sun becomes a white dwarf with 54% of its present mass
100        The universe's expansion removes all galaxies from view except
for the galaxies of the Local Group
450        The last remaining galaxies of the Local Group coalesce into one galaxy
800        Milky way dims due to dying stars
1000        Star formation ends
30000        Timescale for a stellar encounter close enough to disrupt the Earth's
orbit
120000        The last stars die out
e36 years     Timescale for proton decay. After all the protons have decayed the
universe will consist of electrons, positrons, photons, and neutrinos.
7e68 years    Time for a 3 solar mass black hole to disappear by Hawking radiation
2e106 years   Time for a 20 trillion mass black hole to disappear by Hawking radiation
```

Defense

Mr Miyagi: Best block... not be there
Jeet Kune Do: "Way of the intercepting fist"

```          Defend?   Plan

Asteroid      No
Tsunami       No    Don't build tall buildings on coasts
Tornado       No    Destroys the stoutest buildings. Take the hit and rebuild.
Volcano       No    Don't build cities near volcanoes (Seattle)
Earthquake    Yes   Don't build a city on the San Andreas Fault
Hurricane     Yes   Design buildings to survive sustained 80 m/s winds
Higgs crisis  No
```
If you see a bright flash of light, it's either an asteroid or a nuclear bomb. Close your eyes and ears and brace for the shock wave. Get into shade to avoid radiation and getting fried by the light. Get outdoors and stay away from glass. After the blast, get moving away from the explosion by whatever means available.

If there is an earthquake or asteroid strike in the ocean and you are on the coast, move inland as fast as possible.

Action videos

Tsunami     Rockslide     Dinosaur     Ice collapse

Appendix

Explosive eruptions
```               Volume    Age
(103 km3)  (Myears)

Parana           8.6     132
Parana           7.8     132
Parana           7.6     132
Yemen            6.8      29.5
Parana           6.34    132
Parana           5.65    132
Parana           5.0      27.8
Parana           4.35    132
Parana           3.9     132
Yemen            3.8      29.6
Parana           3.45    132
Chile            3.0      19
Parana           2.9      29.5
Indonesia        2.8        .073      Lake Toba
Chile            2.8       4
Red Sea          2.7      29.5
Yellowstone      2.45      2.059
New Zealand      2.0        .254      Taupo volcanic zone. Whakamaru Village
Idaho            1.8       4.3
Red Sea          1.6      29.5
Idaho            1.5       6.5
New Mexico       1.31     33
New Mexico       1.2      28.5
New Zealand      1.17       .027     Taupo volcanic zone. Lake Taupo
Bolivia          1.1      15
Yellowstone      1.0        .639     Wyoming
Argentina        1.0       2.2
```

Volcanoes by region
```
Japan, Ryukyu Is. .15   7    -4300   Akahoya eruption. Kikai Caldera
Japan, Kyushu Is. .45   7   -20000   Aira Caldera
Japan, Kyushu Is. .6        -30000
Japan                   7   -90000   Mount Aso

Aegian Sea              6     1650   Santorini. Kolumbo volcano
Aegean Sea        .060  7    -1575   Santorini. Possible cause of Greek dark age

Mount Vesuvius          5       79
Mount Vesuvius          6    -2420
Mount Vesuvius          5   -14000
Mount Vesuvius          6   -16000
Italy, Naples     .084  7   -37000   Campi Flegri

Iceland           .015  6     1783
Iceland                 6     1477   Bardarbunga volcano
Iceland           .018  6      934   Katla Volcano

Aleutian Islands        6     -100   Mount Okmok

Mt. Saint Helens  .0002 5     1980   7 Mtons TNT from blast, 24 Mtons total
British Columbia        5     -400   Mount Meager
Oregon                  7    -5677   Mount Mazama, Crater Lake
Yellowstone      1.0    8  -640000   Yellowstone Caldera
California        .6    7  -760000   Long Valley Caldera
Yellowstone             8 -2100000   Island Park Caldera

Santa Maria       .0055 6     1902   Guatemala
Nicaragua               5     1835   Cosiguina volcano
Mexico                  6      930   Ceboruco Volcano
Central America         6      450   Lake Ilopango
Central America         6      -50   Apoyeque
Central America         7   -80000   Lago de Atitlan

Chile                   5     2011   Puyehue-Cordon Caulle
Peru              .030  6     1600   Huanaputina volcano
Argentina               7    -2300   Cerro Blanco volcano
Argentina               8 -2200000   Cerro Galan

