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Earth science
Climate, energy, water, agriculture, and natural disasters
Dr. Jay Maron

Climate

Temperature

```Earth mean temperature   = 288   Kelvin
Current rate of increase =   1.7 Kelvin/century
Temperature in 1800      =   -.9 Kelvin compared to present
Temperature in 1000      =   -.5 Kelvin compared to present
```

Carbon dioxide

Pinatubo

```Atmosphere CO2 fraction    =  .00041
CO2 fraction in 1700       =  .00027
CO2 fraction last ice age  =  .00018             (1 million years ago)
CO2 fraction increase rate =  .000002 per year
Atmosphere mass            =   5.2⋅1018 kg
Atmospheric carbon         =880000⋅109 kg       = 121   tons/person
Human carbon production    =   920⋅109 kg/year  =   1.3 tons/person/year
World timber carbon        =   800⋅109 kg/year  =   1.1 tons/person/year
World volcanic carbon      =    40⋅109 kg/year
Pinatubo Volcano carbon    =    10⋅109 kg            1991 eruption
World population           =  7.25⋅109
```

Sea level

6 meter rise in sea level

```Sea level rise since 1870          =   225 mm
Sea level rise if Greenland melts  =  7200 mm
Sea level rise if Antarctica melts = 61100 mm

Total rate of sea level rise       =  2.8 mm/year
Greenland melting rate             =   .6 mm/year
Antarctica melting rate            =   .2 mm/year
Glacier melting rate               =   .3 mm/year
Thermal expansion rate             =   .8 mm/year

Acceleration of sea level rise     = .013 mm/year/year
Ocean heat gain                    =    5 ZJoules/year
```

World data

```Atmosphere temperature rise=   .017 Kelvin/year      (.9 Kelvin since 1800)
Sea level rise             =  2.8   mm/year          (225 mm since 1800)
Atmosphere CO2 frac        =   .0035                 (.0027 in 1800)
Atmosphere carbon          =720     Gtons
Photosynthesis of carbon   =120     Gtons/year
Human carbon emissions     =  9     Gtons/year   = 1240   kg/person/year
Energy produced            =   .57  ZJoules/year =   78.6 GJ/prsn/year
Electricity produced       =   .067 ZJoules/year =    9.2 GJ/prsn/year
Food                       =   .027 ZJoules/year =    3.7 GJ/prsn/year = 2500 Cal/prsn/day
Sunlight energy            =3850    ZJoules/year
Wind energy                =  2.25  ZJoules/year
Photosynthesis of biomass  =  3.00  ZJoules/year
Ocean heat gain            =  7.5   ZJoules/year
World power                = 18     TWatts       = 4500   Watts/person
Energy cost                = 16     T\$/year      = 2210   \$/person/year   (27.8 \$/GJoule)
Population                 =  7.254 billion
Food                       =  1.58  Tkg/year     =  218   kg/person/year  (As carbs)
Earth land area            =148.9   Mkm2         =    2.0 Hectares/person
Rainfall over land         =107000  km3/year     =   14.8 tons/person/year
River flow                 = 37300  km3/year     = 5140   tons/person/year
Water total use            =  9700  km3/year     = 1390   tons/person/year
Water for agriculture      =  1526  km3/year     =  218   tons/person/year
Water for home use         =   776  km3/year     =  111   tons/person/year
Water desalinated          =    36  km3/year     =    5   tons/person/year
```
The above table can be used to convert various quantities, such as:
```Energy of hydrocarbon food                      17  MJoules/kg
Agricultural water required to produce food   1000  litres/kg       (in the form of carbohydrates)
Electricity cost                               100  \$/MWh           =  2.78⋅10-8 \$/Joule
Agricultural water required to produce food   1000  litres/kg       (in the form of carbohydrates)
World average                               722000  people per kg3 of water used
```

Greenhouse gases

```Gas        Year      Year     Contribution  Radiation  Half life
1750      2015     to warming     change     (years)
(ppm)     (ppm)                  (Watts/m2)
H2O                             36-72%
CO2       280       395          9-26%        1.88        60
CH4          .7       1.79       4-9%          .49        12
O3           .237      .337      3-7%          .4           .05
N2O          .270      .325                    .17       114
CCl2F2       0         .000527                 .169      100
CCl3F        0         .000235                 .061       60
CHClF2       0         .00022                  .046       12
```
"ppm" stands for parts per million.
"Radiation change" is the change in power absorbed by the Earth due to the molecule, with the change tabulated from 1750 to the present.
"Half life" is the half life in the atmosphere. The sun regenerates 12% of the ozone layer each day.
A halocarbon is a molecule composed of carbon and halogens (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine). There are no natural sources of halocarbons and so the pre-industrial level is zero.
Energy

World energy

```             Usage   Reserves  Reserves  Electricity  Fuel  Energy/CO2  Energy/kg
(ZJ/yr)  (ZJ/yr)     (ZJ)       cost      cost   (MJ/kg)     (MJ/kg)
(\$/MWh)   (\$/MWh)
World total      .57
Oil              .20     -       8.1         -        29      14.1         48
Natural gas      .13     -       8.1        66        45      20.2         44
Coal             .16     -      19.8       100        31       8.5         31
Uranium nuclear  .07     -     370         108        12.3    80     80000000
Biomass power    .07     .16     -         110        42       -           19
Hydro power      .02     .04     -          90         0       -
Wind power       .015    .32     -          87         0       -
Solar cells      .0004   .8      -         144         0       -
Solar hot water  .0010   -       -           -         0       -
Geothermal       .0011   -       -          90         0       -
Solar focus      .00001  -       -         262         0       -
Tidal power      .00001  .01     -                     0       -
Ocean thermal    0       .32     -         150         0       -
Thorium nuclear  0       -     180                                   80000000

1 ZJ                =     1 ZettaJoule  =  1021 Joules
1 ZJ/year           =  31.6 TWatts
1 Barrel of oil     =    42 gallons  =  158.99 liters  =  6.12⋅109 Joules
1 m3 of natural gas =  38 MJoules
```
Energy/CO2 is the energy generated per CO2 released.
Natural gas eclipses coal because it is cheaper and generates more energy/CO2.
Energy reserves

Oil reserves
Coal reserves

Uranium
Natural gas

Energy reserves
```          Nat. gas  Coal  Uranium  Thorium  Oil   Rain  Potassium  Phosphorus
(ZJ)   (ZJ)   (ZJ)     (ZJ)    (ZJ) (km3/yr) (Gtons)   (Gtons)

World        7.3    26.6    43.2   15      9.0   107000   9.5       77
Australia     .163   2.30   13.40   2.4     .025   4106    -          .25
USA           .375   7.22    1.66   3.5     .22    6814    .13       1.4
Canada        .066    .19    3.88    .35   1.00    4883   4.40        -
India         .041   2.71     .64   7.7     .035   3433    -          -
Brazil        .014    .30    2.2     .1     .085  15004    .30        .31
China         .176   3.35    1.37   2.42    .156   6173    .21       3.7
Venezuela     .217    .014    -     2.42   1.82    1872    -          -
Russia       1.90    4.60    3.80    .60    .47    7865   3.30       1.3
Saudi Arabia  .32     -       -      -     1.63     127    -          -
Iraq          .243    -       -      -      .83      94    -         5.8
Iran         1.31     -       -      -      .86     376    -          -
UAE           .086    -       -      -      .79       6.6  -          -
Kuwait        .068    -       -      -      .58       2.2  -          -
Qatar         .98     -       -      -      .155       .9  -          -
Libya         .059    -       -      -      .293     99    -          -
Ukraine       -      1.00     .84    -      -       341    -          -
South Africa  -      1.43    2.4     .14    -       604    -         1.5
Mexico        .014    -       -      -      .063   1489    -          -
Indonesia     .114    .15     .038   -      -      5147    -          -
Morocco       -       -       -      -      -       155    -        50

1 ZJoule = 1 ZJ = 1021 Joules
Potassium is in the form of potash (potassium chloride).
Phosphorus is in the form of phosphate.
```

Renewable energy

```             Total     Hydro   Wind    Biomass  Solar  Geothermal
(EJ/yr)   (EJ/yr) (EJ/yr)  (EJ/yr) (EJ/yr)  (EJ/yr)

World        40        20      15      2        .8      1.1
China        11.4       9.3     1.40    .37     .15
USA           4.46      2.42    1.23    .63     .04      .14
Brazil        3.96      3.60     .04    .31
Russia        1.47      1.44     .0     .03
India         1.40      1.09     .25    .04     .02
Norway        1.25      1.23     .01    .0
Germany       1.15       .25     .45    .18     .27
Japan         1.07       .65     .04    .29     .06      .02
Spain          .94       .35     .47    .01     .11

1 EJ = 1018 Joules
```
Typical power densities for large power stations are:
```                MWatts/km2

Solar cell farm   30
Wind farm         10
Bamboo farm        5
```

Climate solutions

```                    CO2   Sea    Fresh  Albedo  Article
level   water

Biomass & biochar     *                            *
Solar farm            *                            *
Wind farm             *                            *
Hydro power           *                            *
Bamboo biomass        *                            *
Tidal power           *                            *
Antarctic ice shelf        *              *        *
Iceberg freshwater                 *               *
Iceberg ocean cooling      *              *        *
Seawater greenhouses  *    *       *               *
Island building            *              *        *
Reservoirs                 *       *               *
Electric cars         *                            *
Electric cities       *                            *
Ocean iron            *                            *
Rogue forestry        *                            *
Agriculture tech      *                            *
Space mirror                              *        *
Algae biomass         *                            *
Natural gas           *                            *
Thorium power         *                            *
Iron asteroid fuel    *                            *
Earth albedo                              *        *
Amery glacier dam          *                       *
```

Solar cells

A typical solar farm produces 30 MWatts/km2 and costs 5 \$/Watt, and costs are decreasing fast. The largest farms are:

```                           GWatts  km2  MWatts/km2  B\$  \$/Watt

Solar Star                    .579  13    45                  California
Topaz                         .55   25    22      2.5   4.5   California    Thin film CdTe
Desert Sunlight               .55   16    34                  California    Thin film CdTe
Longyangxia Dam               .32    9    36                  China
California Valley Solar Ranch .29    8    36      1.6   5.5   California    Silicon crystal
Agua Caliente Solar Project   .29   10    29      1.8   6.2   Arizona       Thin film CdTe

Solar power capacity (GWatts)

World         139
Germany        38.2
China          28.2
Japan          23.3
Italy          18.5
USA            18.3
France          5.7
Spain           5.4
UK              5.1
Australia       4.1
```

Typical values for a solar cell in Arizona:

```Arizona solar intensity, peak =  Ipeak          = 1000 Watts/meter2  (Noon in mid-summer)
Arizona solar intensity, ave. =  Iave           =  250 Watts/meter2  (Averaged over day and night)
Solar cell efficiency         =  e              =  .20              (converting solar to electric energy)
Solar cell peak power         =  Ppeak =  e Ipeak=  200 Watts
Solar cell average power      =  Pave  =  e Iave =   50 Watts
Solar cell operation time     =  T              =  2.3 years        (payback time)
Solar cell energy generated   =  E    =  Pave  T = 3622 MJoules
Electricity cost per Joule    =  Qelec           =2.8⋅10-8 \$/Joule  =  .10 \$/kWh
Value of electricity generated=  Celec =  E Qelec=  100 \$
Solar cell cost               =  Ccell           =  100 \$
Solar cell cost per peak Watt =  Qcell = Ccell/Ppeak=.50 \$/Watt
```
Setting the cost of the solar cell equal to the value of the energy generated,
```Ccell  =  Celec  =  e Iave T Qelec

Payback time  =  T  =  Ccell / (e Iave Qelec)  =  2.3 years
```
Suppose a solar farm is constructed in Arizona that is large enough to produce all of America's electric power,
```U.S. total power                =  3000 GWatts
U.S. electric power             =   500 GWatts
U.S. solar power                =    21 GWatts
U.S. power/person               =  9400 Watts
U.S. population                 =   320 million
Solar farm power per area       =    30 MWatts/km2     (Typical solar farm)
Arizona area                    =295234 km2
Solar farm area                 = 16700 km2            (Size of Connecticut)
Solar farm side length          =   130 km             (Assume a square)
```

Silver is the most reflective metal

The types of solar cells are:

```Technology         Efficiency  \$/Watt  Market frac   Key element   Element cost (\$/kWatt)

Thin film Ga As           .29                        Gallium
Crystalline Si (mono)     .25     .50     .36        Silver        48
Crystalline Si (poly)     .20     .50     .55        Silver       100
Thin film Cu In Ga Se     .20             .02        Indium
Thin film Cd Te           .16             .051       Tellurium      5
Thin film Amorphous Si    .11             .02        -
Multi junction            .41                        Gallium
World record              .44

Energy cost of silicon crystal= 39.6  MJ/kg
Electricity cost              =   36  MJ/\$
Silicon crystal cost          =  1.1  \$/kg
Monocrystal silicon           =  6.0  kg/kWatt
Monocrystal silicon cost      =  6.6  \$/kWatt
Crystal silicon thickness     =  .18  mm
Thin film (CdTe) tellurium    = .093  kg/kWatt     =  4.6 \$/kWatt
Silicon-monocrystal silver    =  .05  kg/kWatt     =   48 \$/kWatt  =   100 \$/kg  =  .0096kg/m2
Silicon-polycrystal silver    =  .10  kg/kWatt     =  100 \$/kWatt  =  1000 \$/kg  =  .020 kg/m2
Price of silver               =  264  \$/kg
```

Inverter

A solar cell system requires an inverter to convert DC to AC power. For a 1 meter2 cell,

```Solar cell efficiency               =  e
Peak power                          =  Ppeak =  e Ipeak    =  200 Watts
Cost of inverter per peak Watt      =  Qinv  =  .15 \$/Watt
Cost of inverter                    =  Cinv  =  Qinv Ppeak  =  15 \$
Cost of solar cell                  =  Ccell               = 100 \$
Total system cost                   =  Ctotal              = 200 \$
```
The the inverter costs less than the solar cell.
Wind turbines

```                         Peak    Avg    km2    B\$
GWatts  GWatts

Gansu Wind Farm           6.0                  5.2    China
Muppandal Wind Farm       1.5                         India
Alta                      1.55    .31    36           California
Jaisalmer Wind Park       1.06                        India
Shepherds Flat Wind Farm   .84    .23    78    1.4    Oregon
Roscoe Wind Farm           .78          400           Texas
Horse Hollow Wind Center   .74          190           Texas

```
The larger the turbine the more efficient it is. Commercial wind turbines include:
```               MWatts    M\$  Watts/\$  Blade diam  Height  Decibels
(m)       (m)
Bergey XL-1      .001    .004   .25      2.5
Bergey Excel-S   .010    .024   .42      7.0                 42.9
GE 1.5 MW       1.5     2       .75     60          80
Vesta V164      8      10       .8     164         220

```
The power generated depends on the velocity cubed. For the Vesta V164,
```Air density                 =  D          =  1.22 kg/meter3
Wind turbine cross section  =  A  =  πR2  = 21000 meter2
Wind speed                  =  V          =    10 meter/second    (Typical for a good site)
Efficiency factor           =  Q          =   .75                 (Cannot be larger than 1)
Power generated             =  P  = .59 QDAV3 =  11 MWatts
```
HAWT = Horizontal axis wind turbine

For a typical wind turbine,

```Cost per Watt               =    1  \$/Watt
Peak power                  =  1.5  MWatts
Total cost                  =  1.5  M\$
Height                      =   80  meters
Rotor mass                  =   22  tons
Rotor diameter              =   60  meters
Tower mass                  =   52  tons
Steel in foundation         =   26  tons
Concrete in foundation      =  456  tons
Base diameter               =   15  meters
Rotor cost fraction         =  .20
Generator cost fraction     =  .34
Tower cost fraction         =  .15
Geared generator Neodymium  =  .025 kg/kWatt  =  .62 \$/kWatt
Gearless generator Neodymium=  .25  kg/kWatt  = 6.2  \$/KWatt
Neodymium total cost        = 9300  \$            (Gearless generator, 1.5 MWatts)
Neodymium fraction of magnet=  .31               (By mass)
Neodymium price/kg          =   20  \$/kg
```

Bamboo

Beema bamboo is a fast-growing variety of bamboo.
Sugar cane is one of the most photosynthetically-efficient plants and 10% of its mass is sugar

```            kg/m2   MJoules/   MJoules/   MWatts/
/year      kg      m2/year      km2

Beema bamboo   10      16       160        5.1
Sugar cane     15      10       150        4.7
Typical tree    2      16        32        1.0
Algae           2      20        40        1.3
```

Hydroelectricity

The largest hydroelectric power stations are listed below, along with the largest other renewable power sources for reference.

```                                Type   GWatts  km2  MWatts
/km2
Three Gorges Dam                Hydro   22.5    -    -    Yangtze River, China
Itaipu Dam                      Hydro   14.0    -    -    Parana River, Brazil & Paraguay
Xiloudu                         Hydro   13.9    -    -    Jinsha River, China
Guri Dam                        Hydro   10.2    -    -    Caroni River, Venezuela
Tucurui Dam                     Hydro    8.4    -    -    Tocantins River, Brazil
Xiangjiaba                      Hydro    7.8    -    -    Jinsha River, China
Grand Coulee Dam                Hydro    6.8    -    -    Columbia River
Gansu Wind Farm                 Wind     6                China
Alta Wind Energy Center         Wind     1.32   14  92    California
Jaisalmer Wind Park             Wind     1.06    ?   ?    India
Shepherds Flat Wind Farm        Wind      .84   78  10.8  Oregon
Roscoe Wind Farm                Wind      .78  400   2.0  Texas
Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center Wind      .74  190   3.9  Texas
Charanka Solar Park             Solar     .50   20  25    India
Topaz                           Solar     .30   25  12    California
Agua Caliente Solar Project     Solar     .25   10  26    Arizona
California Valley Solar Ranch   Solar     .25    8  31    California
Hellisheidi                     Geotherm  .7     -   -    Iceland
Sihwa Lake Tidal Power Station  Tidal     .25    -   -    South Korea
Belo Monte Dam, Brazil          Hydro   11                Under construction
Jinsha River Complex, China     Hydro   97                Under construction

MWatts  Land needed to provide  Fraction of Earth's
/km2    the world's power       land needed

Solar cells    25          .7e6 km2        .0047   Size of Texas
Wind farm      10         1.8e6 km2        .012    Size of Alaska
Bamboo farm     5         3.6e6 km2        .024    Twice the size of Alaska
```

Tidal power

Rance River tidal power station

```              GigaWatts   Year

Incheon           1.32     2017     South Korea
Sihwa Lake         .254    2011     South Korea
Swansea Bay        .32     2017     UK
Rance              .240    1966     France
Penzhinskaya     87        Future   Russia
Mezenskaya       12        Future   Russia
Severn Barrage    8.64     Future   UK
Dalupiri          2.2      Future   Philippines
Garorim Bay        .52     Future   South Korea
```

Fossil fuels

Fuel

Methane
Ethane
Propane
Octane

An "Alkane" is a carbon chain with hydrocarbons attached. At standard temperature (300 K), alkanes are solid if they have 20 or more carbons, gaseous if they have 4 or less carbons, and liquid if they are in between.

In the table, the first section covers alkanes and the second section covers other fuels.

```Fuel    Carbons   High   Low    Melt  Boil  Solid    Liquid    Gas     Phase  Carbon  g cO2
heat   heat   (K)   (K)   density  density  density  at     mass    per
MJ/kg  MJ/kg              g/cm^3   g/cm3    g/cm3    300 K  frac    kWh

Hydrogen    0     141.8  121     14.0   20.3           .07     .000090  Gas
Methane     1      55.5   50.0   90.7  111.7           .423    .00070   Gas
Ethane      2      51.9   47.8   90.4  184.6           .545    .0013    Gas
Propane     3      50.4   46.4   85.5  231.1           .60     .0020    Gas
Butane      4      49.5   45.8  136    274             .60     .0025    Gas
Pentane     5      48.6   45.4  143.5  309             .63              Liquid
Hexane      6      48.2         178    342             .65              Liquid
Heptane     7      48.0         182.6  371.5           .68              Liquid
Octane      8      47.8         216.3  398.7           .70              Liquid
Dodecain   12      46           263.5  489             .75              Liquid
Hexadecane 16      46           291    560             .77              Liquid
Icosane    20      46           310    616     .79                      Solid
Alkane-40  40      46           355    798     .82                      Solid
Alkane-60  60      46           373    898     .83                      Solid

Diesel             44.8   43.4                         .83              Liquid
Gasoline           47.3   44.4                         .76              Liquid
Kerosene           46.2   43.0                                          Liquid
Crude oil                                                               Liquid   .89
Petroleum          43                                                   Liquid
Veg. oil           44                                                   Liquid
Methanol    1      23           175.6  337.8           .79              Liquid   .37
Ethanol     2      29.7         159    351.5           .79              Liquid
Propanol    3                   147    370                              Liquid

LPG         3.5    46.1                                .54                       .81?
Nat. gas    1      54            91    112                              Gas      .76   469

Coal               32             -      -                              Solid    .67  1001
Wood               16             -      -                              Solid    .42
Carbon      1      34.1           -      -                              Solid   1.00
Charcoal           29.6           -      -
Biomass            10             -      -                                              18
Cane begasse       16.4   15.1

Anthracite         33
Bituminous         20
Lignite            21
Coke               29.5
Lignite            16.3
Peat               17
Tar                36
Hydro                                                                                    4
Wind                                                                                    12
Uranium          28e6                                                                   16
Solar thermal                                                                           22
Solar cell                                                                              46
Geothermal                                                                              45

Fat                37
Ethanol            29
Protein            17
Carohydrates       17
Fiber               8

LNG  =  Liquid natural gas
LPG  =  Liquid propane gas, mostly propane and butane.
```
The "high heat value" is the energy released upon combustion and includes the energy released when the released water vapor condenses to a liquid. The "low heat value" excludes the condensation energy. An electricity-generating turbine doesn't harness the condensation energy and so for the purpose of electricity, the low heat value is used.
World oil
```          Reserves  Produce  Consume  Extraction
/year   /year       cost
(EJ)    (EJ/yr)  (EJ/yr)  (\$/barrel)

Venezuela     1690    4.3    1.2        28
Saudi Arabia  1510   18.5    5.9         9
Iran           860    8.5    3.6         9
Iraq           830    5.0    1.7        11
UAE            790    5.0    1.2
Kuwait         580    4.9     .7
Russia         470   21.0    6.7        19
Kazakhstan     280    3.2     .5
Libya          270    3.6     .7
Nigeria        210    5.3     .6        29
USA            155   14.5   39.3        21
Qatar          144    2.2     .4
China          115    8.6   20.5
Brazil          86    6.6    5.4        35
India           35    2.2    6.9
Germany          1.7   .4    5.0
Japan             .3   .3    9.3
South Korea       -    -     4.8
UK                                      44
Norway                                  21
Indonesia                               19

1 Barrel of oil  =  42 gallons  =  158.99 liters  =  6.12⋅109 Joules
```
Extraction data from the Wall Street Journal, April 2016
U.S. Oil

```USA oil production           = 9.40 Mbarrels/day  (2015)
Keystone pipeline capacity   =  .59 Mbarrels/day
Keystone proposed upgrade    = +.7  Mbarrels/day
Oil fraction from U.S.       = .76
Oil fraction from Canada     = .096
Oil fraction from S. Arabia  = .026
Oil fraction from Venezuela  = .022
Oil fraction from Mexico     = .019
Oil fraction from Colombia   = .010
Oil gasoline fraction        = .46
Oil diesel fraction          = .20
Oil heating oil fraction     = .20
Oil liquid propane fraction  = .10
Jobs                         =  9 million
Oil GDP fraction             = .07
Oil produced by top10 corps. = .52
Oil production from Texas    =   3.17 Mbarrels/day
Oil production from Gulf     =   1.40 Mbarrels/day
Oil production from N. Dakota=   1.09 Mbarrels/day
Oil production from Calif.   =    .50 Mbarrels/day
Texas, Eagle Ford            = 308.3  Bbarrels/year
ND, Bakken Formation         = 123.8  Bbarrels/year
Texas, Sprayberry            =  99.8  Bbarrels/year
Alaska, Prudhole Bay         =  79.1  Bbarrels/year
Gulf, Shenzi                 =  35.3  Bbarrels/year
Alaska, Kuparuk River        =  29.5  Bbarrels/year
Cal, Midway-Sunset           =  28.8  Bbarrels/year
Gulf, Atlantis               =  27.3  Bbarrels/year
Texas, Sugarkane             =  25.8  Bbarrels/year
Refinery pipeline fraction   =  .58   Fraction of crude arriving from pipelines
Refinery tanker ship frac    =  .31
Refinery barge fraction      =  .057
Refinery rail fraction       =  .027
Refinery tanker truck frac   =  .026
State oil revenue from 2007  =  2.0 billion
State take from fed land revenue  = .50
State take from offshore     = .27
```

New U.S. oil reserves

Prudhoe Bay oil region
Prudhoe Bay

```                                billion barrels

U.S. proven reserves                   36
U.S. undiscovered reserves            200
North Dakota Bakken Formation          24
Utah oil sands                         16
Prudhoe Bay                            13
Alaska Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 10
Greenland Sea (east of Greenland)     110      Denmark
Kronprins Christian Basin              10      Denmark
Baffin Bay (west of Greenland)        >20      Canada
Laptev Sea                            >20      Russia
Santos Basin, Lula oil field            8      Brazil
Santos Basin, Jupiter field             8      Brazil
Campos Basin, east of Brazil            8      Brazil
```
U.S. oil shale deposits contain an estimated 2200 billion barrels of oil, although the technology for extracting it has yet to be developed.

Santos Basin

World natural gas

Production
Reserves

```           Use  Produce  Reserve  Export  Import

World      3198  3388    187300     202    834
Russia      481   677     48700      43
USA         647   651      9860      23     55
EU          497   165      2476      94
Qatar        20   151     24700     126
Iran        112   149     33600      10
Norway        6   106      2313     114
China        71   103      4643       5      4
Saudi Arabia 76    92      8600       0      0
Indonesia    23    92      3001      31      0
Malaysia     33            2350
Netherlands  46    81      1416      59
Venezuela    26            5724
Nigeria      13            5100      22
Iraq          9            6400
UK           91    41                11     37
India        42    40      1075
Germany      97                      19     68
Turkmenistan 19    64     17500      61
France       43                             41
Italy        85                             70
Japan       100                            116
Brazil       20
Mexico       68    54
South Korea  37                             47
Ukraine      66            1104             44
```
Units of billion cubic meters. Data from 2011. Only the largest numbers are included for each category.

U.S. Natural gas

Refineries
Pipelines

```Production                           =  25.3 trillion foot3/year
Value                                =  67.3 billion \$/year
Price                                =2660   \$/Mfoot3
Cost to liquefy natural gas          =   1.1  \$/Mcf
Shipping                             =    .70 \$/Mcf
Cost of regasification               =    .35 \$/Mcf
Total cost                           =   2.15 \$/Mcf
Texas fraction                       =    .25
Pennsylvania fraction                =    .11
Louisiana fraction                   =    .08
Fraction from largest 10 companies   =    .31
Fraction for commercial and industry =    .46
Fraction for electricity             =    .33
Fraction for residential             =    .21
Fraction for transport               =    .0013
Fraction imported                    =    .062   =  5.9 bllion \$
Fraction exported to Mexico          =    .024
Energy content                       =  47.5 MJoule/kg
LNG density                          =    .45 kg/liter
LNG energy density                   =  21.4 MJoule/liter
```

World coal

```         Use  Produce  Reserve  Export  Import

World     8327  8165   891500  1168    1178
China     4167  3874   114500           195
India      840   644    60600           102
USA        835   907   237300   106      21
EU         791   538
Russia     219   358   157000   103      22
S. Africa  198   260    30200    72
Japan      195                          207
S. Korea   136                          126
Australia  116   492    76400   302
Turkey     114    71     2340            30
Germany          186    40700            55
Ukraine           61    33900
Kazakhstan       109    33600    32
Indonesia        458     5530   383
Poland           137     5710
Serbia            44    13800
UK                12                     29
Italy                                    24
```
Units of 109 kg. Data from 2013. Import data from 2010

Coal smoke

U.S. Coal

```Coal produced                      =  900⋅109 kg/year
Fraction exported                  =  .07
Fraction on public land            =  .40
Fraction from biggest 10 companies =  .726
Number of miners                   = 65400
Export fraction to Europe          =  .60
Export fraction to Asia            =  .27
Export fraction to Netherlands     =  .18
Export fraction to India           =  .09
Export fraction to Brazil          =  .09
Export fraction to South Korea     =  .09
Fraction for electricity           =  .928
Fraction for industry              =  .047
Fraction for coke production       =  .023
Rent for federal land              =  3 \$/acre
Tax fraction for subsurface coal   =  .08
Tax fraction for surface coal      =  .125
Government tax revenue from coal   =  1.2⋅109 \$/year
Contracts awarded since 1990       =  107
Contracts with only one bidder     =   96
Contracts at less than market value=   18
Coal energy content                = 20.2 million BTUs per short ton
Fatality fraction per year         =  .000124 year-1
Wyoming fraction                   =  .40
West Virginia fraction             =  .11
Kentucky fraction                  =  .08
Pennsylvania fraction              =  .06
Illinois fraction                  =  .06
Montana fraction                   =  .044
Texas fraction                     =  .044
Indiana fraction                   =  .039
North Dakota fraction              =  .029
Ohio fraction                      =  .022
```

Plant oil

Oil palm
Sugar cane

Plant oil can be refined into diesel fuel or jet fuel, and plant sugar can be refined into ethanol fuel.

```             GJoules/  MJoules/   Oil fraction
Hectare   tons H2O     of seeds

Solar cells    7900      n/a
Wind turbine   3150      n/a
Bamboo wood    1600    100
Beet ethanol            18.7
Cane ethanol             9.1
Algae oil      3160      n/a         .6   (Oil fraction of total mass)
Copaiefera oil  400
Millettia oil   350
Corn oil          5.7   15.3
Cotton oil       10.8   10.0         .13
Soybean oil      14.8    9.4         .14
Rapeseed oil     40      9.2         .37
Palm tree oil   197      8.2         .36
Sunflower oil    32      5.8         .32
Peanut oil       35      5.2         .42
PopcornTree oil 156
Coconut oil      89       .8         .62
Brazil nut oil   79
Jatropha oil     63      2           .40
Jojoba oil       60
Pecan oil        59
Castor oil       47
Olive oil        43      2.7
Opium oil        39
Chocolate oil    34
Rice oil         27
Sesame oil       23      1.8         .50
Coffee oil       15
Wheat oil        12
Hemp oil         12
Silage methane   72
```
The most water-efficient energy plants are corn, cotton, soybean, rapeseed, palm, beet, and sugar cane.

The most space-efficient energy plants are algae and palm trees.

Sugar cane yields 10% refined sugar.

Crop silage can be converted to methane, producing an energy of 2 GWh/km^2, or 72 GJoules/Hectare.

Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates produced in sugar or starch crops such as corn, sugarcane, or sweet sorghum. Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food sources, such as trees and grasses, is also being developed as a feedstock for ethanol production. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions.

Algae biofuel

Nannochloropsis
Red: chlorophyll     Yellow: oil

Photobioreactor

Algae such as nannochloropsis can more oil per hectare than any land plant.

Nitrogen is essential for algal growth. Within a cell, nitrogen is involved in synthesizing amino acids, nucleic acids, chlorophyll, and other nitrogen-containing organic compounds. In a study in which 30 different microalgal strains were screened, one Nannochloropsis strain was shown to obtain 60% lipid content after nitrogen deprivation, up from 30% under normal growth conditions. This strain was selected for further scale-up experiments in a photobioreactor under natural sunlight. Lipid productivity increased to 204 milligram per liter per day(mg/L/day) under nitrogen starvation conditions, almost twice as much as the 117 mg/L/day under sufficient nutrition conditions. Based on these results, a two-phase cultivation process, with a nutrient sufficient phase to rapidly increase number of cells prior to a nitrogen deprived phase to boost lipid content, was found to produce more than 90 kg of lipid per hectare per day in outdoor cultures. I, depending on sun light conditions.

CO2 from hydrocarbon plants can be fed to algae to improve their productivity. The results showed that the lipid content of N. oculata increased from 30.8% to 50.4% upon 2% CO2 aeration.

Electricity

World electricity, 2008
```        Sum    Coal  Gas   Oil  Nuclear Hydro  Bio  Wind  Solar  Solar  Geo
mass       PV     therm  therm
World   20261  8263  4301  1111  2731   3288   271   219   12     1      65
USA      4369  2133  1011    58   838    282    73    56    2     1      17
China    3457  2733    31    23    68    585     2    13    0     0       0
Japan    1082   288   283   139   258     83    22     3    2     3       3
Russia   1040   197   495    16   163    167     2     0    0     0       0
India     830   569    82    34    15    114     2    14    0     0       0
Canada    651   112    41    10    94    383     8     4    0     0       0
Germany   637
```
Units of TWh/year. Data from 2008.
World electricity, 2014
```          Sum   Coal  Gas  Oil  Nuke  Hydro  Wind  Sol  Wood  Bio  Geo  Pop    Per person
mass      (mil)  (kWh/yr)
World    23537
China     5583  4350   201      124    896   140     9
USA       4297  1582  1139  30  797    259   182    18   42   22   16   319   13005
EU        3166
India     1271   836    41   1   36    129          28
Russia    1064   202   511      170    170
Japan     1061   318   456 149   11     85    50
Germany    614
Brazil     583
France     556
S. Korea   518
UK         357
Mexico     294
S. Arabia  292
Italy      288
Indonesia  216
```
Units of TWh/year unless otherwise noted. Data for 2014.
Energy sources
```           Energy  Energy   Density  Carbon
/kg     /CO2              frac
MJ/kg   MJ/kg    g/cm^3

Oil                  48
Natural gas  44      20.2    .0008    .76
Coal         24       8.5    .85      .67
Crude        43              .81      .89
Diesel       44.8            .83
Gasoline     47.3            .76
Cane begase  15    >100
Biomass      14    >100               .42
Wood         14    >100      .4       .42
Uranium    28e6      80    19.1
Hydro power        >100
Wind power         >100
Solar cells        >100
Thorium                    11.7
LNG          48.6            .45             Liquid natural gas
LPG          46.6                     .81    Liquid petroleum gas (propane and butane)
```

U.S. electricity
```             U.S.   Cents      \$/kg   Produce   MJ/\$
frac   /kWh              Bkg/year

Coal         .388      9.0    .045    900       490*
Natural gas  .274      7.0    .117    574       527*
Crude                         .29     530
Uranium      .195     10.0
Hydro        .06       7.0
Wind         .044      7.4
Wood         .0102    10.0
Biomass      .0052
Solar cell   .0042    11.0
Solar therm
Geothermal   .0038     4.8

USA electricity                    =   4200 TWh/year
USA per capita electricity         =   13.0 MWh/year/person
USA oil production                 =   9.40 Mbarrels/day  (2015)
1 short ton                        =  .9072 tons
1 BTU                              =   1055 Joules
1 Barrel of oil                    =     42 gallons  =  158.99 liters  =  6.12⋅109 Joules
1 Gallon                           =  4.546 litres
```

U.S. electricity use
```             Fraction  Cents/kWh

Residential     .339    12.5       10932 kWh/person/year,  1368 \$/month
Commercial      .326    10.7
Industrial      .241     6.4
Transport       .0019
Transsion loss  .092
```
Industrial electricity is cheaper than residential electricity because it is delivered at higher voltage and closer to the generator.
U.S. industrial electricity
```                    Fraction

Machine drive        .50
Chemical synthesis   .078
Petroleum refining   .073
Nonmanufacturing     .041
Other manufacturing  .038
Forest products      .033
Iron and steel       .019
Food processing      .016
Nonmetallic minerals .014
Aluminum             .009
Fabricated metals    .007
Plastic and rubber   .007
```

U.S. manufacturing
```            Manufacturing  Machine drive
fraction     cost fraction

Textiles          .02    .25
Plastic & rubber  .06    .25
Machinery         .02    .19
Transport equip   .04    .17
Fabricated metal  .04    .17
Electronics       .02    .16
Food              .09    .095
Nonmetal minerals .05    .08
Chemicals         .22    .08
Wood products     .03    .08
Paper             .13    .07
Primary metals    .09    .06
Petroleum & coal  .11    .04
Misc              .06    .19
```
EIA
Price of industrial electricity
```           Cents/kWh

Bhutan       2.0
Russia       2.4
Venezuela    3.1
Iceland      5.5
Serbia       6.1
Vietnam      6.2
USA          6.4
Taiwan       7
Malaysia     7.1
China        7.5
S. Africa   13
Turkey      13
Australia   15
Brazil      16.2
Philippines 18.2
Argentina   19.1
New Zealand 19.2
Mexico      19.3
Japan       20
Chile       23.1

Oklahoma     4.4
Washington   4.6
Louisiana    4.7
Montana      4.8
Texas        5.0
Georgia      5.1
Iowa         5.2
Kentucky     5.2
Alabama      5.3
Arizona      5.3
S. Carolina  5.7
New York     6.1
Illinois     6.4
W. Virginia  6.7
Pennsylvania 7.0
California  10.4
Hawaii      24.1
```
Data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration.
Power transmission

Energy use

```U.S. Petroleum fraction:
Gasoline fuel   .61
Diesel fuel     .21
Aviation        .12
Other           .06

U.S. Industrial fraction:
Chemical production    .22
Petroleum refining     .16
Metal smelting         .14
Other                  .48

U.S. residential fraction:
Space heating     .32
Water heating     .13
Lighting          .12
Air conditioning  .11
Refrigeration     .08
Electronics       .05
Laundry           .05
Other             .14

U.S. commercial fraction:
Lighting       .25
Heating        .13
Cooling        .11
Refrigeration  .06
Water heating  .06
Ventilation    .06
Electronics    .06
Other          .27
```

CO2 emissions

Carbon diooide emissions

CO2 emissions per capita

Natural gas is the friendliest hydrocarbon in that it has the highest hydrogen/carbon ratio.

```          Energy per kg  Hydrogens   Electricity   Bkg CO2
CO2 released   per carbon  cost (\$/MWh)  per year
(MJ/kg)

Natural gas   20.2          4           66           6799     Assume pure methane
Oil           14.1          2.25         -          11695     Assume pure octane
Coal           8.5          0          100          13787     Assume pure carbon
```
Data for Bkg CO2 per year from 2012.
```           Gtons/  Tons/
year    person

World      35.27     5.0
China      10.33     7.4
USA         5.30    16.6
India       2.07     1.7
Russia      1.80    12.6
Japan       1.36    10.7
Germany      .84    10.2
South Korea  .63    12.7
Indonesia    .51     2.6
Saudi Arabia .49    16.6
Brazil       .48     2.0
UK           .48     7.5
Mexico       .47     3.9
Iran         .41     5.3
Australia    .39    16.9
Italy        .39     6.4
France       .37     5.7
```
Data from 2013.
Biomass fuel
```            MJ/kg   MJ/Litre   MJ per kg of CO2

Uranium    8000000             75
Thorium    8000000
Hydrogen       130      9.2
Methane         55.4   23.2    20.2
Diesel fuel     48.1   40.3    14.2
Gasoline        46     33.5    14.1
Natural gas     44     27      14.7
Crude oil       41.9   30      12.3
Plant oil       39.5   33.2    14.3
Biodiesel       37.8   34.5    13.3
Fat             37.7   31.7
Ethanol         25     20      13
Coal            31              8.7
Methanol        21     15.9    15.5
Wood            19             10
Protein         17
Carbohydrates   17
Sugar           16.2
Seed casings    14.6
Dried plants    13              7
Manure          12
Cane stalks      9.6            7.4
```
The energy/volume for hydrogen, methane, and natural gas are for liquid form.
Water

Precipitation

Precipitation by month

```
Rain falling on land        107000  km3/yr
Snow falling on land          1000  km3/yr
Total river flow             37300  km3/yr  =  1184000 m3/s        35% of rainfall
Evaporation from ground      71000  km3/yr
Rain intercepted by leaves       ?  km3/yr    This water evaporates
Earth surface area           5.1e8  km2
Earth ocean area             3.6e8  km2
Earth land area              1.5e8  km2
Land precipitation average    .717  meters
Global precipitation average  .990  meters
```
Model of precipitation and evaporation by latitude

Rivers

```             1000 m3/s   Location of outflow

World total   1184
Amazon         209       Brazil
Congo           41.2     Democratic Republic of Congo
Ganges System   38       Bangladesh.  Bay of Bengal.
Orinoco         36       Venezuela
Yangtze         30.2     China
Rio de la Plata 22       Argentina
Yenisei         19.6     Russia   Arctic Ocean
Lena            16.9     Russia   Arctic Ocean
Mississippi     16.8     US.      Gulf of Mexico
St. Lawrence    16.8     US, CA.  Atlantic Ocean
Mekong          14.8     Vietnam
Ob-Irtysh       12.5     Russia   Arctic Ocean
Amur            11.4     China, Russia
Pearl            9.5     China
Volga            8.1     Russia.  Caspian sea
Columbia         7.5     US.      Pacific Ocean.  Seattle
Danube           7.1     Bulgaria.  Black Sea
Zambezi          7.1     Mozambique
Magdalena        7.0     Colombia
Indus            6.6     Pakistan
Kapuas           6.0     Indonesia.  Kalimantan
Fly              6.0     Papua New Guinea
Barito           5.5     Indonesia.  Kalimantan
Atrato           4.9     Colombia
Salween          4.88    Thailand
Mamberano        4.58    Indonesia.  New Guinea

1 km3/year  =  31.7 m3/s
```

Dams and reservoirs
```Country    River       Dam     Reservoir  GWatts  Height Year
(km3)              (m)
Zimbabwe   Zambezi     Kariba      180.6                 1959
Egypt      Nile        Aswan       169     2.1     111   1970
Russia     Angara      Bratsk      169                   1964
Ghana      Volta       Akosombo    150                   1965
Venezuela  Caroni      Guri        135    10.24    162   1978
Russia     Yenisei     Krasnoyarsk  73.3                 1967
Russia     Zeya        Zeya         68.4                 1978
China      Yellow      Sanmenxia    65                   1962
Canada     La Grande   Robert       62                   1981
Canada     La Grande   La Grande3   60                   1981
Russia     Angara      Ust-Ilimsk   59                   1977
Russia     Volga       Samara       57.3   2.32     52   1955
China                  Dantsianhow  51.6                 1962
Turkey     Euphrates   Ataturk      48.7   2.40    166   1990
China      Yangtze     3 Gorges     39.3  22.5     181   2008
USA        Missouri    Oahe         29      .79     75   1963
USA        Missouri    Fort Peck    23      .185    76   1940
India      Naramada    Kalpasar     16.8   5.88          2020   Estuary
```
A dam creates a water reservoir and displaces land. If the reservoir is deep enough then the irrigation and flood-control benefits outweigh the loss of land. For example, if a reservoir is 1 km2 in area and 100 meters deep then it can supply an area of 100 km2 for irrigation.

```Drainage basin         = 6.4e5 km2
Farmland supported     = 14000 km2
Flow rate              =   637 m3/s       (Very little makes it to the ocean)
Hoover dam salt flow   =   9e6 tons salt/year
Total river flow       = 20.3  km3/year
Upper basin allotment  =  9.22 km3/year   (Utah, Wyoming, Colorado)
Lower basin allotment  =  9.22 km3/year   (California, Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico)
Mexico allotment       =  1.84 km3/year
California fraction    =  .267            (Fraction of river allotted to California)
Arizona fraction       =  .170
Utah fraction          =  .104
Wyoming fraction       =  .064
New Mexico fraction    =  .051
Mexico fraction        =  .091
Green River            =   171 m3/s       (Tributary)
Gunnison River         =    73 m3/s       (Tributary)
San Juan River         =    62 m3/s       (Tributary)
Dolores River          =    18 m3/s       (Tributary)
Little Colorado River  =    12 m3/s       (Tributary)
```
Hoover dam
Glen Canyon Dam
```              Ave   Max   Height  Vol   Area   Year
(GW)  (GW)   (m)   (km^3) (km^2) completed

Hoover Dam    .48   2.08   180    35.2  640    1936
Glen Canyon   .40   1.30   160    32.3  653    1966
Davis Dam     .131   .255   41      .2  107    1951
Parker Dam    .052   .120           .8   78    1938
Flaming Gorge .039   .153  120     4.7  170    1964
Morrow Point  .033   .173  126      .1    3    1968
Blue Mesa     .023   .086  101     1.2   37    1966
Horse Mesa    .015   .129           .3   11    1927
Navajo Dam    .015   .032  116     2.1   63    1962

Ave:     Average power generation in GWatts
Max:     Max power capacity in GWatts
Height:  Height of waterfall for power generation
Vol:     Volume of reservoir
Area:    Area of reservoir
```
California is the most water-stressed state in terms of tons of rain per person.
```          People    Land   People    Rain  Tons of
(10^6)   (10^6    /Ha      (m)    rain
km^2)                  /person

World     7254    148.9     .49      .990   20.2
USA        321.4    9.53    .33      .715   21.7
Mexico     121.7    1.96    .61      .758   12.2
Montana      1.03  .381     .27      .390  144
Wyoming       .59  .253     .23      .328  141
Nebraska     1.90  .200     .95      .599   63.1
New Mexico   2.09  .315     .66      .371   56.0
Idaho        1.65  .216     .76      .481   54.7
Kansas       2.91  .213    1.37      .733   53.5
Oregon       4.03  .255    1.58      .695   44.0
Oklahoma     3.91  .181    2.16      .927   43.9
Iowa         3.12  .146    2.14      .864   40.4
Missouri     6.08  .181    3.36     1.071   31.9
Washington   7.17  .185    3.88      .976   25.2
Wisconsin    5.77  .170    3.39      .829   24.5
Nevada       2.89  .286    1.01      .241   23.9
Utah         3.00  .220    1.36      .310   22.8
Colorado     5.46  .270    2.02      .405   20.0
Texas       27.47  .696    3.95      .734   18.6
Arizona      6.83  .295    2.32      .345   14.9
California  39.14  .424    9.23      .563    6.1
```

California

```California population    = 39.1  million people
California area          =424    thousand km2
California rainfall      =   .56 meters                 Averaged over state
Sacramento River         = 25.1  km3/year
Klamath River            = 15.3  km3/year
Eel River                =  9.5  km3/year
San Joaquin River        =  4.6  km3/year
Smith River              =  3.34 km3/year
Russian River            =  2.02 km3/year
Navarro River            =   .44 km3/year
Santa Ana River          =   .41 km3/year
Salinas River            =   .38 km3/year
California river total   = 87    km3/year
California rainfall      =237    km3/year
Water from Colorado Riv. =   .51 km3/year    Water from outside the state
Groundwater overdraft    = 15    km3/year    Groundwater not replaced
Water total use          =108    km3/year    Households and agricultural
Water for agricultural   = 41.9  km3/year
Water for households     = 10.9  km3/year
Water flowing thru delta = 20.3  km3/year    Water flowing into SF Bay
Water exported from delta= 13.3  km3/year    San Francisco Bay Delta
Aqueduct: Central Valley =  8.9  km3/year    Central Valley Project
Aqueduct: State Water    =  3.5  km3/year    State Water Project
Aqueduct: Los Angeles    =   .49 km3/year
Aqueduct: Mokelumne      =   .45 km3/year
Aqueduct: Hetch Hetchy   =   .33 km3/year
Aqueduct: North Bay      =   .05 km3/year
Household total water use=504    m3/house/year
Household indoor use     =237    m3/house/year
Household landscaping use=267    m3/house/year
```
San Francisco Bay
San Francisco River Delta

Shasta Dam
Oroville Dam

```              Ave   Max   Height  Vol   Area   Year
(GW)  (GW)   (m)   (km^3) (km^2) completed

Shasta Dam    .206  .676   100     5.6   120   1945
Oroville Dam  .170  .819   187     4.4    64   1968
New Bullards  .150  .340   398     1.2    20   1969
Folsom Dam    .079  .199    91     1.4    48   1956
New Don Pedro .071  .203   170     2.5    52   1971
Parker Dam    .052  .120            .8    78   1938
Pine Flat Dam .048  .165   129     1.2    24   1954
Trinity Dam   .041  .140   130     3.0    72   1962
New Melones   .037  .300   150     3.0    51   1979
New Exchequer .036  .094   133     1.3    29   1967
Canyon Dam    .018  .041   109     1.6   114   1927
Monticello    .007  .012           2.0    84   1957
San Luis Dam        .424           2.5    51   1967
```
```Oroville dam height         =  235 meters             Tallest dam in the USA
Lake Oroville lake volume   = 4.36 km3
Lake Oroville lake area     =   63 km2
Lake Oroville catchment area=10200 km2     Area of land that drains into Lake Oroville
```

Water footprint

Numbers from Wikipedia for personal water use:

```              Minimum  Luxurious
(l/day)   (l/day)
Drinking water   5        5
Sanitation      20       75
Bathing         15       70
Cooking         10       50
Total           50      200
```

Desalination
```                                        MJ / ton of water

Freshwater from a nearby source             .72   Mostly cost of transportation
Typical land pipe, 100 km long             1.2
Cold ocean water, Makai station             .29   Reference
Desalination by distillation, typical     11      Assumes warm ocean water
Desalination by distillation, lower limit  3.6    Theoretical lower limit
Desalination by reverse osmosis            7.2
Water melting energy                     334      Cost of obtaining water by condensation
Energy to pipe deep cold ocean water       1.1
Energy from bamboo                       100
Energy from oil palm biofuel              10
```
1 ton of water yields 6.2 kg of bamboo and burning 1 kg of bamboo yields 16 MJ.

Let "X" be the distance for which the energy cost of piping water is equivalent to the energy cost of desalination. From the above data, X = 900 km.