New Zealand             5     1886   Mount Tarawera
Mystery Eruption        6     1808   Southwest Pacific
SW Pacific              6     1452   Vanuatu. Kuwae volcano
New Zealand       .12   7      232   Lake Taupo
Vanuatu                 6       50   Ambrym Volcano
New Zealand             6     -250   Raoul Island
New Zealand             5     -550   Mount Tongariro
New Zealand             6    -1460   Taupo Volcano
New Zealand       .10   6    -4300   Kermadec Islands
New Zealand      1.17   8   -24500   Taupo Volcano
New Zealand       .24   7   -50000   Taupo Volcanic Zone
New Zealand             7  -220000   Taupo Volcanic Zone, Rotorua Caldera
New Zealand       .1    7  -230000   Taupo Volcanic Zone, Marora Caldera
New Zealand       .28   7  -240000   Taupo Volcanic Zone, Reporora Caldera
New Zealand       .12   8  -280000   Taupo Volcanic Zone, Whakamaru Caldera
New Zealand      2.0       -340000

Mount Pinatubo    .025  6     1991
Mount Pinatubo          6    -1050

Indonesia         .02   6     1883   Krakatoa
Mount Tambora     .16   7     1815   Indonesia. 200 Mtons TNT-equiv
Papua New Guinea        6     1660
Bougainville            6     1580   Billy Mitchell volcano
Indonesia               7     1258   Mt. Rinjani. May have caused the Little Ice Age
Papua New Guinea        6      800   Dakataua Volcano
Papua New Guinea        6      710   Pago Volcano
Papua New Guinea        6      540   Rabaul Caldera
Papua New Guinea        6    -1370   Pago Volcano
Indonesia               7   -52000   Sunda Arc, Maninjau Caldera
Lake Toba        2.8    8   -72000

North Korea       .11   7      946
Kamchatka               6      240   Ksudach Volcano
Kamchatka               5    -1350   Avachinsky Volcano
Kamchatka               5    -1500   Avachinsky Volcano
Kamchatka         .155  7    -6440   Kurile Lake
Kamchatka               7   -40000   Kurile Lake
```

Historical volcanoes
```              Volume  Index   Year
(103 km3)

Chile                   5     2011   Puyehue-Cordon Caulle
Pinatubo          .025  6     1991
Mt. Saint Helens  .0002 5     1980   7 Mtons TNT from blast, 24 Mtons total
Santa Maria       .0055 6     1902   Guatemala
New Zealand             5     1886   Mount Tarawera
Krakatoa          .02   6     1883
Nicaragua               5     1835   Cosiguina volcano
Mount Tambora     .16   7     1815   Indonesia. 200 Mtons TNT-equiv
Mystery Eruption        6     1808   Southwest Pacific
Iceland           .015  6     1783
Papua New Guinea        6     1660
Santorini               6     1650   Kolumbo volcano
Peru              .030  6     1600   Huanaputina volcano
Bougainville            6     1580   Billy Mitchell volcano
Iceland                 6     1477   Bardarbunga volcano
SW Pacific              6     1452   Vanuatu. Kuwae volcano
Indonesia               7     1258   Mt. Rinjani. May have caused the Little Ice Age
North Korea       .11   7      946
Iceland           .018  6      934   Katla Volcano
Mexico                  6      930   Ceboruco Volcano
Papua New Guinea        6      800   Dakataua Volcano
Papua New Guinea        6      710   Pago Volcano
Rabaul Caldera          6      540
Central America         6      450   Lake Ilopango
Kamchatka               6      240   Ksudach Volcano
New Zealand       .12   7      232   Lake Taupo
Mount Vesuvius          5       79
Vanuatu                 6       50   Ambrym Volcano
Central America         6      -50   Apoyeque
Aleutian Islands        6     -100   Mount Okmok
New Zealand             6     -250   Raoul Island
British Columbia        5     -400   Mount Meager
New Zealand             5     -550   Mount Tongariro
Mount Pinatubo          6    -1050
Kamchatka               5    -1350   Avachinsky Volcano
Papua New Guinea        6    -1370   Pago Volcano
New Zealand             6    -1460   Taupo Volcano
Kamchatka               5    -1500   Avachinsky Volcano
Aegean Sea        .060  7    -1575   Santorini. Minoan eruption. Possible cause of Greek dark age
Argentina               7    -2300   Cerro Blanco volcano
Mount Vesuvius          6    -2420
Japan, Ryukyu Is. .15   7    -4300   Akahoya eruption. Kikai Caldera
New Zealand       .10   6    -4300   Kermadec Islands
Oregon                  7    -5677   Mount Mazama, Crater Lake
Kamchatka         .155  7    -6440   Kurile Lake
Mount Vesuvius          5   -14000
Mount Vesuvius          6   -16000
Japan, Kyushu Is. .45   7   -20000   Aira Caldera
New Zealand      1.17   8   -24500   Taupo Volcano
Japan, Kyushu Is. .6        -30000
Italy, Naples     .084  7   -37000   Campi Flegri
Kamchatka               7   -40000   Kurile Lake
New Zealand       .24   7   -50000   Taupo Volcanic Zone
Indonesia               7   -52000   Sunda Arc, Maninjau Caldera
Lake Toba        2.8    8   -72000
Central America         7   -80000   Lago de Atitlan
Japan             .6    7   -90000   Mount Aso
New Zealand             7  -220000   Taupo Volcanic Zone, Rotorua Caldera
New Zealand       .1    7  -230000   Taupo Volcanic Zone, Marora Caldera
New Zealand       .28   7  -240000   Taupo Volcanic Zone, Reporora Caldera
New Zealand       .12   8  -280000   Taupo Volcanic Zone, Whakamaru Caldera
New Zealand      2.0       -340000
Yellowstone      1.0    8  -640000   Yellowstone Caldera
California        .6    7  -760000   Long Valley Caldera
New Mexico        .6    7 -1150000   Valles Caldera
Yellowstone       .28   7 -1300000   Henry's Fork Caldera
Yellowstone             8 -2100000   Island Park Caldera
Argentina               8 -2200000   Cerro Galan
Idaho             .75   7 -6400000   Heise Volcanic Field
Idaho             .95   7 -6700000   Bruneau-Jarbidge Caldera
```
Dates prior to 0 AD are approximate.

All volcanoes with an index of 6 or larger are listed dating back to 1500 BCE, indeces of 7 or larger back to 100000 years ago, and indices of 8 or larger back to 1 million years ago.

Earthquakes