Typical cost of desalinated water = .5 \$/ton

Piping water
```                                MJ per ton
of H2O
Typical land pipe, 100 km long     1.2
Cold ocean water, Makai station     .29      Reference
```
For cold ocean water, the source is typically 10 km offshore and 600 meters deep.
Sea level

Ocean temperature

Lowering the sea level by building islands

The sea level can be lowered by dredging material from the ocean floor and piling it onto an island, and rivers and lakes can be dredged to create freshwater reservoirs.

```Earth surface area                                  =  5.10e14 m2
Earth land area                                     =  1.49e14 m2
Earth water area                                    =  3.61e14 m2
Volume of water in 1mm of the ocean =  Vol          =      361 km3
Density of rock                     =  D            =     2000 kg/m3
Height that the rock is raised      =  Z
Gravity constant                    =  g            =       10 m/s2
Mass of rock dredged                =  M  =  D Vol
Energy to raise rock by height "H"  =  E  =  M g Z  =   7.2e17 Joules
World energy production                             =     6e20 Joules/year
Change in sea level per energy used                 =      1.4 mm/EJoule
Amount of new land created is       =  A  =  Vol/Z  =     3610 km^2  =  (60 km)2
```
Civilization produces more than enough energy per year to lower the sea level, and the effort would create new land (or reinforce fragile islands).

A dam can create a lake that has a volume much larger than the dam, magnifying the potential for combating sea level rise.

If you pile boulders in front of an arctic ice flow then you can do even better than a dam. A glacier dam doesn't have to be waterproof and it desn't need to be nearly as strong as a hydro dam.

Properties of water and ice

```Interior temperature of iceberg             =     -20  Celsius
Melting energy of water at 0 Celsius        =     334  kJ/kg
Vaporization energy of water at 100 Celsius =    2257  kJ/kg
Energy to raise ice from -20 to 0 Celsius   =      41  kJ/kg
Energy to raise water from 0 to 30 Celsius  =     126  kJ/kg
Energy to raise water from 0 to 100 Celsius =     420  kJ/kg
Energy to raise water from -20 to 30 Celsius=     501  kJ/kg
Effective degrees                           =     120  Kelvin
Thermal expansion coefficient at 30 Celsius = .000303  Kelvin-1
Thermal expansion to raise water from 0-30 C=  .00435
Thermal contraction of water at 30 Celsius  =  .0364
Density of ice                              =    .917  g/cm3
Density of seawater (ocean average)         =   1.025  g/cm3
Ocean heat gain                             =  7.5e21  Joules/year
Ocean heat capacity                         =    4200  Joules/kg/K
Ocean mass                                  = 1.37e21  kg
Ocean temperature gain                      =   .0013  Kelvin/year
Ocean rise from thermal expansion           =      .8  mm/year
Ocean fractional expansion                  =  2.2e-7  years-1
Ocean effective thermal expansion coef.     = .000166  Kelvin-1
Ocean effective expansion temperature       =      16  Kelvin
Ocean area                                  =   3.6e8  km2
Volume of water in top 1 mm of ocean        =     360  km3
Mean ocean depth                            =    3688  meters
Mean ocean surface temperature              =      17  Celsius
Temperature for which water has max density =       4  Celsius
Atmospheric pressure                        =  101330  Pascals
1 Bar                                       =  100000  Pascals

Temperature    Density   Heat cap.  Vapor     Thermal
(g/cm^3)  (J/kg/K)  pressure  expansion
(Bar)      (1/K)
0 (ice)     .9168      2050     0
0 (liquid)  .99984     4218     .0006   -.00007
4          1.00000     4205     .0009    0
5           .99999     4202     .0009    .000016
10           .99970     4192     .0012    .000088
15           .99910     4186     .0017    .000151
20           .99820     4182     .0023    .000207
25           .99705     4180     .0032    .000257
30           .99565     4178     .0043    .000303
35           .9941      4178     .056     .000345
40           .9922      4179     .077     .000385
50           .988       4182     .125     .000457
60           .983       4185     .200     .000523
70           .978       4191     .313     .000585
80           .971       4198     .475     .000643
90           .965       4208     .700     .000665
100 (liquid)  .958       4219    1.0133    .000752
100 (gas)                2080
```

Water from icebergs

Iceberg B15
Path of iceberg B15 over 4 years

```Energy required to tow an iceberg  =  Constant  *  Distance towed  *  Velocity2
```
The iceberg should move as slow as possible but it should move fast enough to reach its destination before melting. We assume a travel time of 1 year, and this determines the velocity. Presumably, measures can be taken to slow melting such as covering the iceberg with a white tarp. Example values:
```Length of iceberg        =  X               =    20 km
Width of iceberg         =  Y               =    10 km
Aspect ratio             =  X/Y             =     2
Height of iceberg        =  Z               =    .5 km
Volume of iceberg        =  Ω  = X Y Z      =   100 km3
Mass of iceberg          =  M  =  Dice Ω    =  1014 kg
Distance iceberg travels =  L               =  1000 km     (Assume ocean currents help)
Time the iceberg travels =  T               =     1 year
Velocity of the iceberg  =  V  =  L/T       =   .03 m/s
Density of ice           =  Dice            =   917 kg/m3
Density of water         =  Dwater          =  1000 kg/m3
Drag force               =  F = ½ Y Z DwaterV2=   2.2e6 Newtons
Drag energy              =  E  =  F L       =  2250 GJoules
Drag power                                  =    71 kWatts
Energy cost                                 =    36 MJoules/\$
Dollar cost                                 = 62000 \$
Personal water use                          =  1000 ton/person/year
People supported                            =   100 million people for 1 year
```
The iceberg should be long and thin to minimize drag but it should be thick enough to not break.

The cost of towing the iceberg is less than the cost of irrigation using the water.

Cooling the ocean

If you melt 1 meter3 of an iceberg in warm ocean water then the ocean volume change is .0271 meter3.

The top 100 meters of the ocean is in equilibrium with the atmosphere and the layers below are colder.

Suppose that an iceberg with a temperature of -20 Celsius is melted in an ocean with a temperature of 25 Celsius. Assume that the volume of water warmed is vastly larger than the volume of the iceberg. Hence, the change in the temperature of the ocean water is small and we can use the expansion coefficient for water at 25 Celsius.

```Heat capacity of ice                         =          2.05  kJ/kg/Kelvin
Heat capacity of water at  0 Celsius         =          4.22  kJ/kg/Kelvin
Heat capacity of water at 25 Celsius         =  Cheat =  4.18  kJ/kg/Kelvin
Melting energy of water at 0 Celsius         =           334  kJ/kg
Energy to raise ice from -20 to 0 Celsius    =            41  kJ/kg
Energy to raise water from 0 to 25 Celsius   =           105  kJ/kg
Energy to raise ice from -20 to 25 Celsius   =  Cice   =  480  kJ/kg
Expansion coefficient of water at 25 Celsius =  Cexpand= .000257  Kelvin-1
Mass of iceberg                              =  Mice
Mass of water warmed                         =  Mwater
Temperature change of the warmed ocean water =  T     (Kelvin)
Energy change of the iceberg                 =  Eice   =  Cice  Mice
Energy change of ocean water                 =  Ewater =  Cheat Mwater T  =  Eice
Density of water                             =  Dice  =   917 kg/meter3
Density of water                             =  Dwater=  1000 kg/meter3

Volume of ocean water warmed                 =  Ωwater =  Mwater / D
Volume change of ocean water                 =  ΩΔ    =  Cexpand Ωwater T  =  Ωice Cice Cexpand Dice/ (Cheat Dwater)
=  .0271 Ωice
Ocean area                                   = 3.6⋅108 km2
Volume of ocean in top 1 mm                  =     360 km3
Iceberg volume to change sea level by 1 mm   =   13300 km3
```
Such an iceberg might have dimensions 260x100x.5 km3. Larger icebergs exist.
Halting Antarctic ice shelves

In the summer, sunlight warms the ocean water and erodes the ice shelf. A layer of ice can be placed off the coast to keep the water cool and reflect sunlight. The ice layer can be produced by blasting icebergs. Strengthening the ice shelf slows down the flow of ice from the Antarctic mainland.

If the Antarctic ice were to stop melting then the sea level would decrease by 8 mm/year. Even a small change in the melting rate has a large impact on the sea level.

```Sea level rise since 1870          =  225 mm
Sea level rise if Greenland melts  = 7200 mm
Sea level rise if Antarctica melts =61100 mm
Total rate of sea level rise       =  2.8 mm/year
Greenland melting rate             =   .6 mm/year
Antarctica melting rate            =   .2 mm/year
Glacier melting rate               =   .3 mm/year
Ocean thermal expansion rate       =   .8 mm/year

Latitude of the edge of Antarctic ice          =         65 Degrees
Ocean absorption fraction of sunlight          =        .94
Ice absorption fraction of sunlight            =  f  =  .4
Energy to melt ice starting from -20 Celsius   =  e  =  375 kJ/kg
Average solar intensity in the Antarctic summer=  S  =  150 Watts/meter2
Ice density                                    =  D  =  917 kg/meter3
Melt time                                      =  T  =  107 seconds     (Summer)Ice thickness                                 =  H  =  S T e-1 D-1 f-1  =  1.7 meters
Radius of Antarctica ice shelf                 =  R  =  2000    km
Typical ice shelf thickness                    =  Z  =      .5  km
Antarctic ice shelf volume melted per year     =  Ω  =  2880    km3  =  =  &pi Z R V
Average ice shelf advance velocity             =  V  =      .92 km/year  =  Ω / (π R Z)

Antarctic coast fraction of floating ice shelf =  .44
Antarctic coast fraction of grounded ice shelf =  .38    (Resting on ocena floor)
Antarctic coast fraction of glacier outlet     =  .13
Antarctic coast fraction of exposed shoreline  =  .05
Fraction of the world's ice in Antarctica      =  .90
Antarctic ice average thickness                = 1.6  km
Volume of ocean ice formed in the winter       =18000 km3
Extent of ocean ice formed in the winter       = 1000 km    (Distance from ice shelf)
Average thickness of winter ocean ice          =.0011 km

Iceberg volume required for summer ice         = 1000 km3
Iceberg characteristic thickness               =   .5 km
Iceberg area required for the summer ice       = 2000 km2 = (45 km)2
Antarctic emperor penguin population           = 600000
```
The sun melts 1.7 meters of ice during the summer. The layer of blasted ice has to be at least this thick.

During the Antarctic winter, newly-formed ice over the open ocean reaches a thickness in the range from .3 to 2 meters.

The ice shelf should be extended in the locations where the ocean is most shallow, so that the shelf can rest upon the ocean floor.

Icebergs can be turned into smashed ice by blasting them with ship-mounted artillery.

Emperor penguin colonies occupy only half the Antarctic coast, and so there are plenty of places where the ice shelf can be strengthened.

If you're worried about the effect on the penguin food chain then all you have to do is send some of the fine produce from American farmers.

Green: penguin colonies        Red: feeding grounds

Seawater greenhouse

Seawater greenhouse at the time of construction
Seawater greenhouse after 2 years of operation

A seawater greenhouse evaporates seawater, creating cool air which is useful for plant growth. The evaporated water is recondensed with cold seawater to produce freshwater.

The air expelled by a seawater greenhouse is humid and can be used to grow crops near the greenhouse.

Ocean thermal power

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) pumps cold water from the deep ocean to the surface and mixes it with warm surface water to produce power.

Side benefits include:
The cold water is nutrient rich and can be used for fisheries.
The cold water can be used for air conditioning.
The process converts salt water to fresh water, which can be used for agriculture. Since the water is cold it can also be used for The cold water can be used for cold-soil agriculture, enabling the growth of temperate plants in tropical climates.
The cold water is nutrient-rich and can be used for fisheries.
The warm surface water decreases in temperature and density, lowering the sea level.
Minerals can be extracted from the cold water, principally magnesium, calcium, and potassium. Potassium is one of the principal components of fertilizer.

Close-cycle generator
Open-cycle generator

A closed-cycle generator is more efficient but an open-cycle generator has all of the bonuses discussed above.

The larger the temperature differential the more efficient the generator. Cold water at a temperature of 6 Kelvin is typically optained from a depth of 1 km and mixed with warm surface water at a temperature of ~ 25 Celsius.

Ocean temperature profile
Seasonal ocean temperature
Surface temperature

Sea surface temperature
Sea surface temperature

Sea surface temperature
Sea surface temperature
Temperature gradient between surface and deep water

Stopping Antarctic ice

If the ice in Antarctica were to stop flowing into the ocean then the sea level would drop by 8 mm/year.

Satellite image
Land altitude map
Ice altitude map

Glacier flow
Lambert glacier and Amery ice shelf

```Ocean surface area                                        3.6e14 meters^2
Ocean volume                                              1.35e9 km3
Ocean mass                                                1.35e21 kg
Ocean average depth                                    3700      meters
Mass of water required to raise ocean by 1 mm             3.6e14 kg
Antarctic snowfall, expressed as sea level change         8      mm/year
Fraction of Antarctic ice flowing in the Amery glacier     .08
Sea level total rise since 1993                           2.8    mm/year
Total sea level change since 1870                       225      mm
Sea level change from Greenland melting                    .6    mm/year
Sea level change from Antarctica melting                   .2    mm/year
Sea level change from glacier melting                      .3    mm/year
Sea level change if the Amery glacier is halted            .64   mm/year
Sea level change from thermal expansion since 1980         .8    mm/year
Change in sea level if all of Greenland melts          7200      mm
Change in sea level if all of Antarctica melts        61100      mm
Time required for Antartica to cycle all its ice       7600      years
World's fresh water fraction in Antarctica                 .70
Antarctic costline                                    17968      km
Ocean rate of heat gain averaged since 1990               7.5e21 Joules/year
Heat capacity of water                                 4186      Joules/kg/Kelvin
Ocean temperature change                                   .0013 Kelvin/year
Fraction of Earth's surface covered by ocean               .71
Water fraction contained by Earth's oceans                 .97

Water thermal expansion coefficient at  0 Celsius         -.00007   Kelvin^-1
5 Celsius          .000016  Kelvin^-1
10 Celsius          .000088  Kelvin^-1
15 Celsius          .000151  Kelvin^-1
20 Celsius          .000207  Kelvin^-1
25 Celsius          .000257  Kelvin^-1
30 Celsius          .000303  Kelvin^-1
35 Celsius          .000345  Kelvin^-1
Power used by civilizationin 1 year                        .6e21    Joules
Efficiency of ocean thermal power                          .02
Energy extracted from ocean to generate 1e21 Joules       5e22      Joules
```

Antarctic coastline fraction:
```Floating ice wall         .44
Ice wall resting on rock  .38
Flowing glacier           .13
Rock                      .05
```
The Antarctic glaciers are hard to stop because the ocean depth drops rapidly off most of the coast of Antarctica. The only place where the ice could conceivably be stopped is the Amery glacier, where a mountain pass creates a bottleneck and makes the glacier the fastest-moving ice in Antarctica.

If all of the Antarctic ice were to be stopped then the oceans would drop by 8 mm/year. The Amery glacier is responsible for 8 percent of the Antarctic ice and so damming the glacier causes the sea level to drop by .64 mm/year. Currently, the sea level is rising by 2.8 mm/year.

The Amery mountain pass is 50 km wide and 1 km deep. Suppose we dam the pass with a barrier of rock that is 50 km long, 1 km high, and 10 km wide. The rock would come from the ocean floor and each rock would have to be elevated by ~ 1 km. The energy required to build this dam is

```Energy  =  Density of rock  *  Volume of rock  *  Height  *  GravityConstant
=  2000 kg/m3  *  5e11 m3  *  1000 meters * 9.8 m/s^2
=  1e19 Joules

World energy consumption  =  6e20 Joules/year
```
A typical wind farm produces 10 MWatts/km^2. The fastest winds in the world are at the coast of Antarctica, and so an Antarctic wind farm can potentially do better than this. Also, the wind always blows in the same direction, simplifying construction. If we assume 40 MWatts/km^2, the amount of land required to produce 1e19 Joules in 10 years is
```Power  =  1e19 Joules / 10 years
=  1e19 Joules / 3.2e8 seconds
=  31 GWatts
Land   =  775 km^2
=  (28 km)^2
```
Building the Amery dam is within the capability of civilization.

If the Amery glacier is dammed then ice will build up behind the dam until it overflows the dam, at which point ice flow resumes at its original rate. The volume of new ice created is of order:

```Volume of new ice behind the Amery dam  ~  Length * Width * Height
~  50 km * 50 km * 1 km
~  2500 km^2
```
This corresponds to lowering the sea level by 6.9 mm.

Shackleton expedition
Research bases
Mars rock found in antarctica

The antarctic plateau is an ideal place to look for meteorites because there are few indigenous rocks there.

Cooling the Antarctic ocean

The ocean off the coast of Antarctica can be cooled by inundating it with ice, which reflects sunlight and cools the water as it melts. The ice can be obtained by shattering icebergs, turning them into a layer of ice chucks. A layer 2 meters thick can survive the summer.

Ocean currents

Thermohaline circulation

Electric cars

Range

Tesla Model S

Electric cars outperform gasoline cars in all regards except range. They're simpler, more powerful, quieter, and more flexible than gasoline cars.

The range of an electric car depends on the battery price and is typically .032 kilometers per battery dollar. The value for battery energy/\$ increases with time and in the future range won't be a problem. The battery tends to be around 1/3 the cost of the car. For a typical car,

```Battery energy/mass =  em           =  .60 MJoules/kg
Battery energy/\$    =  e\$           =.0070 MJoules/\$
Battery mass        =  Mb           =  100 kg
Battery energy      =  E  =  Mb em  =   60 MJoules
Battery cost        =  P  =  E /e\$  = 8570 \$
Range               =  X            =  273 km            At a city speed of 17 m/s
Range/\$             =  X\$ =  X/P    = .032 km/\$
```

The range is limited by air drag and rolling drag. Rolling drag dominates at low speed and air drag dominates at high speed, and at the critical "drag speed" Vd they are equal, typically around 17 m/s.

Energy cost

The energy expended by an electric vehicle is determined by the drag force.

```Drag force              =  F
Distance traveled       =  X
Energy expended         =  E  =  F X
```
Number of people = N Energy/distance/person = Z = E/X/N = F/N Drag speed = Vd (Speed for which rolling drag = air drag) For typical vehicles,
```              Force/prsn  Force/prsn  Mass  Cr  Area  Cd  Drag speed   People
at 15 m/s   at 30 m/s
m/s          m/s      kg            m2           m/s

Electric bike      99       387         20  .004      .7   1.0     2.6      1
Electric car      105       269        600  .0075    2.0    .3    14.3      1
Bus                23.1      56      10000  .005     8.0    .6    15.7     60
Subway car          9.7      34      34000  .00035  10.0    .6     6.3    100
18-wheel truck   2422      4400      36000  .005     8.0    .6    24.6      1
```
The force/person for the 747 aircraft is for a cruising speed of Mach .9 and an altitude of 12 km.

We assume that each person adds 80 kg to the mass of the vehicle.

Buses use 5 times less energy as cars but only if they are full

Within cities, cars have faster travel times than buses, especially if parking is abundant or the cars are self-driving. Buses are more suited to inter-city transport.

Trains use 2 times less energy than buses but they are highly inflexible.

Energy source

The performance of a car depends on its power source. Lithium batteries have a substantially lower value for energy/mass than gasoline.

```                         Energy/Mass   Power/mass  Energy/\$   Recharge    Max
MJoule/kg     kWatt/kg   MJoule/\$   time       charges

Diesel fuel                   48          -        41          -
Lithium battery                 .60        .75       .007     hour       104
Supercapacitor                  .016      8          .00005   seconds    106
Aluminum electrolyte capacitor  .010     10          .0001    seconds     ∞
```
Electric motors can reach a power/mass of 10 kWatts/kg.
Supercapacitors are a rapidly-improving technology and lithium batteries are a mature technology.
Motors

Electric motors and gasoline motors have a similar power/mass.

```                        MJ/kg  kWatt/kg  kWatts  kg

Supercapacitor, Li-ion    .054  15
Electric motor, maximum   -     10       200     19.9    EMRAX268 Brushless AC
Turbofan jet engine       -     10.0      83.2    8.32   GE90-115B Brayton
Electric motor, DC        -      7.8       1.04    .133  ElectriFly GPMG5220 brushless DC
Gasoline engine (BMW)            7.5     690             BMV V10 3L P84/5 2005
Model aircraft engine     -      2.8
Battery, lithium-ion      .75    1.5
Fuel cell, Honda          -      1.0
Typical diesel V8 turbo   -       .65
Solar cell, space station -       .077
```

Electric car vs. electric aircraft

An electric aircraft uses 7 times more energy than an electric car in terms of energy/distance/mass. Electric aircraft have a cruising speed of 50 m/s and electric cars in cities move at around 15 m/s.

Typical values for electric aircraft and cars are:

```Electric aircraft speed                     =  50 m/s
Electric aircraft power/mass                =  50 Watts/kg
Electric aircraft energy/distance/mass=  eair= 1.0 Joules/m/kg
Electric aircraft flying time         =  T  =3600 seconds
Electric aircraft range               =  X  = 180 km
Gravity constant                      =  g  = 9.8 m/s2
Electric car mass                     =  M
Electric car rolling drag coefficient =  Cr = .0075
Electric car rolling drag             =  Fr =  Cr M g
Electric car total drag               =  F  =  2 Fr        (Assume rolling drag = air drag)
Electric car energy/distance/mass     =  ecar=  2 Cr g  =  .147 Joules/m/kg
Aircraft energy / Car energy          =  eair / ecar  =  6.8
```

Drag speed

For a typical car,

```Car mass                   =  M           = 1200 kg
Gravity constant           =  g           =  9.8 m/s2
Tire rolling drag coeff    =  Cr          =.0075
Rolling drag force         =  Fr = Cr M g =   88 Newtons

Air drag coefficient       =  Ca          =  .25
Air density                =  D           = 1.22 kg/meter3
Air drag cross-section     =  A           =  2.0 m2
Car velocity               =  V           =   17 m/s      (City speed. 38 mph)
Air drag force             =  Fa = ½CaADV2 =  88 Newtons

Total drag force           =  F  = Fr + Fa = 176 Newtons
Drag speed                 =  Vd           =  17 m/s     Speed for which air drag equals rolling drag
Car electrical efficiency  =  Q            = .80
Battery energy             =  E            =  60 MJoules
Work done from drag        =  EQ = F X     =  Cr M g [1 + (V/Vd)2] X
Range                      =  X  = EQ/(CrMg)/[1+(V/Vd)2] =  272 km
```
The range is determined by equating the work from drag with the energy delivered by the battery.   E Q = F X.

The drag speed Vd is determined by setting Fr = Fa.

```Drag speed  =  Vd  =  [Cr M g / (½ Ca D A)]½  =  4.01 [Cr M /(Ca A)]½  =  17.0 meters/second
```

Acceleration

Acceleration depends on the size of the battery, and supercapacitors can add an extra boost. For a typical car that accelerates from 0 to 100 km/h (37.8 m/s) in 8 seconds, the size of the battery required is:

```Car mass          =  M             =  1200 kg
Target speed      =  V             =  27.8 m/s           (100 km/h. Speed at end of acceleration)
Kinetic energy    =  E  =  ½ M V2  =  464000 Joules
Time              =  T             =     8 seconds   (Time to accelerate from rest to speed V)
Engine efficiency =  Q             =    .8
Power             =  P  =  E/T     = 58000 Watts
Battey power/mass =  p             =   750 Watts/kg
Battery mass      =  MB =  P / (Q p)   =   112 kg
Battery cost/mass =  c             =    86 \$/kg
Battery cost      =  C             =  9600 \$
```

Recovering breaking energy

Supercapacitors are ideal for recovering breaking energy because they can be charged/discharged more times than batteries. To capture the energy from breaking from freeway speed, on order of 27 kg of supercapacotors are required.

```Car mass                   =  M   =  1200 kg
Car velocity               =  V   =  27.8 m/s
Car kinetic energy         =  E   =464000 Joules
Supercapacitor energy/mass =  e   = 16000 Joules/kg
Supercapacitor mass        =  E/e =    29 kg
```

Flying cars

Fantrainer
Fantrainer
Terra Fugia

Optica
Ducted fan

The principal challenge for flying cars is noise. There is no such thing as a quiet flying car.

Fixed wing flight is at least 6 times more efficient than helicopter flight.

The larger the propeller the less noise. The sound power of a propeller scales as the 5th power of tip speed. A flying car should have a propeller as large as possible. A single large propeller is better than multiple small propellers.

A ducted (shielded) propeller is substantially quieter than an unshielded propeller, and is more efficient in producing thrust.

Electric aircraft are substantially simpler and safer than gasoline aircraft.

Nominal configuration for a quiet flying car:

A single large ducted fan mounted on the rear
50 kWatt engine
Gyrofans and gyroscopes for stability
Wings that fold for driving
Telescoping wing section within the main wing (wings should be as long as possible)
A cockpit with a low cross-section, like a velobike. The passengers sit behind the pilot
Thin tires for a low cross section
A 10 kg vehicle parachute for emergency landing
2 kg parachutes for passengers
A total mass in the range of 500 kg

Travel time

The quality of a city depends on things such as
*) The average travel time
*) The amount of residential and yard space per person
*) The amount of public park space

Most cities are poorly designed in this regard and hence new cities may emerge that are built from scratch. These cities will take advantage of possibilities offered by electric driverless cars prefabricated housing, and factories where you can manufacture things for yourself.

```          Population  Population  Area  Travel  Travel
density    (millions)  (km2)  time   means
(people/ha)                   (mins)

Manila         430     1.65      38.6     30    Taxi
Delhi          255    11.0      431       30    Bus
Paris          215     2.27     105       30    Subway
Seoul          130    10.4      605       30    Subway
New York City  104     8.18     784       30    Subway
San Francisco   67      .81     121       30    Subway
Boston          51      .65     125       30    Subway
Isla Vista      48      .023      4.8      5    Walk, bike
Pasadena        24      .140     59.5     10    Car
Beverly Hills   23      .347     14.8     10    Car
Iowa City       10      .068     64.8     10    Walk, bike
```
Electic cars outperform public transportation for travel time and energy use. New York City is a catastrophic case that illustrates the weaknesses of public transportation. To get anywhere you have to:
*) Take the elevator from whatevery floor you're on to the ground floor.
*) Walk to the subway
*) Wait for the subway
*) Ride the subway
*) Transfer subways
*) Wait for the subway
*) Ride the subway
*) Walk from the subway station to the destination skyscraper
*) Take the elevator from the ground floor to the destination floor

This often takes more than 30 minutes, plus the subway routes are awkwardly designed.

Consider two constrating city designes
Design 1) Everyone has a yard adjacent to a park and no upstairs neighbors. The house has a garage with an electric car.
Design 2) Everyone lives in skycrapers

Being able to drive an electric car right up to your residence dramatically reduces travel time.

Lawns and parks are good for social interaction, especially for families with children. Skyscrapers are poor in this regard.

A high population density can be achieved even if everyone has a yard. For example, suppose a citizen has on average:
*) A residence of 30 square meters.
*) A yard of 20 square meters.
*) The residence is adjacent to a park with 30 square meters per person.
*) Road space of 20 square meters per person.

These residences are larger than typical New York City apartments and they achieve a respectable population density of 10000 people/km2.

Travel time

A city with sensible traffic flow can achieve a large population and a small travel time. For example,

```City radius             =  R       =     3 km
Average travel speed    =  V       =    15 meters/second
Average travel time     =  T = R/V =   3.3 minutes
City population density =  D       = 10000 people/km2  =  1 person every 10 meters2
City population         =  P = πDR2=280000 people
```
It helps to centralize. 4 points of focus of a city are the college, the pub district, the shopping district, and the K-12 school. These can be placed in the city center and the residences and businesses radiate out from the center.
Prefabricated homes

Prefabricated homes cost in the range from 20 to 100 \$/foot2. A 400 foot2 minimalistic home costs on order 8000 \$.

Shipping containers

Prefabricated homes can be made from shipping containers, which are abundant, cheap, and easily delivered.

```
\$   Length  Width  Height  Mass
ft     ft      ft     kg

10-foot shipping container   1000    10      8     8.5    1300
20-foot shipping container   1200    20      8     8.5    2200
40-foot shipping container   1500    40      8     8.5    3800
Typical mobile home                  90     18
```

Prefabricated bamboo house

For a 1-level prefabricated square bamboo house,

```Side length       =    8 meters
Wall height       =    3 meters
Floor area        =   64 meters2
Wall area         =   24 meters2
Interior walls    =   24 meters2
Total wall area   =  248 meters2       Floor, ceiling, 4 walls, and interior walls
Wall thickness    =  .05 meters
Wall volume       = 12.4 meters3
Bamboo density    =  350 kg/meter2
Bamboo mass       =  4.3 tons
Carbon mass       =  2.2 tons
Bamboo carbon frac=   .5
House mass        =  7.0 tons
```
A helicopter can carry 12 tons. A prefabricated house can be placed anywhere in the wilderness and multiple modules can be assembled on site.
Wilderness

Prefabricated houses can be helicoptered to wilderness locations and flying cars can be used to reach them.

Flying electric cars

Design

We give a sample design for a flying electric car based on current technoly. We assume a 1 person model with 4 rotors.

```Battery energy/mass =  e        =    .8  MJoules/kg
Battery power/mass  =  p        =  2000  Watts/kg
Rotor quality       =  q        =  1.25
Vehicle mass        =  M        =   400  kg
Gravity constant    =  g        =   9.8  meters/second2
Number of rotors    =  N        =     4
Rotor force         =  F  = Mg/N=   980  Newtons
Rotor power         =  P
Rotor radius        =  R        =   1.5  meters
Hover force/power   =  Z  = F/P
= qRF-½=  .0599
Hover power         =  Phov     = 65400  Watts
Hover power/mass    =  p  = P/M =   164  Watts/kg
Max power           =  Pmax     =120000  Watts
Battery minimum mass=  Mb =Pmax/p=   60  kg
Battery energy      =  E  =e Mbat=   48  MJoules
Hover time          =  T  = E/P  = 73.4  minutes
Forward rotor power =  Pf       = 64000  Watts
Rear rotor power    =  Pr       = 32000  Watts
Rear rotor power    =  Pl       = 32000  Watts
Rear rotor power    =  Pr       = 32000  Watts
Forward axis power  =  P1       = 10000  Watts
Rear axis power     =  P2       = 10000  Watts
Motor capacity      =  Pmot     =180000  Watts
Motor power/mass    =  pmot     =  8000  Watts/kg
Motor mass          =  Mmot     =  22.5  kg
Rotor mass          =  Mrot     =    40  kg              4 rotors at 10 kg each
Wing mass           =
Freeway speed       =  V        =     30 meters/second
Drag coefficient    =  C        =     .5
Drag cross section  =  A        =      2 meters2
Air density         =  D        =   1.22 kg/meter3
Air drag power      =  Fdrag=  ½ C D A V3  =  16500 Watts
```
```Cabin           50
Battery         60
Motors          22
Rotors          40
Rotor fuselage  50
Cabin fuselage  75
Wing            50
Car axles       20
Wheels          20

Rotors         =    4
Payload        =  100 kg             One person plus luggage
Fuselage mass  =  125 kg
Battery mass   =   75 kg
Total mass     =  300 kg
Hover          =  100 Watts/kg
Hover power    =30000 Watts
Total power    =60000 Watts
Battery        =  800 Watts/kg
Battery mass   =   75 kg
```
We choose a design with 4 rotors mounted on a cross above the car, with a forward, aft, left, and right rotor. The left-right cross piece is a wing, and it has an interior telescoping sections that extend the length of the wing when flying. The elements of a 1-person flying car are:
Beam strength

The maximum force on a beam is:

```Beam length     =  L
Beam height     =  H
Beam width      =  W
Shear strength  =  S
Density         =  D
Mass            =  M
Breaking force  =  F  =  (2/3) W H2 S / X
```

Flying cars

Fantrainer
Fantrainer
Terra Fugia

Optica
Ducted fan

The principal challenge for flying cars is noise. There is no such thing as a quiet flying car.

Fixed wing flight is at least 6 times more efficient than helicopter flight.

The larger the propeller the less noise. The sound power of a propeller scales as the 5th power of tip speed. A flying car should have a propeller as large as possible. A single large propeller is better than multiple small propellers.

A ducted (shielded) propeller is substantially quieter than an unshielded propeller, and is more efficient in producing thrust.

Electric aircraft are substantially simpler and safer than gasoline aircraft.

Nominal configuration for a quiet flying car:

A single large ducted fan mounted on the rear
50 kWatt engine
Gyrofans and gyroscopes for stability
Wings that fold for driving
Telescoping wing section within the main wing (wings should be as long as possible)
A cockpit with a low cross-section, like a velobike. The passengers sit behind the pilot
Thin tires for a low cross section
A 10 kg vehicle parachute for emergency landing
2 kg parachutes for passengers
A total mass in the range of 500 kg

Agriculture

Population density

Agricultural efficiency

l

Typical numbers for the U.S. are:

```USA food consumption per year    =  5700 MJoules/year
1 Hectare                        = 10000 meters2
Wheat production per hectare     =  5000 kg/hectare
Wheat energy per mass            =    15 MJoules/kg
Energy in 5000 kg of wheat       = 75000 MJoules
People fed per hectare           =  13.2 people/hectare
Farmers per hectare              =    .1 farmers/hectare
People fed per farmer            =   132 people/farmer
```

Water footprint of food
```       Tons water  kg CO2/  Tons food  Tons biomass
/ kg food   kg food  / hectare  / hectare

Chocolate  17.2
Beef       15.4      27.0
Wallnut     9.1
Sheep      10.4      39.2
Pork        6.0      12.1
Goat        5.5
Chicken     4.3       6.9
Egg         3.3       4.8
Cheese      3.2      13.5
Peanut      2.8
Rice        2.5       2.7
Pasta       1.85
Barley                       5.5        10
Cane sugar  1.78
Pizza       1.68
Wheat       1.61             8          16
Corn        1.22            10          18
Milk        1.02      1.9
Wine         .87
Apple        .82
Banana       .79
Orange       .56
Beer         .30
Potato       .39      4.9
Tomato       .21
Rye                          5.5        13
Oat                          9          15
Oil palm                     2.5       105
Switchgrass                             13
```
The world average is 2500 litres of water per day for food.
Precipitation requirement for crops

Flood irrigation
Underground irrigation

```          Min    Max
m/yr   m/yr

Sugar cane 1.5   2.5
Banana     1.2   2.2
Orange      .9   1.2
Barley      .45   .65
Oats        .45   .65
Wheat       .45   .65
Potato      .5    .7
Tomato      .4    .8
Onion       .35   .55
Pea         .35   .5
```

Hydroponics

Hydroponics is the technique of growing plants in water rather than soil. Typical nutrient concentrations in the water are:

```                   Lower    Upper
limit    limit
ppm      ppm

Calcium     Ca++    200      500
Nitrogen    NO3-    100     1000
Potassium   K+      100      400
Magnesium   Mg++     50      100
Sulfur      SO4--    50     1000
Phosphorus  PO4---   30      100
Iron        Fe+++     2        5
Manganese   Mn++       .5      1
Boron       B(OH)4-    .3     10
Nickel      Ni++       .057    1.5
Zinc        Zn++       .05     1
Copper      Cu++       .01     1
Molybdenum  MoO4-      .001     .05
Silicon     SiO3--    0      140
Aluminum    Al+++     0       10
Titanium    Ti+++     0        5
Cobalt      Co++      0         .1
Sodium      Na+       0      Variable
Chlorine    Cl-       0      Variable
```

World biomass

```           Bkg/year

Sugar cane   1800
Corn         1016
Wood          850
Rice          738
Wheat         713
Milk          615
Potato        368
Vegetables    269
Soybean       262
Cassava       256
Sugar beet    250
Paper         200
Tomato        159

Coal         7900
Iron         1700   #1 metal in terms of Bkg/year
Aluminum       49
Nitrogen      158   Fertilizer
Phosphorus     63   Fertilizer
Potassium      18   Fertilizer

Earth biomass production         =105000   Bkg/year
Earth biomass power              =    24.8 TWatts
Earth solar power                =174000   TWatts
Civilization lumber production   =   850   Bkg/year
Civilization sugarcane production=  1800   Bkg/year
Sugarcane energy/mass            =    15   MJ/kg
Civilization sugarcane power     =   854   GWatts
Civilization power               = 17700   GWatts
U.S. biomass electric power      =    11   GWatts
U.S. biomass electricity fraction=   .014
Biomass electricity efficiency   =   .25
Coal electricity efficiency      =   .35
World ethanol biofuel            =    86   Blitres/year
World biodiesel biofuel          =    19   Blitres/year
Wood low heat value              =    14   MJ/kg
```

World food
```           Beef   Corn    Rice    Wheat  Potato  Beet  Cow   Buffalo  Tomato  Cane  Fish
(Bkg)  (Bkg)   (Bkg)   (Bkg)  (Bkg)         milk  milk

World      59     1016    738     713   368      250                          1877  93.3
USA        11.8    354      9.0    58    19.8     29.8  91.3          11.0      28   4.9
Brazil      9.3     80.5   11.5                         34.3           3.9     739    .75
EU-27       7.9
China       5.55   218    204     122    88.9     12.1  35.3   3.1    33.9     126  17.1
Argentina   2.80    32.1
India       2.76    23.3  152.6    94    45.3           60.6  70.0    13.7     341   3.5
Australia   2.08                   23
Mexico      1.74    22.7                                               2.9      61   1.3
Russia      1.26                   52    30.2     39.2  30.3           1.9           3.2
Pakistan    1.25            9.4    24                         24.4              64
S. Africa           12.4
Germany                            25     9.7     22.8  31.1
France              15.1           39     7.0     33.6  23.7
Indonesia           18.5   69.0                                                 34   4.4
Vietnam                    43.7                                                      1.9
Thailand                   37.8                                                100   2.6
Myanmar                    33.0                                                      1.7
Colombia                                                                        35
Philippines                18.0                                                 32   2.2
Japan                      10.7                                                      4.1
Spain                                                                 10.3
Italy                                                                  3.9
Chile                                                                                4.3
Cambodia                    9.3
South Korea                 6.4                                                      1.6
New Zealand                                             18.9
Netherlands                               6.8
Norway                                                                               2.4
Peru                                                                                 9.4
Malaysia                                                                             1.2
Poland                                    6.3    10.6
Ukraine             30.9           23    22.3    10.8
Turkey                             22            16.5   16.7           6.0
Egypt                                            10.0                  9.2
Taiwan                                                                               1.0
UK                                                8.0   13.9
Iran                                                                   4.8
Iceland                                                                              1.7
```

U.S. Agriculture
```             Bkg     B\$    Million     Millions
km^2       of animals
Corn         354     52.4    .39
Soybeans      89     40.3
Wheat         58     11.9
Alfalfa              10.8
Hay                   8.4
Cotton lint    2.8    5.1
Rice           8.6    3.1
Tobacco               1.8
Sorghum        9.9    1.7
Barley                 .9
Cattle meat   11.7                  89.0
Cow's milk    91
Chicken meat  17.4                1506
Pig meat      10.5                  66.0
Sheep                                5.4
Hen eggs       5.6                 351
Goats                                1.2
Turkey meat    2.6
Bee honey                            2.5    (Number counted as colonies)
Tomatoes      12.6
Potatoes      19.8
Grapes         7.7
Oranges        7.6
Apples         4.1
Lettuce        3.6
Cottonseed     5.6
Sugar beets   29.8
```
Numbers for 2013.

There are 5.6 million horses in the United States.

```2000 population      = 281.4  million
2010 population      = 308.7  million
2013 population      = 316.0  million
2016 population      = 323.3  million
Farmers              =   3.2  million  (2013)
Agricultural workers =    .76 million  (2013)
Average pay          =  19000 \$/year  =  9.12 \$/hour  (2013)
Chickens killed      =   9.1  billion chickens/year
Eggs                 = 100    billion eggs/year
```

U.S. food
```          Hectares   Bkg  Tons/Ha  B\$   MJ/kg  Carb  Fat  Protein  Water

Rice         162.3   738    4.5   187    15.3   800   7      71     120
Milk                 615          184     4.6    48  39      32     878
Beef                  63.0        170
Pork                 109          167
Chicken               90.0        128
Wheat                713    3.3    84.3  13.7   710  15     126
Soybean              262           65.9   6.2   110         130
Tomato               159           58.2   3.2   175   1      20     750
Sugar cane          1800           56.9
Egg                   65.2         54.0
Corn         159    1016    5.0    55.5  15.3   740  47      94     100
Potato               368           49.7   3.21  175   1      20     750
Vegetables           269           45.9
Grape                 69.1         39.5
W. Buffalo milk       95.9         37.7
Cotton lint           26.1         37.4
Apple                 75.5         31.7
Banana               107           29.7
Cassava              256           24.9   6.7   380    3     14
Mango                39.0          23.3
Sheep                  8.2         22.4
Coffee                 8.0         22.0
Palm oil              47.7         20.8
Onion, dry            86.3         18.1
Bean                               17.5
Peanut (in shell      40.0         17.2
Olive                              16.4
Sugar beet           250   58.2     9.8
```
Beef (2010), Corn (2013).
U.S. corn
```Production        = 13.0 billion bushels/year
=  333 Bkg/year
Corn farm area    =  .32 million km2
Density           = 9400 kg/hectare  =  150 bushels/acre
Farms             = 316000
Family-owned farms= 300000
Energy/mass       =  3.6 MJoules/kg
Carbohydrates     =  187 g/kg
Carbs from starch =   57 g/kg
Carbs from sugar  =   63 g/kg
Carbs from fiber  =   20 g/kg
Fat               =   13.5 g/kg
Protein           =   33 g/kg
Water             =  760 g/kg
1 Acre            =.4047 hectares
1 bushel          =36.37 litres  =  8 gallons
Shelled corn bushel=25.4 kg            (13% moisture by weight)
Oat bushel        = 14.5 kg
Barley bushel     = 21.8 kg
Malted barley bush= 15.4 kg
Wheat bushel      = 27.2 kg
Soybean bushel    = 27.2 kg
Corn per capita   =  267 \$/person/year
Corn cost         = .138 \$/kg
Iowa hectare      =16575 \$/hectare

Fraction
Ethanol           .27
Syrup, cereal     .11
Export            .11
Distiller's grain .10
Beef & cattle     .09
Poultry           .09
Residual          .08
Hogs              .08
Dairy             .06
Other animals     .01
```

Workers per hectare
```Bangladesh  4.6
China       3.8
Vietnam     3.7
India       1.6
Indonesia   1.5
Philippines 1.2
Japan        .6
Mexico       .3
Venezuela    .2
Brazil       .2
UK           .1
Italy        .1
Argentina    .1
Russia       .1
Germany      .1
Australia    .05
France       .05
```
Data from 2000
Calorie intake by country
```             MJoules  Calories  GJoules
/day      /day     /year

Austria        15.9     3800      5.8
USA            15.7     3750      5.7
Greece         15.5     3700      5.7
Belgium        15.4     3680      5.6
World average  11       2630      4.0
```

Fertilizer

Elemental composition

The following table shows the composition of various organisms in terms of grams per kg of material.

```Fertilizer:  Fertilizer requirement to grow one kg of wheat
Rate:        Cost of the element in \$/kg
Cost:        Cost of the element given the fertilizer mass
Form:        Form of the element usually found in fertilizer

Human   Wood  Cane  Fertilizer  Rate   Cost    Form
(g)     (g)  (g)      (g)     (\$/kg)  (\$)

Oxygen     650     420            -       -      -
Carbon     180     400  400       -       -      -
Hydrogen   100      60            -       -      -
Nitrogen    30      20   31      30       .64    .0192   Urea         = CONH2NH2
Calcium     14       2            4       -      -       Ca Phosphate = Ca(H2PO4)2
Phosphorus  11      13   11.5     3       .92    .0028   Ca Phosphate = Ca(H2PO4)2
Potassium    2.5    44   33.7    27       .57    .0154   Potash       = KCl
Sulfur       2.5     1     .90    3      1.56    .0047   Amm. sulfate = (NH4)2 SO4
Sodium       1.5                  -
Chlorine     1.5                  -
Magnesium     .5                  3
Iron          .060                 .27
Fluorine      .037
Zinc          .032                 .075
Silicon       .020
Rubidium      .005
Strontium     .005
Bromine       .003
Copper        .001                 .022
Aluminum      .001
Manganese                          .075
```
Most of the price of fertilizer is in nitrogen and potassium.
Fertilizer
```Nitrogen                =  .64  \$/kg     (From urea)
Nitrogen                = 1.43  \$/kg     (From ammonium nitrate)
Phosphorus              =  .92  \$/kg     (From phosphate)
Potassium               =  .57  \$/kg     (From potash)
Potassium               = 1.34  \$/kg     (From potassium sulfate)
Sulfur                  = 1.56  \$/kg     (From ammonium sulfate)
Sulfur                  = 3.26  \$/kg     (From potassium sulfate)

Urea                    =  .30  \$/kg     CONH2NH2
Potassium chloride      =  .30  \$/kg     KCl    (potash)
Ammonium nitrate        =  .50  \$/kg     NH4NO3
Potassium sulfate       =  .60  \$/kg     K2SO4
Phosphate               =  .40  \$/kg     P2O5
Ammonium sulfate        =  .38  \$/kg     (NH4)2 SO4

Nitrogen frac of NH4NO3 =  .350          Ammonium nitrate
Potassium frac of K2SO4 =  .449
Sulfur frac of K2SO4    =  .184
Potassium frac of KCl   =  .524          Potash
Potassium frac of K2O   =  .830          Potassium oxide
Phosphorus frac of P2O5 =  .436          Phosphate
Nitrogen frac of Urea   =  .467          CONH2NH2
Nitrogen frac (NH4)2SO4 =  .212
Sulfur frac (NH4)2SO4   =  .243
Phosphorus mining       = 9.8e8  kg/yr   (mass of elemental phosphorus)
Potassium mining        =  3e10  kg/yr   (as potash)
Ammonium nitrate synth  =  5e11  kg/yr
```
Fertilizer is labeled by three numbers (N-P-K), and sometimes there is a fourth letter "S" for sulfur. In one kilogram of (20-10-20) fertilizer,
```Nitrogen      = .20   kg  = .128 \$   (Equivalent to .2 kg of elemental nitrogen)
Phosphorus    = .0436 kg  = .040 \$   (Equivalent to .1 kg of P2O5)
Potassium     = .166  kg  = .095 \$   (Equivalent to .2 kg of K2O)
```
The (N-P-K-S) numbers of typical fertilizers are:
```                    N  P  K   S
Calcium nitrate    15  0  0
Ammonium sulfate   21  0  0  24
Ammonium nitrate   34  0  0        NH4NO3
Potassium sulfate   0  0 50  18    K2SO4
K Mg sulfate        0  0 22  22
Urea               46  0  0
Ammonia            82  0  0
Potassium nitrate  13  0 44
Bird guano         13 10  3
Potassium Chloride  0  0 60
Dairy manure        9  0  0
Poultry manure      3  2  2
Horse manure        1  0  1
Bone meal           4 12  0
```
Synthesizing nitrogen fertilizer uses 3.5% of the world's natural gas production. In combination with pesticides, these fertilizers quadrupled the productivity of agriculture. With average crop yields remaining at the 1900 level the crop harvest in the year 2000 would have claimed nearly half of all ice-free continents, rather than under 15% of the total land area that is required today.
Algae fertilizer

In the ocean the necessary nutrients for algae growth are

```Nutrient        Number of atoms of nutrient required
to fix 1 atom of carbon

Nitrogen             .15
Phosphorus           .0094
Iron                 .0000094
```
Iron is insoluble in the ocean and is usually the limiting nutrient. Between nitrogen and phosphorus, nitrogen is usually the limiting nutrient. Fertilizing the ocean with iron particles .5 microns or smaller catalyzes algae growth.

Diatoms need at least as many atoms of silicon as nitrogen, and they are iron-hungry. Diatoms are the ultimate carbon fixers. The carbon sinks to the bottom of the ocean and stays there.

Energy to create a diatom silicon cell wall / energy to create a lipid cell wall = .08

If silicon is available then diatoms outcompete conventional bacteria, and if silicon is scarce then diatoms die out and sink to the bottom.

The best place to fertilize the ocean with iron is the Antarctic Atlantic, where iron is scarce and (silicon, nitrogen, phosphorus) are abundant. This is also the region where the thermohaline flow is downward. Iron will trigger diatom growth and sequester carbon to the bottom of the ocean.

```Algae Carbon/Iron atom ratio    106000    Carbon atoms / Iron atoms        "Redfield ratio"
Algae Carbon/Iron mass ratio     22700    Carbon mass / Iron mass
Ocean biomass production         39000    *10^9 kg carbon per year
Civilization carbon production    9000    *10^9 kg carbon per year
Iron required to offset carbon        .40 *10^9 kg iron per year           To offset carbon produced by civilization
World iron production             1700    *10^9 kg iron per year
Price of iron                         .3  \$/kg
Price of iron to offset carbon     120    million \$
```

History

Egyptians, Romans, Babylonians, and early Germans all are recorded as using minerals and or manure to enhance the productivity of their farms. The use of wood ash as a field treatment became widespread.

In 1609 Garcilaso de la Vega wrote the book Comentarios Reales in which he described many of the agricultural practices of the Incas prior to the arrival of the Spaniards and introduced the use of guano as a fertilizer. As Garcilaso described, the Incas near the coast harvested guano.

In the 1730s, Viscount Charles Townshend (1674-1738) first studied the improving effects of the four crop rotation system that he had observed in use in Flanders. For this he gained the nickname of Turnip Townshend.

Johann Friedrich Mayer (1719-1798) was the first to present to the world a series of experiments upon it the relation of gypsum to agriculture, and many chemists have followed him in the 19th century.

In the 1800s Humboldt introduced guano as a source of agricultural fertilizer to Europe after having discovered it on islands off the coast of South America.

Chemist Justus von Liebig (1803-1873) contributed greatly to the advancement in the understanding of plant nutrition. His influential works first denounced the vitalist theory of humus, arguing first the importance of ammonia, and later promoting the importance of inorganic minerals to plant nutrition.

John Bennet Lawes, an English entrepreneur, began to experiment on the effects of various manures on plants growing in pots in 1837, and a year or two later the experiments were extended to crops in the field. One immediate consequence was that in 1842 he patented a manure formed by treating phosphates with sulphuric acid, and thus was the first to create the artificial manure industry. In France, Jean Baptiste Boussingault (1802-1887) pointed out that the amount of nitrogen in various kinds of fertilizers is important.

Metallurgists Percy Gilchrist (1851-1935) and Sidney Gilchrist Thomas (1850-1885) invented the Gilchrist-Thomas process, which enabled the use of high phosphorus acidic Continental ores for steelmaking. The dolomite lime lining of the converter turned in time into calcium phosphate, which could be used as fertilizer, known as Thomas-phosphate.