```                   Magnitude   Year   Metathrust

Chile, Iquique quake    8.2    2014      *
Chile, Illapel quake    8.3    2015      *
Japan, Tohoku Region    9.0    2011      *        Fukushima nuclear disaster
Chile, Offshore Maule   8.8    2010      *
China, Sichuan          8.0    2008
Indonesia, Sumatra      8.6    2005
Indonesia, Sumatra      9.1    2004      *        Tsunami
Peru                    8.4    2001      *
Japan                   6.9    1995
Los Angeles             6.7    1994
Chile, Valdivia         9.5    1960      *
Kamchatka               9.0    1952      *
Himalayas               8.7    1950
San Francisco           7.8    1906
South Carolina          7.3    1886      *
California, Owens Val.  7.6    1872
Chile, Arica            9.0    1868
Hawaii, Big Island      7.9    1868
Italy, Naples           6.9    1857
California, mid-south   7.9    1857               Fort Tejon Earthquake
Japan, Honshu           8.4    1854               Tokai Earthquake. Tsunami
Japan, Honshu           8.4    1854               Nankai Earthquake. Tsunami
Indonesia, Sumatra      8.8    1833
Missouri                8.1    1811
Italy, Calabria         6.9    1783
Portugal, Lisbon        8.8    1755      *
Japan, Hoei quake       9.0    1707      *
Italy, L'Aquila         6.7    1703
Italy, Norcia           6.7    1703
Pacific Ocean, Cascadia 9.0    1700      *
Italy, Irpinia          6.9    1694
Japan, Hokkaido         8.9    1611
China, Shaanxi          8.3    1556               Deadliest earthquake in recorded history
Portugal, Lisbon        6.9    1531
Japan, Honshu           8.6    1498
Rome                    6.9    1348
Crete                   8      1303               Tsunami destroyed Alexandria
Japan, Senriki quake    8.9     869      *
Beirut Earthquake       7.5     551               Tsunami
Crete Earthquake        8.5     365      *
Pompei Earthquake       6        62
Rhodes Earthquake       ?      -226
Sparta Earthquake       7.2    -464               Lead to a Helot revolt and the Peloponnesian War
```

Japanese earthquakes

Nankai megathrust plate subduction zone:

```Year  Magnitude  Tsunami  Subduction zone
(m)
684     8.4        3     Nankai
887     8.6       10     Nankai
1096     8.4        7     Nankai
1099     8.0              Nankai
1361     8.4              Nankai
1498     8.6              Nankai
1611     8.9       20
1703     8.2       10     Sagami
1707     8.6       26     Nankai
1854     8.4       21     Nankai
1854     8.4       28     Nankai
1944     8.1       10     Nankai
1946     8.1        6.6   Sagami
2001     9.0       20
```

Lituya Bay tsunami

Asteroid belt

Apophis

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