The Birkelandâ€“Eyde process was developed by Norwegian industrialist and scientist Kristian Birkeland along with his business partner Sam Eyde in 1903, based on a method used by Henry Cavendish in 1784. This process was used to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into nitric acid (HNO3), one of several chemical processes generally referred to as nitrogen fixation. The resultant nitric acid was then used for the production of synthetic fertilizer. A factory based on the process was built in Rjukan and Notodden in Norway, combined with the building of large hydroelectric power facilities. The process is inefficient in terms of energy usage, and is today replaced by the Haber process.

In the early decades of the 20th century, the Nobel prize-winning chemists Carl Bosch of IG Farben and Fritz Haber developed the Haber process which utilized molecular nitrogen (N2) and methane (CH4) gas in an economically sustainable synthesis of ammonia (NH3). The ammonia produced in the Haber process is the main raw material of the Ostwald process.

The Ostwald process is a chemical process for production of nitric acid (HNO3), which was developed by Wilhelm Ostwald (patented 1902). It is a mainstay of the modern chemical industry and provides the raw material for the most common type of fertilizer production, globally. Historically and practically it is closely associated with the Haber process, which provides the requisite raw material, ammonia (NH3).

In 1927 Erling Johnson developed an industrial method for producing nitrophosphate, also known as the Odda process after his Odda Smelteverk of Norway[citation needed]. The process involved acidifying phosphate rock (from Nauru and Banaba Islands in the southern Pacific Ocean) with nitric acid to produce phosphoric acid and calcium nitrate which, once neutralized, could be used as a nitrogen fertilizer

Ocean nutrients

Mass fraction of elements in parts per million. For the ocean, "oxygen" means dissolved gaseous oxygen.

```
Human   Wood   Cane   Ocean   Ocean    Ocean   Deep     Deep     Soil   Soil    River  Ocean     Ocean
plant  (avg)  surface  surface  Pacific  Atlantic       (avail)        halflife   molecule
(dry)          polar   equator                                          (Myr)
Oxygen    650000 420000           10                        5       8                                      O2      Dissolved oxygen
Carbon    180000 400000 400000    28                                                      58      .11      HCO3-   Bicarbonate
Hydrogen  100000  60000                   .0072    .0072                                                   H+      Acid pH=8.14
Nitrogen   30000  20000  31000      .5    .50      .05       .56     .28                    .23            NO3-    Nitrate
Calcium    14000   2000          410                                        10000  10000  15      1.0      Ca++
Phosphorus 11000  13000  11500      .07   .005     .0005     .009    .003    1000     10    .02            HPO4--  Phosphate
Potassium   2500  44000  33700   390                                         1500      3   2.3   12        K+
Sulfur      2500   1000    900   910                                           40          8     11        SO4--   Sulfate
Sodium      1500               10800                                                       6.3   68        Na+
Chlorine    1500               19400                                                       8    100        Cl-     Chloride
Magnesium    500   1300         1290                                                       4.1   13        Mg++
Iron          60    165     75      .0034  .000006 .00002    .00028  .00034                 .7     .0002
Fluorine      37                   1.3                                                                     F-      Fluoride
Zinc          32                    .0049                    .0007   .00013
Silicon       20                   2.2   1.69      .140     4.2     1.4                    1.3     .02     H4SiO4  Orthosilicic acid
Bromine        2.9                67                                                                       Br-
Strontium      4.6                 8.1
Strontium                          8                                                                       Sr++
Rubidium       4.6                  .12
Nickel                              .0066
Titanium                            .001
Aluminum                            .001                                                           .0006
Copper         1     190    13      .0009
Cobalt                              .0004
Manganese                           .0004                                                          .0013
Chromium                            .0002
Boron                  3     2     4.4                                                                     BO3---  Borate
Lithium                             .17
```

The deep ocean is richer in nutrients than the surface.

For polar oceans, iron is the limiting nutrient for bacteria.
For equatoral oceans, nitrogen is the limiting nutrient.

The "Redfield ratio" for ocean carbon fixation by algae and diatoms is

```(Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Iron)  =  (106:16:1:.001)
```
For the ocean, all elements with a mass fraction larger than 1e-6 are included.

The Pacific and Indian oceans both have upward flows in the global thermohaline flow and are hence richer in nutrients than the Atlantic ocean. In the Atlantic ocean water sinks at both poles.

The Indian ocean has a similar composition as the Atlantic ocean.

Atmospheric CO2 dissolves in the ocean and seizes an OH- ion to become bicarbonate (HCO3-).

Silicic acid is produced non-biologically by the dissolving of quartz.

The halflife of water in the ocean is 4100 years.

Mining

```Red:     low price
Yellow:  medium price
White:   high price
Blue:    not naturally occuring because there are no long-lived isotopes
```
Dot size inversely scales with abundance in the Earth's crust.

The "rare Earth elements" are the elements in the bottom two rows of the above table. Many are not rare. They are vital to the electronics industry.

```
Price   Production   Reserves   Price
\$/kg     109 kg/yr    109 kg     109 \$/yr

Iron           .3 1700          ∞     510      Sold as steel
Aluminum      1.7   49.3        ∞      84      Produced from electricity
Copper        6.2   18.7        ∞     116
Zinc          2     11.2   200000      22
Manganese     2.3   11.0    20000      25
Magnesium     2.85   5.96       ∞      17
Nickel       15      2.1               32
Tantalum    100      1.0                1.0
Zirconium    20       .9       60      18
Chromium      2.3     .75               1.7    Sold as stainless steel
Molybdenum   24       .25               6.0
Tin          22       .25               5.5
Titanium     10       .137      ∞       1.4
Antimony      6       .135               .8
Cobalt       30       .11               3.3
Thorium      25       .01       1.9      .25
Uranium      75       .070              5.2
Niobium      40       .063              2.5
Tungsten     50       .061              3.0
Lithium     200       .036     40       7.2
Strontium     5       .03                .15
Silver      590       .026             15
Arsenic       1.9     .02
Neodymium    25       .01                .25
Yttrium      45       .0071     9
Mercury      16       .003
Bismuth      18       .009
Gold      24000       .0028            67
Selenium     60       .002       .093    .12
Indium      750       .0005      .006
Beryllium   805       .0004      .4
Tellurium    50       .0002              .01
Gallium     280       .000273   1        .076
Platinum  88000       .000245          22
Germanium  1950       .000118            .23
Hafnium     500       .0001              .05   Extracted from zirconium ore
Rhenium    6200       .00005             .3
Rhodium   88000       .000030           2.6
Iridium   13000       .000012            .16
Ruthenium  5600       .000012    .005    .07
Lutetium 100000       .000010           1.0
Thallium    480       .000010            .005  Byproduct of Cu, Zn, and Pb production
Scandium  14000       .000002            .03
Osmium    12000       .000001            .012

Rare Earth:
Cerium        2.5    ~.1                 .25
Lanthanum     3       .0125              .04
Samarium      3       .0007     2        .002
Dyspros      80       .0001              .008
Praseo       30       ?
Europium    300       ?
Terbium     600       ?
Erbium     5400       ?
Holmium    8600       ?          .4
Ytterbium 14000       .00005    1        .7
Thulium   70000       .00005     .1     3.5
Prometh    Huge       .000000001               No stable isotopes. Created in nuclear reactors

Argon         5       .7                3.5
Helium       50       .030              1.5    169e6 million meters3 of gas at .179 kg/m3
Xenon      1200       .00006             .07
Neon        330       ?
Krypton     330       ?

Carbon            7900          ∞              Coal
Nitrogen           158          ∞              450e9 kg/yr of NH3NO3, 95% for fertilizer
Sulfur              69          ∞              Byproduct of oil refining.
Phosphorus          63      24000              Sold as phosphate, P mass fraction = 1/3.
Potassium      .6   18       4700              Sold as potash (KCl) for .31 \$/kg.  Assume potash is 1/2 K.
Boron                1.2
Chlorine             ?
Fluorine   2000       .017
Selenium              .002
Synth diamonds        .000080                  Synthesized in a laboratory
Rough diamonds        .000020                  Mined diamonds, unsuitable for gemstones
Gem diamonds          .000004                  Mined diamonds, suitable for gemstones
```
The world total rare Earth ore mined is .14 Gkg/yr.

Neodymium magnets supporting steel spheres
Composition of a neodymium magnet: Nd2Fe14B.

Elements as currency

Metals are useful for currency because they are uncounterfeitable and immutable. 1 trillion dollars of metals are mined per year. The elements are listed below sorted by \$/year mined. The metals that have the largest value are steel, copper, aluminum, and copper.

```            \$/kg    Bkg/year   B\$/year

Steel           .3 1700         516
Copper         6.2   18.7       116
Aluminum       1.7   49.3        84
Gold       24000       .0028     67
Nickel        15      2.1        32
Manganese      2.3   11.0        25
Platinum   88000       .000245   22
Zinc           2     11.2        22
Zirconium     20       .9        18
Magnesium      2.8    5.96       17
Silver       264       .026       6.9
Lithium      200       .036       7.2
Molybdenum    24       .25        6.0
Tin           22       .25        5.5
Uranium       75       .070       5.2
Thulium    70000       .00005     3.5
Cobalt        30       .11        3.3
Tungsten      50       .061       3.0
Rhodium    88000       .000030    2.6
Niobium       40       .063       2.5
Titanium      10       .137       1.4
Lutetium  100000       .000010    1.0
Tantalum     100      1.0         1.0
Neodymium     25       .01         .25
Selenium      60       .004        .24
Germanium   1950       .000118     .23
Gallium      280       .000273     .076
Tellurium     50       .0002       .01
Indium       750       .0005       .006
```

Elements for electronics

Elements of interest to electronics are:

```            \$/kg    Produce    Produce  Electronics  Solar  Invest  Jewelry  Catalyst
(109 kg/yr) (109 \$/yr)

Copper         6.2  18.7       116         .16       .08
Gold       24000      .0028     67         .08                .36     .53
Platinum   88000      .000245   22         .02                .06     .35      .40
Lithium      200      .036       7.2       .23
Silver       264      .026       6.9       .26       .06      .28     .22
Neodymium     25      .01         .25      .88                                 .01
Germanium   1950      .000118     .23      .72                                 .20
```

Chemical synthesis
```                  109 kg/year

Polyethylene        80
Nitrogen            50     Synthesized as ammonium nitrate.  95% becomes fertilizer
Polypropylene       50
Polyvinyl chloride  40     Corrosion-resistant pipes
Polystyrene         15
```

Rare Earth elements

The rare Earth elements are the ones in the row from Lanthanum to Lutetium and they tend to occur together in minerals. They are vital to electronics and 95% of the world's supply comes from the Bayan Obo deposit in China. Uranium and thorium are often found in rare Earth ore.

```            Protons   \$/kg

Scandium      21    14000      Alloys
Lanthanum     57        3      Glass, catalysts, lighters
Cerium        58        2.5    Lighters
Praseodymium  59       30      Magnets, alloys
Neodymium     60       25      Magnets, lasers, glass
Promethium    61        -      No stable isotopes
Samarium      62        3      Magnets, catalysts, lighters
Europium      63      300      Phosphors, lasers
Gadolinium    64       20      Alloys, phosphors, fuel cells
Terbium       65      600      Fuel cells, magnetomechanical transducers, phosphors
Dyspros       66       80      Magnets, hard drive memory, LEDs
Holmium       67     8600      Magnets, lasers
Erbium        68     5400      Fiber optics
Thulium       69    70000      Lasers
Ytterbium     70    14000      Lasers, steel alloy
Lutetium      71   100000      Catalysts, X-ray phosphors
Thorium       90       25      Nuclear fuel
Uranium       92       75      Nuclear fuel
```

Monazite

Monazite quartz
Monazite reserves

Monazite ore contains 55-60% rare earth metal oxides along with 24 to 29% P2O5, 5 to 10% ThO2, and 0.2 to .04% U3O8. Due to the alpha decay of thorium and uranium, monazite contains a significant amount of helium, which can be extracted by heating. Some monazite ores have a thorium fraction in the range of 0.25.

The density of monazite ore is between 4.6 and 5.7 g/cm3. Because of their high density, monazite minerals will concentrate in alluvial sands when released by the weathering of pegmatites. These so-called placer deposits are often beach or fossil beach sands and contain other heavy minerals of commercial interest such as zircon and ilmenite. Monazite can be isolated as a nearly pure concentrate by the use of gravity, magnetic, and electrostatic separation.

Among the metals found in mozanite, a typical fractional distribution is

```            Fraction

Cerium        .46
Lanthanum     .24
Neodymium     .17
Phosphorus    .10
Thorium       .08
Praseodymium  .05
Uranium       .002
Samarium      .001
Yttrium       .001
Europium      .0005
```
Thorium reserves in units of 109 kg.
```World total  1.91
India         .963
USA           .44
Australia     .30
South Africa  .035
Brazil        .016
Malaysia      .0045
Other         .090
```
The total energy of thorium reserves is
```Energy  =  1.91e9 kg * 8.e12 J/kg  =  15.3e21 Joules
```

Mountain Pass Mine

The Californian Mountain Pass mine close in 2002. In 2010 China restricted rare Earth exports, prompting subsidies from the U.S. Government to reopen the mine. Mining resumed in 2015 and then ceased in 2016 when the mining corporation went bankrupt.

Precious metal

The metals sorted by price/kg are:

```         Price   Production   Reserves   Price
\$/kg     109 kg/yr    109 kg     109 \$/yr

Lutetium 100000       .000010           1.0
Platinum  88000       .000245          22
Rhodium   88000       .000030           2.6
Thulium   70000       .00005     .1     3.5
Gold      24000       .0028            67
Scandium  14000       .000002            .03
Ytterbium 14000       .00005    1        .7
Iridium   13000       .000012            .16
Osmium    12000       .000001            .012
Holmium    8600       ?          .4
Rhenium    6200       .00005             .3
Ruthenium  5600       .000012    .0005   .07
Erbium     5400       ?
Fluorine   2000       .017
Germanium  1950       .000118            .23
Xenon      1200       .00006             .07
Beryllium   805       .0004      .4
Indium      750       .0005      .006
Terbium     600       ?
Silver      590       .026             15
Hafnium     500       .0001              .05   Extracted from zirconium ore
Thallium    480       .000010            .005  Byproduct of Cu, Zn, and Pb production
Neon        330       ?
Krypton     330       ?
Europium    300       ?
Gallium     280       .000273
Lithium     200       .036              7.2
Tantalum    100      1.0                1.0
Dyspros      80       .0001              .008
Uranium      75       .070              5.2
Selenium     60       .002       .093    .12
Tellurium    50       .0002              .01
Tungsten     50       .061              3.0
Helium       50       .030              1.5
Yttrium      45       .0071     9
Niobium      40       .063              2.5
Praseo       30       ?
Cobalt       30       .11               3.3
Thorium      25       .01       1.9      .25
Neodymium    25       .01                .25
Molybdenum   24       .25               6.0
Tin          22       .25               5.5
```

Noble gases

Noble gases are obtained by cooling air to a liquid and then distilling it, except for helium, which is obtained from natural gas.

```            Atmosphere    Boil    Price   Atomic   Liquid     Gas
%        Kelvin   \$/kg     mass    density  density
g/cm3     g/cm3
Argon     Ar   .934       87.3       5      40     1.395    .00178
Neon      Ne   .001818    27.1     280      20     1.207    .000900
Helium    He   .000524     4.23     50       4      .125    .000179
Krypton   Kr   .000114   119.7     330      84     2.413    .00375
Xenon     Xe   .0000087  165.1    2100     131     2.94     .00589
```

Metal production

The metals that are produced in the largest quantities, in units of 1 billion kg per year:

```           Steel   Al    Cu     Zn     Mn    Mg    Ni

World      1600   49.3  18.5   11.2   18.5  6.97  2.45
USA          79    1.7   1.36    .74    -    -     -
China       804   23.3   1.76   3.10   2.9  4.9    .102
Canada       12    2.9    .70    .70    -    -     .240
Australia     5    1.7    .97   1.29   3.0   .13   .234
Russia       71    3.5    .74    .22    -    .4    .240
India        90    2.1    -      .70    .95  .60   -
Brazil       33    1.0    -      .17   1.0   .15   .110
```

Production of rare metals

Rare metals in units of millions of kg per year:

```            Cu    Au    Pt     Ag    Li    Ti   Sn

World     18500   .99   .161  26.0  36.0  222  296
USA        1360   .21   .004   1.1
China      1760   .09          4.0        100
Canada      700   .15   .007    .7               ?
Australia   970   .27          1.7  13.0         6
Russia      740   .25   .025   1.7         45
S. Africa         .15   .110
Mexico      520   .12          5.4
Chile      5750                1.2  12.9
Peru       1380   .14          3.5              24
```
Data
Potassium

"Potash" is mostly potassium chloride.

```         Potash   Potash reserves
(109 kg/yr)  (109 kg)

World      37.0    9500
Russia      7.4    3300
Belarus     5.5     750
Germany     3.3     150
China       3.3     210
Israel      2.0      40
Jordan      1.4      40
USA         1.1     130
Chile        .8      70
UK           .43     22
Spain        .42     20
Brazil       .4     300
Other                50
```

Phosphate (P2O5)
```        MTons/yr  MTons

World     225     71000
China     100      3700
Morocco    30     50000
USA        27.1    1400
Russia     10      1300
Brazil      6.8     310
Egypt       6       715
Jordan      6      1300
Tunisia     5       100
Israel      3.6     130
Australia   2.6    1030
Peru        2.6     240
Iraq               5800
Algeria            2200
Syria              1800
S. Africa          1500
```
http://investingnews.com/daily/resource-investing/agriculture-investing/phosphate-investing/top-phosphate-producing-countries
American metal production

The cost of metal production is dominated by the cost of electricity and heat. If you can produce cheap electricity then you can be competitive for metal exports, and you can manufacture goods that use metals as raw materials.

The most significant metals mined in America are copper, gold, and iron. Materials mined in America are:

```            Billion \$/year

Coal             31.3
Sand and gravel  15.5
Crushed rock     13.8
Cement            9.8
Copper            7.6
Gold              7.6
Iron ore          3.8
```
America has abundant ore for most metals. In the table below, "American mining %" is the fraction of the world's supply that is mined in America.
```      Available   American  Source of ore in America
in America  mining %

Lithium     *     -         Nevada brine, Wyoming Rock Springs Uplift
Beryllium   *    88         The Utah Spor Mountain Mine dominates world production
Magnesium   *     -         Utah brine
Aluminum          3.4       America mines negligible aluminum
Scandium          -         America mines negligible scandium
Titanium    *     -         Titanium-rich sands in Florida and Virginia
Chromium    *     -         Montana Stillwater igneous complex
Manganese         -         America produces negligible manganese
Steel       *     4.9       Iron ore is everywhere
Cobalt            -         America has negligible cobalt mining
Nickel            -         America has one nickel mine, the Michigan Eagle Mine
Copper      *     7.4       Utah Bingham Canyon Mine, New Mexico El Chino Mine
Zinc        *     6.6       The Alaskan Red Dog mine dominates world production
Arsenic           -
Zirconium   *     -         Available in titanium-rich sands in Florida and Virginia
Niobium           -         America mines negligible niobium
Molybdenum  *    24         Colorado Henderson mine and Climax mine. Utah Bingham Canyon Mine
Ruthenium   *     -         Platinum group. Montana Stillwater igneous complex
Rhodium     *     -         Platinum group. Montana Stillwater igneous complex
Palladium   *     6         Platinum group. Montana Stillwater igneous complex
Silver      *     4.2       The Alaskan Red Dog mine and Greens Creek mine are world silver heavyweights
Indium      *     -         Obtained from the Alaskan Red Dog zinc mine
Tin               -         There are no American tin mines. The last mine closed in 1993
Antimony          -
Rare Earths *     2         California Mountain Pass Mine
Hafnium     *     -         Mined from zirconium ore, such as the titanium-rich stands of Florida and Virginia
Tantalum          -         America mines negligible tantalum
Tungsten    *     -         California Mountain Pass Mine
Rhenium     *    15
Osmium      *     -         Platinum group. No good source in the U.S.A.
Iridium     *     -         Platinum group. No good source in the U.S.A.
Platinum    *     2.5       Platinum group. No good source in the U.S.A.
Gold        *    21.2       Nevada gold mine
Mercury           -         The last U.S. mine (Nevada McDermitt) closed in 1992
Bismuth           -
Thorium     *     -         America has 1/4 of the world's thorium reserves
Uranium     *     3.4       America has many uranium mines

"-" means that American production is less than 1% of world production.
```
The rare Earth metals are the ones from lanthanum to lutetium and they can all be obtained from the California Mountain Pass Mine.

For aluminum, ore is imported and then extracted with electricity in America.

America can produce metals such as aluminum, titanium, and zinc even though ore is not available, because the ore has a high fraction of the metal and is easily transported. In this case America produces the electricity and hydrocarbon energy required to extract the metal.

For some metals, America possesses high quality ore that can be sold to other countries that have cheap energy available for extraction. These metals are berylium, zinc, molybdenum, copper, and silver.

U.S. Geological Survey

Platinum group metals

American element deficiencies

Strategic elements are elements that are vital for technology and for which America doesn't have enough ore. The elements in order of importance are:

```Phosphorus
Rare Earths
Platinum group metals:  Platinum, osmium, iridium, ruthenium, rhodium, and palladium.
Scandium
Mercury
Carbon:  Oil, natural gas, and coal.
```
Phosphorus is a major component of fertilizer and half the world's reserves are in Morocco. Biomass energy hinges on phosphorus. The other components of fertilizer, potassium and nitrogen, are abundant.
Embodied energy

The "embodied energy" is the energy required to produce a material. For metals this is the energy required to produce pure metal from ore. For plastics and chemicals this is the energy required for the synthesis plus the energy content of the hydrocarbons that serve as raw input materials.

Elements and electricity

The elements sorted by embodied energy per mass are:

```            MJoules   Ore     Price   EJoules  Electricity
/kg   dilution   \$/kg    /year     factor

Platinum     300000  2000000  80000     <.1       1
Gold         200000 10000000  24000      .5        .5
Palladium     80000  2000000  14000     <.1       2
Silicon wafer  2000        4   >100     <.1       1         Price depends on purity
Silver          800   200000    600     <.1        .6
Titanium        800              10     1.5        .8
Magnesium       250               2.8             2.8
Aluminum        150        6      1.7   7         1
Nickel          150      200     15      .5       1
Zinc             70       20      2     1
Stainless        57                     2.5
Copper           42      800      6.2   1
Iron             25                     <.1
Steel            20        4       .3  32         1
Mercury                  700     16     <.1
Molybdenum               300     24     <.1
Tungsten                 100     50     <.1
Manganese                  8      2.3   <.1
Chromium                   6      2.3

EJoules/year:     World energy used in the synthesis of the material.
MJoules/kg:       Energy requirement for synthesis.
Dilution:         Inverse of the ore concentration.
Electric factor:  Ratio of electricity energy to hydrocarbon energy in the synthesis.
```
Data from this fine paper
Non-metallic materials

Most plastics have an energy/mass of 150 MJoules/kg.

```          MJoules  EJoules   Electricity
/kg    /year       factor

PE           150     5         1.5
PVC          150     4         1.5
PP           150     4         1.5
Polyester    150     3         1.5
Paper         25     9
Glass         10     1
Wood           9    <.1
Cement         4   12
Brick          2     .2
Butyl rubber        2
PS                  1.5
Natural rubber      1
ABS                 1
PA                  1
Phenolics           1
PET                 1
```

World energy

Materials sorted by world production energy per year are:

```           EJoules  MJoules
/year     /kg

Steel         32       25
Cement        12        4
Paper          9       25
Aluminum       7      150
PE             5      150
PVC            4      150
PP             4      150
Polyester      3      150
Stainless      2.5
Butyl rubber   2
Titanium       1.5    800
PS             1.5
```

Green building material

A material is "green" if it has a low value for embodied energy/mass. It is also helpful if electricity is the dominant energy input, because electricity can come from a green source such as hydro, solar, or wind. Materials sorted by greenness are:

```            MJoules   Price   Electricity
/kg      \$/kg      factor

Brick           2
Cement          4
Wood            9
Glass          10
Steel          25        .3      1
Zinc           70       2
Aluminum      150       1.7      1
PE            150                1.5
PVC           150                1.5
PP            150                1.5
Polyester     150                1.5
Nickel        150      15        1
Magnesium     250       2.8
```
Wood, steel, and aluminum are the most useful for prefabricated houses.
Remote synthesis of metals, plastics, and chemicals

Suppose you generate electric power at a remote place like Antarctica and you use it to synthesize materials. The ideal qualitites for such a material are:

High ore concentration, which makes it easy to ship the ore to the synthesis plant.
Large electricity requirement per kilogram for synthesis.
Large world demand.
Large price/kg.

The metals that qualify are aluminum, chromium, manganese, titanium, zinc, and silicon.

Plastics, chemicals, and paper are also good candidates because they have a high energy cost for synthesis. Plastics require more electricity energy than hydrocarbon energy. The input raw materials are usually natural gas, oil, and coal.

A synthesis plant should ideally be located near a source of natural gas, since natural gas has the lowest carbon footprint among hydrocarbons.

```             Ore     MJoules   EJoules   Price   Electricity
dilution    /kg      /year    \$/kg      factor

Silicon wafer   4     2000       <.1    >100         1     Price depends on purity
Steel           4       25      32          .3       1
Aluminum        6      150       7         1.7       1
Chromium        6
Manganese       8                <.1
Titanium       10      800       1.5      10          .8
Zinc           20       80       1         2
Nickel        200      150        .5      15         1
```

U.S. industrial electricity

The fraction of U.S. industrial electricity used for metals, plastic, and chemicals is:

```                   Fraction

Chemical synthesis   .078
Petroleum refining   .073
Steel                .019
Aluminum             .009
Other metals         .007
Plastic and rubber   .007
```

Steel

Input energy fractions for the production of steel:

```Electricity    .18
Natural gas    .33
Coal           .01
Coke           .18
Other          .27
Residual       .02
```

Lumber
```         Forest   Wood     Paper    Walnut
Mkm^2 (Bm^3/yr) (Bkg/yr) (Bm3)
World     39.5   1.700     399
USA        3.05   .500      75.1   .29
India       .69   .300             .03
China      2.17   .300      99.3   .26
Brazil     5.17   .250      10.2
Russia     8.09   .170
EU         1.58
Indonesia   .93   .130      10.0
Ethiopia          .100
DR Congo          .075
Australia  1.47
Nigeria           .075
France                            .03
Japan       .25             26.6
Germany     .11             22.7
S. Korea                    11.5
Finland                     11.3
Sweden                      11.3

USA           Cherry, Cedar, Douglas Fir, Walnut
Caribbean     Mahogany
Brazil        Brazilwood, rubber tree
Europe        Fraxinus, Larix, Stone pine, Poplar, Oak
Scandinavia   Scots pine, Norway spruce, Birch
Australia     Eucalyptus

World total lumber             = 1.7   Bmeters3/year
World logs                     =  .6   Bmeters3/year
World pulp                     = 1.1   Bmeters3/year
Wood density                   = 500   kg/meter3/year
Wood energy density            =  16   MJoules/kg
World total lumber             = 850   Bkg/year
World total lumber power       = 430   GWatts
Fraction for paper             =  .32
Fraction for assembled products=  .28     (Furniture, etc)
Fraction for sawnwood          =  .12
Fraction for wood panels       =  .11
Fraction for logs              =  .049
Fraction for pulp              =  .078
Consumption energy frac        =  .60
Consumption construction frac  =  .20
Consumption paper & pulp frac  =  .20
Wood fraction, industrial use  =  .45
Wood fraction, fuel use        =  .55
```

Nuclear fission energy

Nuclear isotopes

Abundance of elements in the sun, indicated by dot size

Blue elements are unstable with a half life much less than the age of the solar system.

The only elements heavier than Bismuth that can be found on the Earth are Thorium and Uranium, and these are the only elements that can be tapped for fission energy.

Natural Thorium is 100% Thorium-232
Natural Uranium is .72% Uranium-235 and 99.3% Uranium-238.
Plutonium doesn't exist in nature.

```           Protons  Neutrons  Halflife   Critical   Isotope
(106 yr)   mass (kg)  fraction

Thorium-232    90    142      14000          -       1.00     Absorbs neutron -> U-233
Uranium-233    92    141           .160     16        -       Fission chain reaction
Uranium-235    92    143        700         52        .0072   Fission chain reaction
Uranium-238    92    146       4500          -        .9927   Absorbs neutron -> Pu-239
Plutonium-238  94    144           .000088   -        -       Produces power from radioactive heat
Plutonium-239  94    145           .020     10        -       Fission chain reaction
```
The elements that can be used for fission energy are the ones with a critical mass: Uranium-233, Uranium-235, and Plutonium-239. Uranium-233 and Plutonium-239 can be created in a breeder reactor.
```Thorium-232  +  Neutron  ->  Uranium-233
Uranium-238  +  Neutron  ->  Plutonium-239
```
The "Fission" simulation at phet.colorado.edu illustrates the concept of a chain reaction.

Natural uranium is composed of .7% Uranium-235 and the rest is Uranium-238. Uranium-235 can be separated from U-238 using centrifuges, calutrons, or gas diffusion chambers. Uranium-235 is easy to detonate. A cannon and gunpowder gets it done.

Plutonium-239 is difficult to detonate, requiring a perfect spherical implosion. This technology is beyond the reach of most rogue states.

Uranium-233 cannot be used for a bomb and is hence not a proliferation risk.

Plutonium-238 emits alpha particles, which can power a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). RTGs based on Plutonium-238 generate 540 Watts/kg and are used to power spacecraft.

Teaching simulation for nuclear isotopes

Energy

The fission of uranium-233, uranium-235, and plutonium-239 yields similar energies. The "reactor heat" column is the energy yield per nucleus in a reactor. Energies in MeV:

```             Fission    Prompt   Prompt  Prompt   Decay   Decay    Anti-    Reactor
fragments  neutrons  gammas  neutron  betas   gammas  neutrinos  heat
capture
Uranium-233    168.2      4.9     7.7     9.1      5.2     5.0      6.9      200.1
Uranium-235    169.1      4.8     7.0     8.8      6.5     6.3      8.8      202.5
Plutonium-239  175.8      5.9     7.8    11.5      5.3     5.2      7.1      211.5
```

Generating fission fuel in a breeder reactor

Creating Plutonium-239 and Uranium-233:

```Uranium-238 + Neutron  ->  Plutonium-239
Thorium-232 + Neutron  ->  Uranium-233

Detail:

Uranium-238 + Neutron  ->  Uranium-239
Uranium-239            ->  Neptunium-239 + Electron + Antineutrino    Halflife = 23 mins
Neptunium-239          ->  Plutonium-239 + Electron + Antineutrino    Halflife = 2.4 days

Thorium-232 + Neutron  ->  Thorium-233
Thorium-233            ->  Protactinium-233 + Electron + Antineutrino   Halflife = 22 mins
Protactinium-233       ->  Uranium-233      + Electron + Antineutrino   Halflife =
```

The element Technetium-99 is one of the radioactive products of fission. It can be transmuted to non-radioactive Ruthenium-100 by hitting it with a neutron.

```Technetium-99  +  Neutron   ->   Technetium-100

Technetium-100   ->   Ruthenium-100 + Electron
```
Technetium-100 is unstable with a half life of 16 seconds and beta decays to Ruthenium-100, which is stable.
Processing spent fuel

The likelihood for a nucleus to absorb a neutron is called the "neutron absorption cross section". Transmutation only works for nuclei with a sufficiently-large cross section.

Spent fuel contains ~ 3% fission products. It is typically allowed to rest for a decade before processing to allow short-lived isotopes to decay away. The radioactive elements that remain are:

```               Fraction   Halflife   Neutron absorption
(years)   cross section (10-28 m2)

Caesium-135     .0691    2300000         8.3
Caesium-137     .0634         30.2        .11
Technetium-99   .0614     211000        20
Zirconium-93    .0546    1530000         2.7
Strontium-90    .0451         28.9        .90
Iodine-129      .0084   15700000        18
Samarium-151    .00531        96.6   15200
Krypton-85      .00218        10.8       1.7
Tin-126         .00108    230000        < .1
Selenium-79     .000447   327000        < .1
Europium-155    .000803        4.76   3950
Tin-121m        .0000005      43.9
Europium-154    1.9e-9         8.59
Europium-152    1.8e-12       13.5
```
If we treat spent fuel with neutrons and if we assume that all the elements with a large cross sections get transmuted, then what remains are the elements with low cross sections. These are:
```               Fraction   Halflife   Neutron absorption
(years)   cross section

Caesium-137     .0634         30.2        .11
Strontium-90    .0451         28.9        .90
Tin-126         .00108    230000        < .1
Selenium-79     .000447   327000        < .1
```
Caesium-137 can't be transmuted and it is the second-most abundant product of fission. A long-term storage solution has to be found for this isotope.

Strontium-90 can't be transmuted but it is useful as a nuclear battery for space missions.

Actinide waste

When a nucleus absorbs a neutron it can either fission or it can capture the neutron and transmute to another element. If it captures the neutron then it doesn't generate fission energy and it becomes "actinide waste". The higher the fission-to-capture ratio the better.

```              Fission to       Outcome of
capture ratio    neutron capture

Uranium-233       10           Uranium-235
Uranium-235        6           Plutonium-239
Plutonium-239      2           Plutonium-240         Halflife =   6500 years
Plutonium-241      4           Plutonium-242         Halflife = 373000 years

Uranium-233 + Neutron  ->  Uranium-234     Halflife = 246000 years
Uranium-234 + Neutron  ->  Uranium-235     Uranium-234 neutron cross section = 100 barns
```
The thorium fuel cycle generates less transuranic waste than the uranium fuel cycle. If thorium is used to breed Uranium-233 then the Uranium-233 either fissions or becomes Uranium-235, when then fissions. Hence almost all of the original thorium ends up fissioning.
Nuclear transmutation

The neutrons generated by a reactor can trans transmute elements. For example, Tungsten-186 absorbs a neutron and beta decays to Rhenium-187, which is substantially more valuable.

```           Price   Source   Neutron   Profitable
(\$/kg)  (\$/kg)   absorb

Technetium  Large     24       .13
Ruthenium    5600     24       .04
Xenon        1200     16      6.2
Caesium     11000   1200       .12
Rhodium     88000   5600       .37
Holmium      8600     80    800          *
Erbium       5400   8600     64.7
Thulium     70000   5400      2.74
Ytterbium   14000  70000    100
Lutetium   100000  14000     22          *
Rhenium      6200     50     10.8        *
Osmium      12000   6200     76.4        *
Iridium     13000  12000      3.4
Platinum    88000  13000    425          *
Gold        24000  88000       .72
Protac.     Large     25
Plutonium   Large     75
Americium   Large     75
Curium      Large     75

Price:           Price of the element that is created by transmutation
Source:          Price of the source element that is used to create it
Neutron absorb:  Neutron absorption cross section for the rate-limiting step
```
The elements that can profitably be created by transmutation are holmium, lutetium, rhenium, osmium, and platinum.

Technetium-97 is radioactive with a half life of 2.6 million years and it decays by electron capture, producing no particles. It can be created by isolating the isotope Ruthenium-96 and subjecting it to neutrons, which has an absorption cross section of .28 barnes. Upon capturing a neturon it decays to Technetium-97.

Extraction of precious metals

Many of the elements generated contain radioactive isotopes and are hence not useful for extraction. The ones that are not radioactive are:

```             Uranium-235  Uranium-233   Price
(\$/kg)
Krypton-83      .00536    .0101          330
Molybednum-95   .0654     .0636           24
Ruthenium-101   .0517     .0317         5600
Rhodium-103     .0304     .0157        88000
Silver-109      .000322   .000395        590
Indium-115      .000124   .000144        750
Tin-125         .000347   .00117          22
Iodine-127      .00160    .005563         16
Xenon-131       .0290     .0360         1200
Xenon-134       .0784     .0630         1200
Xenon-136       .0609     .0667         1200
Barium-134      7.7e-8    .0000027       100
Barium-137      0         0              100      Slowly generated by Caesium-137
Neodymium-143   .0596     .0597           25
Neodymium-145   .0394     .0345           25
```
The elements that are valuable enough to be worth extracting are:
```         Uranium-235  Uranium-233   Price
(\$/kg)
Krypton      .00536    .0101         330
Ruthenium    .0517     .0317        5600
Rhodium      .0304     .0157       88000
Silver       .000322   .000395       590
Indium       .000124   .000144       750
Xenon        .1683     .1657        1200
```
Ruthenium, Rhodium, and Xenon are the best candidates for extraction. Xenon is easy to extract because it's a gas. Xenon is a miraculous highly-safe anaesthetic.

Uranium costs 75 \$/kg. If 1 kg of spent Uranium fuel contains 3% fission products then it contains .91 grams of rhodium, which is worth 80 \$.

Strontium-90 is a radioactive product of fission that is useful for nuclear batteries.

Technetium

Attenuation of X-rays in water

Technetium is radioactive with a half life of 4 million years and doesn't exist in nature. It can only be produced in a reactor. It rests just beneath manganese on the periodic table and is a stout structural metal, like its neighbors molybdenum, ruthenium, and rhodium. One of its isotopes, technetium-97 is potentially a miracle metal because although it is radioactive with a half life of 3 million years, the only emission is a neutrino, which is harmless. It can be produced by firing alpha particles at Molybdenum-95. These alpha particles can be produced from helium and accelerated in an accelerator.

```Molybdenum-95 + Alpha   ->   Ruthenium-97 + 2 Neutrons   ->   Technetium-97

Half life        Decay             Decay   Decay
Mode              energy  product
MeV
Technetium  95   20.0  hours    Positron
Technetium  96    4.3  days     Positron                   Mo96
Technetium  97    2.6  Myears   Electron capture   0       Mo97
Technetium  98    4.2  Myears   Electron            .4     Ru98
Technetium  99     .21 Myears   Electron            .294   Ru99
Technetium 100   15.8  seconds  Electron                   Ru100
Technetium 101   14.2  minutes  Electron                   Ru101
Technetium 102    5.3  seconds  Electron                   Ru102
```
In an "electron capture" decay, a proton in the nucleus captures an electron and becomes a neutron.

The decay energy of Technetium-97 doesn't include the neutrino, which is harmless.

Isotopes of molybdenum:

```               Natural   Half life
fraction

Molybdenum  92   .146   Stable
Molybdenum  93   0      4000 years
Molybdenum  94   .092   Stable
Molybenum   95   .159   Stable
Molybdenum  96   .167   Stable
Molybdenum  97   .096   Stable
Molybdenum  98   .243   Stable
Molybdenum  99   0      66 hours
Molybdenum 100   .097   Stable
```
If an electron capture seizes an electron from the S1 shell then an electron from a higher shell will drop to the S1 shell to take its place, emitting an X-ray. The highest-energy X-ray that can be produced by technetium is if an electron from the S2 shell drops to the S1 shell, which has an energy of 18.9 keV. Using the Bohr formula for electron energies,
```Technetium proton number  =  Z  =  43
Shell number              =  n
Bohr energy               =  E  = -13.6 Z2 n-2  electron Volts
X-ray energy              =  E  = -13.6 Z2 (1-2 - 2-2)  =  18.9 keV
```
An X-ray of this energy travels 1 cm in water and substantially less far in technetium metal. Only X-rays emitted near the surface of the metal escape and they can be stopped by 2 mm of a metal with a density of 10 g/cm3.
Nuclear data
```                  Natural    Half    Neutron     Decay   Decay
fraction   life    capture     mode    energy

90 Thorium
228          1.9
229       7340
230      75400
231           .0029                +
232  1                   6.53
234           .066
91 Protactin.
231      32800                     --
232           .0036                +
233           .074      36.0       +
234           .00077               +
92 Uranium
232    .0072 68.9
233        .16M          42.2            468.2
234        .25M          90.4               .41
235        704M          86.7            504.8
236         23M           4.6               .042
238    .99 4.5G           2.41              .0000105

93 Neptunium
235           1.08
236        .15M
237        2.1M        159.1       --       .016
239            .0065               +
94 Plutonium
238          87.7      463.1       --    14.7
239       24100        274.3       --   699.3
240        6500        262.6       --      .061
241          14        334.1       +    936.6
242        .37M                    --
244         81M                    --
95 Americium
241         432.2      551.3              2.9
242m        141       1706.9           6686
243        7370         67.7               .044
96 Curium
245        8500
246        4730
247         16M
248        .34M
250        9000

Natural    Half    Neutron     Decay   Decay
fraction   life    capture     mode    energy
```

Carbon sequesterization

Biochar
Cellulose
Lignin

Wood consists of a mix of cellulose and lignin, with a typical mass composition of

```Carbon       .44
Oxygen       .44
Hydrogen     .06
Nitrogen     .01
Potassium    .01
```
In the process of "pyrolysis", biomass is heated in a zero oxygen environent, producing carbon (biochar). This allows one to extract energy from biomass without producing CO2. When biochar is added to soil it improves the water retention and nutrient content.

One can control the amount of carbon sequestered by varying the pyrolysis temperature.

```
Celsius    Char     Energy yield
fraction      (MJ/kg)

Bamboo cold pyrolysis (no oxygen)   400      .4           4
Bamboo hot pyrolysis  (no oxygen)   700      .2          10
Bamboo (burn in O2)               >2000      .02         18
```

Forests
```Atmosphere CO2 fraction    =  .00041
CO2 fraction in 1700       =  .00027
CO2 fraction last ice age  =  .00018             (1 million years ago)
CO2 fraction increase rate =  .000002 per year
Atmosphere mass            =   5.2⋅1018 kg
Atmospheric carbon         =880000⋅109 kg       = 121   tons/person
Human carbon production    =   920⋅109 kg/year  =   1.3 tons/person/year
World timber carbon        =   800⋅109 kg/year  =   1.1 tons/person/year
World volcanic carbon      =    40⋅109 kg/year
World population           =  7.25⋅109
Earth land area            = 148.9 Mkm2
Forest land area                        =  40   Mkm2
Land forest fraction                    =  .30
Forest biological productivity fraction = .75         Chemical energy generated per time
Forest biomass fraction                 = .80
World trees                             = 3.0 trillion
Tropical climate trees                  = 1.4 trillion
Temperate climate trees                 =  .6 trillion
Boreal climate trees                    =  .7 trillion
```

Rogue forestry

Planting trees encourages carbon sequesterization. In cities, trees with taproots should be used. Trees with flat root systems destroy structures.

The carbon in the atmosphere is equivalent to 110 tons per person, equivalent to 10 large trees.

Most of the mass of a tree is in the trunk.

```           Roots  Trunk  Growth  Height  Density   Life   World
diam   (m/yr)   (m)    (g/cm^3)  (m/y)  production
(m)
White Oak   Tap                   25      .77      250
Hickory     Tap    1.0    .3              .81
Walnut      Tap                   30      .56              2.55     Resists drought
Conifer     Tap
Hornbeam    Tap                   30
Pine        Tap
Red Oak     Heart                         .66
Sycamore    Heart
Evergeen    Flat
Bamboo      Flat                          .85
Willow      Flat
Poplar      Flat
Maple       Flat
Cottonwood  Flat
Redwood     Flat
Ash         Flat                                                    Helicopter seeds
Douglas Fir                      100
Spruce                    .1      60

Tree mass fraction
Transport roots         .15
Fine roots              .05
Trunk                   .60
Branches                .15
Leaves                  .05
```
For a large tree,
```Trunk radius    =   .5 meters
Trunk height    =   10 meters
Trunk density   =  800 kg/m3
Trunk mass      =  6.3 tons
Carbon fraction =  .44
Carbon mass     =  2.8 tons
```
A tree should have the following properties:

Wide and tall trunk
Fast-growing
No obnoxious emissions like cottonwood seeds.
Water-efficient
Pest resistant
Taproot (if near buildings)

Elemental abundance

Abundances in parts per thousand.

```            Sun     Earth   Earth   Human
crust   core

Hydrogen   706        1.5            100
Helium     275        -                -
Oxygen       5.92   460              650
Carbon       3.03     1.8            180
Neon         1.76     -                -
Iron         1.17    63     1000        .060
Nitrogen     1.10    41               30
Silicon       .65   270               20
Magnesium     .60    29                 .50
Sulfur        .40      .42             2.5
Calcium              50               14
Phosphorus            1.0             11
Potassium            15                2.5
Sodium               23                1.5
Chlorine               .17             1.5
Flourine               .54              .037
Zinc                   .079             .032
Aluminum             82
Titanium              6.6
Manganese             1.1
Strontium              .36
Nickel                        80
Chromium                      20
Cobalt                         4
```
The abundances for the Earth's core are estimated using solar abundances and including only elements at least as dense as iron.
Internal structure

The following diagrams are based on models and one shouldn't expect too much precision from them.

Uranus
Neptune. Similar structure as Uranus

Io
Europa, 2 models
Callisto

Moon
Titan
Ceres
Pluto

Plate tectonics

```              MicroWatts  Half life   Mantle     PicoWatts/kg
/kg      (billion    abundance  of mantle
years)    (ppb)

Uranium-238      94.6       4.47      30.8        2.91
Uranium-235     569.         .70        .22        .125
Thorium-232      26.4      14.0      124          3.27
Potassium-40     29.2       1.25      36.9        1.08
```
The Earth loses heat at a rate of .087 Watts/m2, for a global heat los of 4.42e13 Watts.

80% of the Earth's heat is from radioactivity and 20% is from accretion.

The radioactive heating rate 3 billion years ago is twice that of today.

The Earth's core temperature is ~ 7000 K.

Rock
```Limestone    Calcium carbonate CaCO3
Mafic        Rock containing iron or magnesium. Abundant below oceans. Denser than feldspar
Granite      Quartz, mica, feldspar, amphibole minerals
Basalt       Solidified lava. Mafic
Igneous      Granite, basalt
Feldspar     KAlSi3O8, NaAlSi3O8, CaAl2Si2O8
```

Magnetic fields

Mercury
Venus

Jupiter magnetosphere
Jupiter plasma torus
Io's volcanos fill Jupiter's magnetosphere with plasma

Saturn magnetosphere
Saturn plasma torus

Uranus
Europa
Ganymede

```          Dipole    Field at  Magneto-  Axis   Radius  Spin    Core     Core   Volcanic
moment    equator   pause     angle  (Earth  (days) heating   Temp
(Earth=1)  (Gauss)   (planet   (deg)   =1)           (1012     (K)
Sun    5000000                                 109      25.0   4e14   1500000
Jupiter  20000       4.28       80       9.6    10.9      .41  400000   36000
Saturn     600        .22       20      <1       9.0      .44  150000   11700
Uranus      50        .23       20      58.6     4.0      .72   18000    5000
Neptune     25        .14       25      47       3.9      .67   18000    5400
Earth        1        .305      10      10.8     1.0     1.00      48    6000    Yes
Europa        .0016   .0072      4.5              .24    3.55       1.6          No
Mercury       .0007   .003       1.5    14        .38   58.6                     No
Venus        <.0004  <.00003     -       -        .95  243.0                     Yes
Mars         <.0002  <.0003      -       -        .53    1.03                    No
Io           ?       ?           ?       ?        .29    1.77     100            Yes
```
The Earth's magnetic moment is 7.91e15 T m3.

Jupiter's mangnetic field is 0.00120 Gauss at Europa's orbit.

The sun rotates with a period of 25.0 days at the equator and 34.4 days at the poles. This extreme differential rotation powers a magnetic field dynamo.

For an object to have a magnetic field it needs size, heat, and spin.

Core heating drives convective turbulence in the mantle, and turbulence generates magnetic fields. If there is no spin, the fields will have random directions and the field at the surface will be small. Spin herds magnetic fields into a uniform orientation and produces a dipole shape, like the Earth's field. In this case the field at the surface will be larger.

Magnetic fields are generated by turbulence and lost by resistive diffusion, and the equilibrium field strength occurs when these are in balance. The larger the object, the longer it takes for diffusion to smooth away the field and the larger the equilibrium field.

Saturn's aurora

Historical volcanoes

Pinatubo
Santorini, Greece
Krakatoa
Krakatoa

```
Region        Volcano     Volume   Index   Year
(km3)

Philippines   Pinatubo        25     6     1991   Largest recent volcano
Washington    St. Helens        .2   5     1980   7 Mtons TNT
Indonesia     Krakatoa        20     6     1883   Audible worldwide
Indonesia     Tambora        160     7     1815   200 Mtons TNT. Caused the "Year without a summer"
Indonesia     Rinjani                7     1258   Caused the Little Ice Age that ended the Viking era
Aegean Sea    Santorini       60     7    -1575   Possible cause of the Greek dark age
New Zealand   Taupo         1170     8   -24500   Most recent magnitude 8 event
Indonesia     Lake Toba     2800     8   -72000   Largest eruption in past 2 million years
Yellowstone   Yellowstone   1000     8  -640000

Volume:  Volume of rock ejected
Index:   Volcanic Explosivity Index
```

Imminent eruptions

Mount Saint Helens
Mount Saint Helens
Mount Rainier
Mount Garibaldi

Lassen Peak
Mount Meager
Mount Cayley
Lava flow

United States volcanic eruptions (excluding Alaska):

```State        Volcano            Year

Washington   Mount St. Helens   2008
Hawaii       Mauna Loa          1984
Hawaii       Kilauea            1983    Continuously active since 1983
Washington   Mount St. Helens   1980
California   Lassen Peak        1915
Washington   Mount Rainier      1894
Washington   Mount Baker        1880
Oregon       Mount Hood         1866
California   Mount Shasta       1786
California   Cinder Cone        1680
```

Hawaii

Atoll formation

Mauna Loa

Mauna Loa is the most active volcano in Hawaii.

Kilauea

Yellowstone National Park

Magma

Subduction volcanic zones

Canary Islands, La Palma Volcano
Taupo Volcano, New Zealand
Lake Toba, Indonesia

Earth temperature

Pinatubo eruption occurs at 1991
Mount Rinjani eruption occurs at 1258

Long-term eruptions

Io

```               Volume      Age
(103 km3)  (Myears)

Washington       180        16
Arabia           350        28.5
S.W. USA        5500        32.5
N. Atlantic     6600        55.5
India           1500        66
Caribbean       4000        88
Indian Ocean   17000       112
S.W. Pacific   68000       121
Parana          2300       133
S. Africa       2500       183
C. Atlantic     2000       200
Siberia         2500       249.4
S.W. China      1000       256.6
```

Earthquakes

San Andreas fault

```                   Magnitude   Year   Megathrust

Japan, Tohoku Region    9.0    2011      *        Fukushima nuclear disaster
Chile, Offshore Maule   8.8    2010      *
Indonesia, Sumatra      9.1    2004      *        Tsunami
Chile, Valdivia         9.5    1960      *        Largest quake in recorded history
San Francisco           7.8    1906
South Carolina          7.3    1886               Intraplate
Missouri                8.1    1811               Intraplate
Portugal, Lisbon        8.8    1755      *
Pacific Ocean, Cascadia 9.0    1700      *
China, Shaanxi          8.3    1556               Deadliest earthquake in recorded history
Sparta Earthquake       7.2    -464               Lead to a Helot revolt and the Peloponnesian War
```
A megathrust earthquake occurs when a subduction fault breaks.
Largest Earthquakes

```Chile, Valdivia         9.5    1960    Largest Earthquake of the seismometer era
Indonesia, Sumatra      9.1    2004    Tsunami
Japan, Tohoku Region    9.0    2011    Fukushima nuclear disaster
Kamchatka               9.0    1952
Portugal, Lisbon        8.8    1755
Himalayas               8.7    1950
```

United States earthquakes

```              Mag  Year

California    7.9  1906   San Francisco
Hawaii        7.9  1868
California    7.9  1857   Halfway between San Francisco and Los Angeles
California    7.8  1872   East California, halfway between San Francisco and Los Angeles
Missouri      7.7  1811   Intraplate
California    7.5  1952   North of Los Angeles near Bakersfield
Wyoming       7.4  1959
Idaho         7.3  1983
S. Carolina   7.3  1886   Intraplate
Hawaii        7.2  1975
California    7.1  1999   Halfway between Los Angeles and Los Vegas
California    7.0  1992   East of Los Angeles near Palm Springs
```
The list doesn't include Alaskan earthquakes because they dwarf the earthquakes of the continental United States and Hawaii.

All earthquakes with a magnitude of 7.0 or higher are included. These earthquakes occur around 7 times per century.

Most of the Earthquakes are on the west coast or the Yellowstone Caldera, with rare exceptions such as Missouri and South Carolina.

Tsunamis

Fukushima tsunami

2004 tsunami

Tsunami speed
```Gravity constant           =  g  =  9.8 m/s2
Ocean depth                =  H  =  3700 meters (average)
Wavelength                 =  λ
Wave period                =  T
Wavespeed (shallow water)  =  Vshallow =  (g H)½                          (shallow if λ > H)
Wavespeed (deep water)     =  Vdeep    =  (2π)-½ (g λ)½  =  g T / (2π)    (deep if λ < H)
Tsunami speed              =  190 m/s =  Mach  .56         (Shallow wavespeed and H=3700 meters)
Commercial airplane speed  =  300 m/s =  Mach  .9
Speed of sound             =  340 m/s =  Mach 1.0
Tsunami distance in 1 hour =  680 km
```

Hurricanes

Hurricane Katrina

Breached Levee
Breached Levees. Red dots indicate deaths

Floods

The Netherlands
The Netherlands if the dykes fail

Wind
```          Wind speed  Pressure  Pressure
(m/s)     (Bars)    (Pascals)

Storm            18   .0014     14
Hurricane 1      33   .0047     48
Hurricane 2      43   .0080     81
Hurricane 3      50   .0108    110
Hurricane 4      58   .0146    150
Hurricane 5      70   .0212    215
Fastest cyclone 113   .055    5600    Cyclone Olivia
Tornado T11     135   .079    7961    Fastest wind speed recorded
Sound speed     340   .50    51000

TORRO Index      =  T
TORRO wind speed =  VTORRO =  2.365 (T+4)3/2
Atmos. pressure  =  Patm   =  101300 Pascals
Air density      =  D     =  1.22 kg/m^3
Air gamma number =  γ     =  7/5
Wind speed       =  V
Sound speed      =  Vsound =  340 m/s  =  (γ Patm/D)½
Mach number      =  M     =  V / Vsound
Cross section    =  A
Drag coefficient =  C     =  1            (Assume C=1.  Usually between ½ and 1)
Drag pressure    =  Pdrag  =  ½ C D V2
=  ½ C γ M2 Patm
Drag force       =  F     =  ½ C D A V2  =  A Pdrag

Rule of thumb:  Pdrag  ≈  ½ M2 Patm
```
Tornadoes are classified with the TORRO scale and hurricanes are classified with the Saffir-Simpson scale.
Fire

Meteors

Largest craters

Dinosaur extinction 66 Myears ago
Popigai Crater, responsible for a mass extinction 35 MYears ago

Sudbury, Canada, site of a Platinum mine
Manicougan
Acraman

Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay

```                        Diameter   Age
(km)   (Myears)

Australia                  600     545
India       Shiva Crater   500      65
Antarctica  Wilkes Land    490     400    Permian-Triassic
S. Africa   Vredefort      300    2023
Australia   West offshore  250     250
Australia   South          200     300
Mexico      Chicxulub      180      66    12 km asteroid. Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction
Scotland    Offshore       150    1170
Greenland   Maniitsoq      100    3000
Siberia     Popigai        100      35    Eocene-Oligocene extinction
Quebec      Manicouagin    100     214    5 km diameter asteroid
Australia   Acraman         90     580
S. Africa   Morokweng       70     145
Russia      Kara            65      70
Tajikstan   Karakul         52     <25
```

Recent impacts

Elgygytgyn
Lonar
Bosumtwi

Chelyabinsk
Tunguska
Meteor Crater, Arizona

```                        Crater diam    Age
(km)      (Myears)

Chelyabinsk                   -       .00001  19 meter asteroid
Tunguska                      -       .0001   50 meter asteroid
S. Arabia   Wabar             .1      .0001
Estonia     Kaali             .1      .004
Australia   Henbury           .2      .0042
Australia   Boxhole           .2      .0054
Russia      Macha             .3      .007
Poland      Morasco           .1      .0099
Sahara      Tenoumer         1.9      .021
Arizona     Meteor Crater    1.2      .049
China       Xiuyan           1.8      .050
India       Lonar Crater     1.2      .052
Argentina   Rio Cuarto       4.5      .100
S. Africa   Tswaing          1.1      .220
Kazakhstan  Zhamanshin      14        .9
Ghana       Bosumtwi        10.5     1.1
SE Pacific  Eltanin impact  35       2.5     3 km asteroid. May have caused ice age
Siberia     Elgygytygn      18       3.5
Russia      Karla           10       5
Kazakhstan  Bigach           8       5
Germany                     24      14.4
USA         Chesapeake Bay  40      35
Siberia     Popigai        100      35       Eocene-Oligocene extinction
Russia      Siberia         20      40
Russia      Southwest       25      49
India       Shiva Crater   500      65
Ukraine                     24      65
Mexico      Chicxulub      180      66       12 km asteroid. Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction
```
The crater for the Eltanin impact has not been found.
Damage
```Asteroid  Energy  Interval  Crater  Airburst
diam    (Mtons             diam   altitude
(m)     TNT)    (years)    (km)     (km)

4       .003      1.3            42.5
7       .016      4.6            36.3
10       .047     10              31.9
15       .159     27              26.4
20       .376     60              22.4
30      1.3      185              16.5
50      5.9      764               8.7
70     16       1900               3.6
85     29       3300                .58
100     47       5200     1.2       0
130    103      11000     2.0
150    159      16000     2.4
200    376      36000     3.0
250    734      59000     3.8
300   1270      73000     4.6
400   3010     100000     6.0
700  16100     190000    10
1000  47000     440000    13.6
5000            10 mil   100

1 Mton TNT               = 4.2e15 Joules
Magnitude 9 earthquake   =   2e22 Joules
1 kiloton TNT explosion  =  Magnitude 4.0 earthquake
```
Asteroids less than 200 meters in size can produce tsunamis but earthquake tsunamis are more frequent. Asteroids larger than 200 meters can produce tsunamis beyond any earthquake tsunami. Such events occur once every 36000 years.

Asteroid probabilities can be estimated from moon cratering. One expects 60 objects of at least 5 km in size to strike in last 600 million years. 3 such craters have been found.

Mass extinctions

```                                Age      Cause
(Myears)

Holocene extinction               Now    Industrial age
Quaternary extinction I           .0013  Hunting. Smote the megafauna
Quaternary ice age maximum        .0265
Quaternary ice age I              .071   Ended .012 million years ago
Quaternary extinction II          .074   Hunting
Quaternary ice age II             .200   Ended .130 million years ago
Quaternary ice age III            .476   Ended .424 million years ago
Quaternary extinction III         .64    Glaciation and hunting
Quaternary ice age IV             .676   Ended .621 million years ago
Quaternary ice age V             1.3     Ended .800 million years ago
Quaternary ice age start         2.5     Asteroid, 3 km. Ended 12 thousand years ago
Middle miocene extinction       14.5     Global cooling
Eocene-Oligocene extinction     34       Asteroid, Popigai crater. Global cooling
Paleocene-Eocene extinction     56       Global heating
Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction 66       12 km asteroid. Chixulub crater. Smote the dinosaurs
Triassic-Jurassic extinction   201       Volcanism
Permian-Triassic extinction    252       Asteroid, Bedout crater. Volcanism. Global warming
Karoo ice age                  360       Lasted until 260 million years ago
Late Devonian extinction       370       Global cooling
Ordovician-Silurian extinction 445       Global cooling
Andean-Saharan ice age         460       Lasted until 420 Myears ago
Cryogenian ice age             850       Snowball Earth. Lasted until 630 Myears ago
Huronian ice age              2400       Great Oxygenation Event. 300 million year snowball earth
```

Megafauna

Woolly Mammoth

Argentavis
American Lion
Megatherum

Deinotherium
Macrauchenia

```Extinction        Myears ago

Haast's Eagle       .0006     Year 1400 CE
Woolly Mammoth      .0040
Mastodon            .010
Macrauchenia        .010
American Lion       .011
Glyptodon           .011
Diprotodon          .046      Marsupial
Titanis            1.8
Deinotherium       7
Argentavis       ~10
```
;

Dinosaur extinction

Luis Alvarez
Luis and Walter Alvarez at the K-T boundary and irridium layer

Asteroids that have passed close to the Earth
```Q = Radius of closest approach / Radius of Earth

Q    Diameter  Date    Energy
(meters)         (Mtons TNT)
Chelyabinsk      1.0      19     2013      .44
Tunguska         1.0      50     1908    12         Flattened a forest
Arizona asteroid 1.0      50   -50000    10         1 km crater
1972 Fireball    1.0089  ~ 6     1972               Skimmed the upper atmosphere
2011-CQ1         1.87      1     2011
2008-TS26        1.96      1     2008
2011-MD          2.94     10     2011
2012-KT42        3.26    ~ 7     2004
Apophis          4.9     325     2029   510
2013-DA14        5.35     30     2013
2012-KP24        8.99     25     2004
2012-BX34       10.3       8     2012
2012-TC4        14.9      17     2012
2005-YU55       60.00    400     2005
```

How much does an asteroid impact heat the atmosphere?
```Heat capacity of air ~ 1.0$\cdot 103$  Joules/kg/Kelvin
Mass of atmosphere  ~  5.1$\cdot 1018$ kg
```
Let F = the fraction of the asteroid's kinetic energy that goes into heating the atmosphere. The atmospheric heating is
```                                Mass of asteroid      Speed of asteroid
Heating  ~  40 kelvin  *  F  *  ----------------  * ( ----------------- )^2
10^15 kg               20 km/s
```
A 10 km asteroid has a mass of ~ 10^15 kg. If the asteroid is less massive than this then you don't have to worry about cooking the atmosphere. The dinosaur-extinction asteroid was ~ 10 km in size.
Natural disasters by death toll
```                    Toll    Year

China floods         4      1931
Yellow River flood   1.5    1887
Shaanxi Earthquake    .83   1556
Tsangshan Earthquake  .45   1976
India, Cyclone        .3    1839
India, Cyclone        .3    1737
Indian Ocean tsunami  .28   2004
Haiyuan Earthquake    .27   1920
Antioch Earthquake    .25    526
China, Typhoon        .23   1975   Typhoon Nina
Haiti, Earthquake     .16   2010
Yangtze River Flood   .14   1935
Japan, Earthquake     .14   1923   Great Kanto Earthquake
Netherlands           .1    1530
Netherlands           .07   1287
Netherlands           .06   1212
Netherlands           .04   1219
```

Plague
```                   Year    Year   Toll (millions or %)
begin   end

Plague of Athens    -429  -426      .1
Antonine Plague      165   180      30%      Europe, Western Asia, Northern Africa
Plague of Cyprian    250   266               Europe
Plague of Justinian  541   542      40%      Europe
Black Death         1346  1350      50%      Europe
Cocoliztli          1545  1548      80%      Mexico
Cocoliztli          1576  1576      50%      Mexico
Spain               1596  1602
London              1603  1603
New England         1616  1619      60%
China               1641  1644               Helped end the Ming Dynasty
Spain, Seville      1647  1652
Plage of London     1665  1666      .1
France              1668  1668      .04
Austria             1679  1679      .076
Balkans             1738  1738      .05
Russia              1770  1772      .05
1st cholera pandem. 1816  1826      .2       Europe, Asia
2nd cholera pandem. 1829  1851      .2       Europa, Asia, North America
3rd cholera pandem. 1852  1860     1         Russia
Flu pandemic        1889  1890     1         Worldwide
6th cholera pandem. 1899  1923     1         Europe, Asia, Africa
China               1910  1912      .04
Flu pandemic        1918  1920    75         Worldwide
Asian flu           1957  1958     2         Worldwide
Hong Kong flu       1968  1969     1         Worldwide
HIV                 1960   now    30         Worldwide
Flu pandemic        2009  2009      .014     Worldwide
Ebola               2013  2016      .011     West Africa
Zika virus          2015   now               Americas
```

Solar flare

Energy

Meteor Crater, Arizona
Dinosaur extinction

```                              Energy
(Joules)

Largest chemical bombs        5⋅1010
Tornado                       2⋅1013    1 km in size, 180 m/s wind
Uranium bomb, 10 kTon TNT     4⋅1013
Avalanche                     2⋅1015
Hydrogen bomb, 10 MTon TNT    4⋅1016
100 meter asteroid            2⋅1017    20 km/s, 2 g/cm3
Krakatoa volcano, 1883        8⋅1017
Apophis asteroid, 270 meters  2⋅1018
Tambora Volcano, 1815         3⋅1018    Largest eruption since Lake Taupo, 180 CE
1 km asteroid                 2⋅1020    20 km/s, 2 g/cm3
Civilization energy/year      6⋅1020
Hurricane                     1⋅1021
Indonesia earthquake 2004     4⋅1022
Magnitude 9.5 earthquake      1⋅1023    Valdivia, Chile, 1960. Largest earthquake in the last century
10 km asteroid                2⋅1023    20 km/s, 2 g/cm3. Size of "dinosaur extinction" asteroid
Supernova, type 1A            2⋅1044
Gamma ray burst               1⋅1047
Small black hole merger       1⋅1048
Supermassive black hole merge 1⋅1056
Higgs catastrophy             1⋅1070
```
The largest earthquakes are at subductions zone in the Pacific rim and they dwarf volcanoes for energy.
Marauding stars
```                  Present   Closest    Date of closest approach
distance  approach   (thousands of years)

Barnards Star       6.0       3.7         10
Alpha Centauri      4.4       3.1         28
Ross 248           10.3       3.024       36
Gliese 445         17.6       3.5         45
Gliese 710         64.2       1.1       1400
```
Distances in lightyears.
Black hole

A black hole has a minimum mass of 3 solar masses. A black hole approaching the solar system would be detected through its influence on Neptune and the Kuiper belt objects. It would be noticed at a range of at least 100 AU.

Supernovae

Future cosmic disasters

Early Earth
Venus

Billions of years from now.

```      .000001 The Wilkes ice basin melts and the ice of East Antarctica follows.
.0001   The constellations disappear because of motions of the stars
.00025  A new volcanic island will form in the Hawaiian chain
.050    California disappears into the Pacific
.100    Rings of Saturn disappear
.230    Limit of predictions of planet orbits
1.0      The sun's luminosity increases by 10% and the oceans evaporate
1.5      Mars warms to above freezing
2.3      Earth's outer core freezes and the magnetic field disappears
2.8      The Earth heats to the point where all life becomes extinct
3.0      The moon spirals outward far enough so that the Earths tilt
is free to wander, causing extreme seasons
4.0      Milky Way and Andromeda collide
5.0      The sun runs out of hydrogen and expands into a red giant
7.5      Earth becomes tidally locked with the sun
7.59     The sun consumes the Earth
7.9      The sun reaches its maximum size and consumes Mars.
Titan warms to above freezing
8.0      The sun becomes a white dwarf with 54% of its present mass
100        The universe's expansion removes all galaxies from view except
for the galaxies of the Local Group
450        The last remaining galaxies of the Local Group coalesce into one galaxy
800        Milky way dims due to dying stars
1000        Star formation ends
30000        Timescale for a stellar encounter close enough to disrupt the Earth's
orbit
120000        The last stars die out
e36 years     Timescale for proton decay. After all the protons have decayed the
universe will consist of electrons, positrons, photons, and neutrinos.
7e68 years    Time for a 3 solar mass black hole to disappear by Hawking radiation
2e106 years   Time for a 20 trillion mass black hole to disappear by Hawking radiation
```

Defense

Mr Miyagi: Best block... not be there
Jeet Kune Do: "Way of the intercepting fist"

```          Defend?   Plan

Asteroid      No
Tsunami       No    Don't build tall buildings on coasts
Tornado       No    Destroys the stoutest buildings. Take the hit and rebuild.
Volcano       No    Don't build cities near volcanoes (Seattle)
Earthquake    Yes   Don't build a city on the San Andreas Fault
Hurricane     Yes   Design buildings to survive sustained 80 m/s winds
Higgs crisis  No
```
If you see a bright flash of light, it's either an asteroid or a nuclear bomb. Close your eyes and ears and brace for the shock wave. Get into shade to avoid radiation and getting fried by the light. Get outdoors and stay away from glass. After the blast, get moving away from the explosion by whatever means available.

If there is an earthquake or asteroid strike in the ocean and you are on the coast, move inland as fast as possible.

Action videos

Tsunami     Rockslide     Dinosaur     Ice collapse

Appendix

Explosive eruptions
```               Volume    Age
(103 km3)  (Myears)

Parana           8.6     132
Parana           7.8     132
Parana           7.6     132
Yemen            6.8      29.5
Parana           6.34    132
Parana           5.65    132
Parana           5.0      27.8
Parana           4.35    132
Parana           3.9     132
Yemen            3.8      29.6
Parana           3.45    132
Chile            3.0      19
Parana           2.9      29.5
Indonesia        2.8        .073      Lake Toba
Chile            2.8       4
Red Sea          2.7      29.5
Yellowstone      2.45      2.059
New Zealand      2.0        .254      Taupo volcanic zone. Whakamaru Village
Idaho            1.8       4.3
Red Sea          1.6      29.5
Idaho            1.5       6.5
New Mexico       1.31     33
New Mexico       1.2      28.5
New Zealand      1.17       .027     Taupo volcanic zone. Lake Taupo
Bolivia          1.1      15
Yellowstone      1.0        .639     Wyoming
Argentina        1.0       2.2
```

Volcanoes by region
```
Japan, Ryukyu Is. .15   7    -4300   Akahoya eruption. Kikai Caldera
Japan, Kyushu Is. .45   7   -20000   Aira Caldera
Japan, Kyushu Is. .6        -30000
Japan                   7   -90000   Mount Aso

Aegian Sea              6     1650   Santorini. Kolumbo volcano
Aegean Sea        .060  7    -1575   Santorini. Possible cause of Greek dark age

Mount Vesuvius          5       79
Mount Vesuvius          6    -2420
Mount Vesuvius          5   -14000
Mount Vesuvius          6   -16000
Italy, Naples     .084  7   -37000   Campi Flegri

Iceland           .015  6     1783
Iceland                 6     1477   Bardarbunga volcano
Iceland           .018  6      934   Katla Volcano

Aleutian Islands        6     -100   Mount Okmok

Mt. Saint Helens  .0002 5     1980   7 Mtons TNT from blast, 24 Mtons total
British Columbia        5     -400   Mount Meager
Oregon                  7    -5677   Mount Mazama, Crater Lake
Yellowstone      1.0    8  -640000   Yellowstone Caldera
California        .6    7  -760000   Long Valley Caldera
Yellowstone             8 -2100000   Island Park Caldera

Santa Maria       .0055 6     1902   Guatemala
Nicaragua               5     1835   Cosiguina volcano
Mexico                  6      930   Ceboruco Volcano
Central America         6      450   Lake Ilopango
Central America         6      -50   Apoyeque
Central America         7   -80000   Lago de Atitlan

Chile                   5     2011   Puyehue-Cordon Caulle
Peru              .030  6     1600   Huanaputina volcano
Argentina               7    -2300   Cerro Blanco volcano
Argentina               8 -2200000   Cerro Galan

New Zealand             5     1886   Mount Tarawera
Mystery Eruption        6     1808   Southwest Pacific
SW Pacific              6     1452   Vanuatu. Kuwae volcano
New Zealand       .12   7      232   Lake Taupo
Vanuatu                 6       50   Ambrym Volcano
New Zealand             6     -250   Raoul Island
New Zealand             5     -550   Mount Tongariro
New Zealand             6    -1460   Taupo Volcano
New Zealand       .10   6    -4300   Kermadec Islands
New Zealand      1.17   8   -24500   Taupo Volcano
New Zealand       .24   7   -50000   Taupo Volcanic Zone
New Zealand             7  -220000   Taupo Volcanic Zone, Rotorua Caldera
New Zealand       .1    7  -230000   Taupo Volcanic Zone, Marora Caldera
New Zealand       .28   7  -240000   Taupo Volcanic Zone, Reporora Caldera
New Zealand       .12   8  -280000   Taupo Volcanic Zone, Whakamaru Caldera
New Zealand      2.0       -340000

Mount Pinatubo    .025  6     1991
Mount Pinatubo          6    -1050

Indonesia         .02   6     1883   Krakatoa
Mount Tambora     .16   7     1815   Indonesia. 200 Mtons TNT-equiv
Papua New Guinea        6     1660
Bougainville            6     1580   Billy Mitchell volcano
Indonesia               7     1258   Mt. Rinjani. May have caused the Little Ice Age
Papua New Guinea        6      800   Dakataua Volcano
Papua New Guinea        6      710   Pago Volcano
Papua New Guinea        6      540   Rabaul Caldera
Papua New Guinea        6    -1370   Pago Volcano
Indonesia               7   -52000   Sunda Arc, Maninjau Caldera
Lake Toba        2.8    8   -72000

North Korea       .11   7      946
Kamchatka               6      240   Ksudach Volcano
Kamchatka               5    -1350   Avachinsky Volcano
Kamchatka               5    -1500   Avachinsky Volcano
Kamchatka         .155  7    -6440   Kurile Lake
Kamchatka               7   -40000   Kurile Lake
```

Historical volcanoes
```              Volume  Index   Year
(103 km3)

Chile                   5     2011   Puyehue-Cordon Caulle
Pinatubo          .025  6     1991
Mt. Saint Helens  .0002 5     1980   7 Mtons TNT from blast, 24 Mtons total
Santa Maria       .0055 6     1902   Guatemala
New Zealand             5     1886   Mount Tarawera
Krakatoa          .02   6     1883
Nicaragua               5     1835   Cosiguina volcano
Mount Tambora     .16   7     1815   Indonesia. 200 Mtons TNT-equiv
Mystery Eruption        6     1808   Southwest Pacific
Iceland           .015  6     1783
Papua New Guinea        6     1660
Santorini               6     1650   Kolumbo volcano
Peru              .030  6     1600   Huanaputina volcano
Bougainville            6     1580   Billy Mitchell volcano
Iceland                 6     1477   Bardarbunga volcano
SW Pacific              6     1452   Vanuatu. Kuwae volcano
Indonesia               7     1258   Mt. Rinjani. May have caused the Little Ice Age
North Korea       .11   7      946
Iceland           .018  6      934   Katla Volcano
Mexico                  6      930   Ceboruco Volcano
Papua New Guinea        6      800   Dakataua Volcano
Papua New Guinea        6      710   Pago Volcano
Rabaul Caldera          6      540
Central America         6      450   Lake Ilopango
Kamchatka               6      240   Ksudach Volcano
New Zealand       .12   7      232   Lake Taupo
Mount Vesuvius          5       79
Vanuatu                 6       50   Ambrym Volcano
Central America         6      -50   Apoyeque
Aleutian Islands        6     -100   Mount Okmok
New Zealand             6     -250   Raoul Island
British Columbia        5     -400   Mount Meager
New Zealand             5     -550   Mount Tongariro
Mount Pinatubo          6    -1050
Kamchatka               5    -1350   Avachinsky Volcano
Papua New Guinea        6    -1370   Pago Volcano
New Zealand             6    -1460   Taupo Volcano
Kamchatka               5    -1500   Avachinsky Volcano
Aegean Sea        .060  7    -1575   Santorini. Minoan eruption. Possible cause of Greek dark age
Argentina               7    -2300   Cerro Blanco volcano
Mount Vesuvius          6    -2420
Japan, Ryukyu Is. .15   7    -4300   Akahoya eruption. Kikai Caldera
New Zealand       .10   6    -4300   Kermadec Islands
Oregon                  7    -5677   Mount Mazama, Crater Lake
Kamchatka         .155  7    -6440   Kurile Lake
Mount Vesuvius          5   -14000
Mount Vesuvius          6   -16000
Japan, Kyushu Is. .45   7   -20000   Aira Caldera
New Zealand      1.17   8   -24500   Taupo Volcano
Japan, Kyushu Is. .6        -30000
Italy, Naples     .084  7   -37000   Campi Flegri
Kamchatka               7   -40000   Kurile Lake
New Zealand       .24   7   -50000   Taupo Volcanic Zone
Indonesia               7   -52000   Sunda Arc, Maninjau Caldera
Lake Toba        2.8    8   -72000
Central America         7   -80000   Lago de Atitlan
Japan             .6    7   -90000   Mount Aso
New Zealand             7  -220000   Taupo Volcanic Zone, Rotorua Caldera
New Zealand       .1    7  -230000   Taupo Volcanic Zone, Marora Caldera
New Zealand       .28   7  -240000   Taupo Volcanic Zone, Reporora Caldera
New Zealand       .12   8  -280000   Taupo Volcanic Zone, Whakamaru Caldera
New Zealand      2.0       -340000
Yellowstone      1.0    8  -640000   Yellowstone Caldera
California        .6    7  -760000   Long Valley Caldera
New Mexico        .6    7 -1150000   Valles Caldera
Yellowstone       .28   7 -1300000   Henry's Fork Caldera
Yellowstone             8 -2100000   Island Park Caldera
Argentina               8 -2200000   Cerro Galan
Idaho             .75   7 -6400000   Heise Volcanic Field
Idaho             .95   7 -6700000   Bruneau-Jarbidge Caldera
```
Dates prior to 0 AD are approximate.

All volcanoes with an index of 6 or larger are listed dating back to 1500 BCE, indeces of 7 or larger back to 100000 years ago, and indices of 8 or larger back to 1 million years ago.

Earthquakes

```                   Magnitude   Year   Metathrust

Chile, Iquique quake    8.2    2014      *
Chile, Illapel quake    8.3    2015      *
Japan, Tohoku Region    9.0    2011      *        Fukushima nuclear disaster
Chile, Offshore Maule   8.8    2010      *
China, Sichuan          8.0    2008
Indonesia, Sumatra      8.6    2005
Indonesia, Sumatra      9.1    2004      *        Tsunami
Peru                    8.4    2001      *
Japan                   6.9    1995
Los Angeles             6.7    1994
Chile, Valdivia         9.5    1960      *
Kamchatka               9.0    1952      *
Himalayas               8.7    1950
San Francisco           7.8    1906
South Carolina          7.3    1886      *
California, Owens Val.  7.6    1872
Chile, Arica            9.0    1868
Hawaii, Big Island      7.9    1868
Italy, Naples           6.9    1857
California, mid-south   7.9    1857               Fort Tejon Earthquake
Japan, Honshu           8.4    1854               Tokai Earthquake. Tsunami
Japan, Honshu           8.4    1854               Nankai Earthquake. Tsunami
Indonesia, Sumatra      8.8    1833
Missouri                8.1    1811
Italy, Calabria         6.9    1783
Portugal, Lisbon        8.8    1755      *
Japan, Hoei quake       9.0    1707      *
Italy, L'Aquila         6.7    1703
Italy, Norcia           6.7    1703
Pacific Ocean, Cascadia 9.0    1700      *
Italy, Irpinia          6.9    1694
Japan, Hokkaido         8.9    1611
China, Shaanxi          8.3    1556               Deadliest earthquake in recorded history
Portugal, Lisbon        6.9    1531
Japan, Honshu           8.6    1498
Rome                    6.9    1348
Crete                   8      1303               Tsunami destroyed Alexandria
Japan, Senriki quake    8.9     869      *
Beirut Earthquake       7.5     551               Tsunami
Crete Earthquake        8.5     365      *
Pompei Earthquake       6        62
Rhodes Earthquake       ?      -226
Sparta Earthquake       7.2    -464               Lead to a Helot revolt and the Peloponnesian War
```

Japanese earthquakes

Nankai megathrust plate subduction zone:

```Year  Magnitude  Tsunami  Subduction zone
(m)
684     8.4        3     Nankai
887     8.6       10     Nankai
1096     8.4        7     Nankai
1099     8.0              Nankai
1361     8.4              Nankai
1498     8.6              Nankai
1611     8.9       20
1703     8.2       10     Sagami
1707     8.6       26     Nankai
1854     8.4       21     Nankai
1854     8.4       28     Nankai
1944     8.1       10     Nankai
1946     8.1        6.6   Sagami
2001     9.0       20
```

Lituya Bay tsunami

Asteroid belt

Apophis

Novel measures

Antarctic wind power
a
Cape Denison, Antarctica
Katabatic wind
Douglas Mawson collecting ice in a 45 m/s wind

The center of Antarctica is the least windy place on the planet and the coasts are the windiest places on the planet, especially Cape Denison, where the average wind speed is 25 m/s year-round. These winds are generated by air flowing from the high-altitude center to the low-altitude coast. (a "Katabatic wind")

The wind always blows in the same direction, simplifying construction.

The power generated by a windmill is

```Power  =  AirDensity * CrossSection * WindSpeed3
```

Jet stream power

```Tropical jet stream lower altitude =   7 km
Tropical jet stream upper altitude =  12 km
Tropical jet stream latitude       =  30 degrees
Tropical jet stream typical speed  =  45 m/s
Polar jet stream lower altitude    =  10 km
Polar jet stream upper altitude    =  16 km
Polar jet stream lattitude         =  60 degrees
Polar jet stream typical speed     =  35 m/s
Jet stream width                   = 200 km
Jet stream vertical thickness      =   5 km
Jet stream year of discovery       =1933       (Wiley Post)
Estimated harnessable power        = 100 TW
```

Kalpasar dam

The Kalpasar Project envisages building a 35 km dam across the Gulf of Khambat, turning it into a fresh water reservoir. A 10 lane road link will also be set up over the dam, greatly reducing the distance between Saurashtra and South Gujarat. The gulf is fed by the Naramada, Tapti, Mahi, and Sabarmati rivers.

```Volume of the reservoir              =  16.8 km3 of water.
Water flowing through the reservoir  =  76.7 km3/year
```

Global sunscreen

The Earth's temperature is given by a balance between solar heating and blackbody radiation.

```I = Intensity of solar radiation
T = Earth temperature

dI     4 dT
I ~ T^4      ->       ---- ~ ------
I       T
```
Changing the Earth's temperature by 1 Kelvin requires dI/I ~ .013, corresponding to a sunscreen with area ~ .013 * 1.27e14 ~ 1.7e12 meters, or (1300 km)^2, which is less than the size of the Gobi or Sahara deserts.

The mass of an orbital sunscreen is

```                       Surface area    Thickness    Density
Mass  ~ 1.4*10^12 kg  --------------  -----------  ---------
(1300 km^2)      10^4 m      8 g/cm3
```
An orbital sunscreen can be built from a ~ 1 km metallic asteroid.

The energy required to retrieve this asteroid from the asteroid belt is ~ 10^18 Joules, easily achievable by a solar thermal rocket.

A above scaling is for a brute force sunscreen. With a gyroscope-equipped fleet of orbital mirrors, finesse can amplify the impact. For example, sunlight that would have fallen on equatorial mountains can be redirected to promote arctic agriculture, and snow can be encouraged at the poles. It may even be possible to tame hurricanes and turn them into tourist attractions. This presents an opportunity for global cooperation.

Albedo

The albedo of a surface is the fraction of light reflected. The Earth's average albedo is 0.3.

```                 Albedo

Fresh asphalt     .04
Worn asphalt      .12
Conifer forest    .12
Deciduous forest  .16
Soil              .17
Green grass       .25
Desert sand       .40
New concrete      .55
Ocean ice         .60
Fresh snow        .85
```
The melting of ocean ice is bad news because it lowers the Earth's albedo, increasing the amount of energy it absorbes from the sun.
Orbital mirror

```Surface density    = .006 kg/m2         (JPL design)
Mirror area        = 104 km2
Mirror mass        = 6⋅107 kg
Launch cost per kg = 1000 \$/kg
Launch cost        = 6⋅1010 \$
```

Earth ring

If the Earth had a ring of ice in low orbit then we would enjoy the following benefits:

The equatorial regions would be cooled.
The ice can be used as fuel for spacecraft and satellites.
The ring will clear out all the space junk. The junk will collect in the ring.

You can create a ring by placing a small icy astroid in low Earth orbit and blowing it up. A small asteroid will do because the ring doesn't need to be very massive. The size can be tuned to deliver the right amount of shade.

Atmospheric drag will slowly cause the ring to descend and burn up in the atmosphere.

Distant future

Energy from space

An orbital mirror can power a steam engine and the power can be beamed with microwaves to the Earth.

Power can be beamed from space to the Earth with 50% efficiency using microwaves.

The power used by civilization is ~ 2e13 Watts. A square mirror 100 km on a side collects ~ 1.4e13 Watts of sunlight.

Asteroid mining

The Sudbury basin was formed by a ~ 12 km metallic meteor that struck 1.849 billion years ago. It is rich in platinum, palladium, and gold, nickel, and copper.

Typical composition of a metallic meteorite:

```Iron           .9
Nickel         .1
Gallium        .00005
Germanium      .0001
Iridium        .000001
Chromium     < .0002
Manganese    < .0002
```
A metallic asteroid consists of elements that are at least as dense as iron (7.9 g/cm3). If we assume that the composition of a metallic asteroid mirrors the composition of the sun,
```           Relative    \$/kg      Billions of
abundance             \$ in a 10^10
kg asteroid
Nickel       55600       17         .83
Iron       1000000         .03      .3
Platinum         2.0   88000        .176
Cobalt        2560        30        .08
Rhodium           .4   88000        .039
Lutetium          .17 100000        .017
Ruthenium        2.1    5600        .012
Copper         500         6        .003
Osmium            .89  12000        .011
Iridium           .67  13000        .009
Gold              .33  24000        .008
Thulium           .03  70000        .0023
Erbium            .26   5400        .0014
Holmium           .06   8600        .0005
Rhenium           .06   6200        .0003
Silver            .2     590        .0001
Hafnium           .23    500        .0001
Thallium          .22    480        .0001
Niobium           .8      40        0
Molybdenum       2.6      24        0
Terbium           .02    600        0
Dysprosium        .4      80        0
Tantalum          .04    160        0
Tungsten          .4      50        0
Mercury           .38     16        0
Bismuth           .16     18        0
Thorium           .06     25        0
Uranium           .02     75        0
```
The elements that are potentially worth mining are nickel, iron, platinum, cobalt, and rhodium.
```Platinum in the Earth's crust          ~  .005 parts per million
Platinum in ore from the Sudbury mine  ~  .5   parts per million
Annual platinum production             ~  a few hundred tons per year
Platinum used in mufflers per year     ~  130 tons
```

Appendix

Carbon
```                         Carbon/year      Carbon total
(10^12 kg/yr)     (10^12 kg)

Atmosphere                     4            800
Soil                                       1500      Down to a depth of 1 meter
Fossil pool                               10000
Surface ocean                              1000
Deep ocean                                37000
Ocean sediment                             6000
Biosphere total carbon                     4000
Land plants                   56            560
Land plants (agricultural)      .3           30
Land plants eaten by animals  18
Land animals                                   .3
Land animals (domestic)                        .1   Mostly cattle
Ocean plants                  48              5     Almost all is eaten by animals
Ocean animals                               150
Civilization                   9            618     Carbon emitted per year and total atmos increase
Amazon basin                                110
Rainforests                   16
Temperate forests             24
Agriculture agriculture       11
Ocean                         39
Desert                          .2
Atmosphere to ocean           92
Ocean to atmosphere           90
Whale depletion                 .002                Whales bring iron to the surface, fertilizing algae
```
We assume that dry biomass is 1/3 of total biomass, and that carbon is 1/2 of dry biomass.

Of the carbon collected by plants, half is used for respiration and returns to the atmosphere.

Whales transport iron from the deep ocean to the surface, fertilizing algae, and then the algae transport carbon to the deep ocean. Because of whale depletion, less carbon is being sequestered by .002e12 kg carbon/year.

Bacteria biomass is at least as large as plant biomass.

```Amazon rainforest average biomass  =  908  tons/Hectare
Amazon rainforest maximum biomass  =  365  tons/Hectare

Carbon production
(kg/meter^2/year)
Swamp                 2.5
Tropical rainforest   2.0
Coral                 2.0
Algae                 2.0
River estuary         1.8
Temperate forest      1.25
Agriculture            .65
Tundra                 .14
Ocean                  .125
Desert                 .003
```
On Venus, the crustal CO2 outgased into the atmosphereVenus

Ozone

Expanded list of rivers
```             1000 m3/s   Location of outflow

World total   1184

Mississippi     16.8     US.      Gulf of Mexico
Apalachicola      .470   US.      Gulf of Mexico
Brazos            .238   US.      Gulf of Mexico
Trinity           .180   US.      Gulf of Mexico
Colorado (Tx)     .074   US.      Gulf of Mexico
Rio Grande        .068   US, Mex. Gulf of Mexico
St. Lawrence    16.8     US, CA.  Atlantic Ocean
Susquehanna      1.135   US.      Atlantic Ocean
St. John's        .425   US.      Atlantic Ocean
Potomac           .306   US.      Atlantic Ocean
Roanoke           .221   US.      Atlantic Ocean
Columbia         7.5     US.      Pacific Ocean.  Seattle
Sacramento        .665   US.      Pacific Ocean.  California
Skagit            .468   US, Can  Pacific Ocean.
San Joaquin       .145   US.      Pacific Ocean.  California

Mississippi River tributaries:
Ohio             7.96
Missouri River   2.48
Red              1.61
Arkansas         1.15
Illinois          .66

Fraser           3.48    Canada.  Pacific Ocean.  Vancouver

Danube           7.1     Bulgaria.  Black Sea
Neva             2.44    Russia.    Baltic Sea
Rhine            2.33    Netherlands.  North Sea
Rhone            1.71    France.    Mediterranean Sea
Dneiper          1.67    Ukraine.   Black Sea
Vistula          1.08    Poland.    Baltic Sea
Don               .935   Russia.    Black Sea
Loire             .84    France     Atlantic Ocean
Glomma            .72    Norway.    North Sea
Elba              .711   Germany.   North Sea
Daugava           .68    Russia.    Baltic Sea
Neman             .62    Lithuania. Baltic Sea
Oder              .574   Germany,   Poland.  Baltic Sea
Seine             .50    France.    Atlantic Ocean
Tagus             .50    Portugal.  Atlantic Ocean
Douro             .442   Portugal
Ebro              .426   Spain.     Mediterranean Sea
Meuse             .35    Netherlands.  North Sea
Dniester          .31    Ukraine.   Black Sea
Achelous          .25    Greece.    Mediterranean Sea
Tiber             .239   Italy.     Meditarranean Sea
Shannon           .208   Ireland.   Atlantic Ocean
Arno              .110   Italy.     Mediterranean Sea
Thames            .066   UK.        North Sea
Severn            .061   UK.        Atlantic Ocean
Maritsa           ?      Greece, Turkey.  Mediterranean Sea
Nestos            ?      Greece.    Aegean Sea

Ganges System   38       Bangladesh.  Bay of Bengal.  Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna rivers
Godavari         3.50    India.   Bay of Bengal
Kaladan          3.47    India.   Bay of Bengal
Krishna          2.21    India.   Bay of Bengal
Mahanadi         2.12    India.   Bay of Bengal
Narmada          1.45    India.   Arabian Sea      Gulf of Khambhat
Brahmi-Baitarani  .90    India.   Bay of Bengal
Cauvery           .68    India.   Bay of Bengal
Tapti             .49    India.   Arabian Sea      Gulf of Khambhat
Subarnarekha      .39    India.   Bay of Bengal    Gulf of Khambhat
Mahi              .38    India.   Arabian Sea
Penner            .20    India.   Bay of Bengal
Sabarmati         .12    India.   Arabian Sea      Gulf of Khambhat

Mekong          14.8     Vietnam
Salween          4.88    Thailand
Red              2.64    Vietnam.  Gulf of Tonkin

Indus            6.6     Pakistan

Shinano           .514   Japan
Mogani            .392   Japan
Tone              .256   Japan
Kiso              .169   Japan
Jinzu             .164   Japan
Nagara            .120   Japan
Chikugo           .094   Japan
Ibi               .084   Japan
Fuji              .063   Japan

Amazon         209       Brazil
Orinoco         36       Venezuela
Magdalena        7.0     Colombia
Atrato           4.9     Colombia
Sao Francisco    2.94    Brazil
San Juan         2.20    Colombia
Essequibo        2.10    Guyana
Rio de la Plata 22       Argentina

Fly              6.0     Papua New Guinea
Kikori           3.27    Papua New Guinea

Kapuas           6.0     Indonesia.  Kalimantan
Barito           5.5     Indonesia.  Kalimantan
Mamberano        4.58    Indonesia.  New Guinea
Sepik            3.80    Indonesia.  New Guinea
Mahakam          2.50    Indonesia.  Kalimantan

Yangtze         30.2     China
Amur            11.4     China, Russia
Pearl            9.5     China
Yellow           2.57    China
Yalu             1.04    China.  Korea Bay
Hai               .717   China
Liao              .5     China

Congo           41.2     Democratic Republic of Congo
Zambezi          7.1     Mozambique
Niger            5.59    Nigeria
Nile             2.83    Egypt

Murray            .767   Australia
Darling           .1     Australia
Lachlan           .04    Australia
Warrego           .003   Australia

Usumacinta       3.69    Mexico     Gulf of Mexico
Papaloapan       1.42    Mexico     Gulf of Mexico
Coatzacoalcos     .89    Mexico     Gulf of Mexico
Panuco            .65    Mexico     Gulf of Mexico
Balsas            .53    Mexico     Pacific
Rio Santiago      .320   Mexico     Pacific
Verde             .19    Mexico     Pacific
Fuerte            .16    Mexico     Pacific
San Pedro         .11    Mexico     Pacific
Culiacon          .10    Mexico     Pacific
Yaqui             .10    Mexico     Pacific
Sinaloya          .07    Mexico     Pacific

Yenisei         19.6     Russia   Arctic Ocean
Lena            16.9     Russia   Arctic Ocean
Ob-Irtysh       12.5     Russia   Arctic Ocean
Volga            8.1     Russia.  Caspian sea
Pechora          3.95    Russia.  Arctic Ocean
Kolima           3.80    Russia.  Arctic Ocean
Northern Dvina   3.33    Russia.  Arctic Ocean
Khatanga         3.32    Russia.  Arctic Ocean
Pyasina          2.55    Russia.  Arctic Ocean
Amu              2.52    Uzbekistan.  Aral Sea  (landlocked)
```

Water
```          People    Land   People   Rain    Rain    Rain  Irrigate  Kg of fertilizer
(106)  (106 km2)   /Ha     (m)  tons/prsn (km3)     (km2)     /person/yr
/year)
World       7254   148.9      .49    .990   20.2  107000
China       1371     9.57    1.42    .645    4.54   6173  .546      13.6
India       1275     3.17    3.97   1.083    2.73   3433  .558
USA          322     9.53     .33    .715   21.7    6814  .224       28.3
Indonesia    258.7   1.905   2.70   2.702   10.0    5147  .0450
Brazil       205     8.52     .24   1.761   73.4   15004  .0292       8.3
Pakistan     191      .882   2.37    .494    2.08    436  .182
Nigeria      187      .924   1.93   1.150    5.96   1060  .0028
Bangladesh   159      .148  10.7    2.666    2.49    395  .0472
Russia       146    17.10     .46    .460   10.0    7865  .0460
Japan        127      .378   3.37   1.668    4.95    631  .0259
Mexico       121.7   1.96     .61    .758   12.2    1489  .0632     10.7
Philippines  102.8    .300   3.43   2.348    6.85    704  .0155
Ethiopia      92.2   1.064    .83    .848    9.78    902
Vietnam       91.7    .331   2.68   1.821            603
Egypt         90.4   1.002    .90    .051             51
D.R. Congo    85.0   2.345    .30   1.543           3618
Germany       80.8    .357   2.26    .700    3.09    250            24.8
Iran          79.0   1.648    .48    .228    4.75    376  .0765
Turkey        78.7    .784   1.02    .593    5.81    465  .0522
Thailand      65.2    .513   1.31   1.622            832  .0499
UK            64.1    .243   2.62   1.220    4.60    295            20.3
France        64.1    .641   1.18    .867    8.67    556            39.0
Italy         60.8    .301   2.02    .832    4.11    250
South Africa  55.0   1.221    .50    .495            604
Myanmar       54.4    .677    .76   2.091           1416
South Korea   50.4    .100   5.05   1.274    2.52    127
Colombia      48.5   1.142    .43   3.240   75.3    3700
Spain         46.6    .506    .93    .636    6.91    322            25.8
Argentina     43.4   2.78     .59   2.780   47.1    1643             9.2
Ukraine       42.8    .604    .75    .565            341
Poland        38.5    .313   1.23    .600            188
Iraq          36.6    .434    .83    .216    2.60     94
Canada        35.7   9.09     .04    .537  137.0    4883  .0078     44.8
Saudi Arabia  32.2   2.150    .06    .059    9.8     127
Peru          31.5   1.285   1.74   1.738   10.0    2233  .0012
Venezuela     31.0    .916   2.04   2.044   60.4    1872  .0056
Malaysia      30.9    .331    .93   2.875   30.9     952
Nepal         28.4    .147   1.80   1.500            220
North Korea   25.3    .123   2.05
Australia     23.9   7.69     .03    .534  172.0    4106
Taiwan        23.5    .036   6.47
Sri Lanka     20.7    .066   3.09   1.712    5.54    112
Romania       19.9    .238    .84    .637            152
Syria         18.5    .185   1.15    .252    2.19     47
Chile         18.2    .756   1.52   1.522   10.0    1151
Netherlands   17.0    .042   4.09    .778
Ecuador       16.3    .256    .63   2.274   36.1
Guatemala     16.2    .109   1.45   1.996   13.8
Cambodia      15.6    .181    .84   1.904
Belgium       11.3    .0305  3.70    .847
Cuba          11.2    .110   1.02   1.335   13.1
Haiti         11.1    .027   4.03   1.440    3.57
Bolivia       11.0   1.099    .095  1.146  120.6
Greece        10.8    .132    .84    .652
Czech Repub.  10.5    .0789  1.33    .677
Portugal      10.4    .092   1.15    .854
Domin.Repub.  10.1    .048   2.20   1.410    6.41
U.A.E.         9.86   .084           .078              6.6
Hungary        9.85   .093   1.06
Sweden         9.85
Jordan         9.53   .089   1.07
Belarus        9.50
Austria        8.70
Honduras       8.7    .112    .75   1.976   26.3
Israel         8.46   .0221  3.84
Switzerland    8.31
Papua N.G.     8.08   .463    .16   3.142  196      1455
Hong Kong      7.32
Bulgaria       7.20
Serbia         7.11
Paraguay       6.85   .407    .16   1.130
Laos           6.47
El Salvador    6.40   .021   3.01   1.784
Nicaragua      6.20   .121    .50   2.280
Lebanon        5.94
Denmark        5.71   .0431  1.31
Singapore      5.54
Finland        5.50
Slovakia       5.42
Norway         5.06   .324    .16   1.414   90.5     458
Costa Rica     4.77   .051    .91   2.926
Palestine      4.68
Ireland        4.64   .0703   .65
New Zealand    4.61   .270    .17   1.732  102.0     468
Croatia        4.23   .0565   .76
Kuwait         4.18   .0178  2.01    .121              2.2
Bosnia & H.    3.79
Panama         3.76   .074    .46   2.928
Georgia        3.73
Uruguay        3.48  1.76     .19   1.300
Puerto Rico    3.47   .0089  4.00   2.054
Mongolia       3.07
Jamaica        2.72   .0110  2.47   2.051
Trinidad & T.  1.35   .0052  2.58   2.200
Bhutan          .77                 2.200
The Bahamas     .39   .0139   .25   1.292
Belize          .37   .023    .14   1.704
Qatar                 .0116          .074               .86
Libya                1.76            .056             98.6
Morocco               .447           .346            155

People           Total population in units of millions
People/Ha        People per hectare
Rain             Precipitation in meters of rain per meter^2 of land per year
Rain/person      Rainwater per person in units of 10^4 meters3/person/year
This is obtained by taking the "Rain" column and dividing it by the
"People/Ha" column.
Rain             Volume of rain falling on the country in km3 per year
```
The abundance of rainwater per person per year is reflected by the column "rain/person".
Birds
```                   Bird deaths per GWh of electricity

Wind turbines             .269
Nuclear                   .416
Fossil fuel plants       5.18
```
Bird deaths per year

Oil pipelines

Keystone pipeline

```USA oil production        = 9.40 Mbarrels/day  (2015)
Keystone pipeline capacity=  .59 Mbarrels/day
Keystone proposed upgrade = +.7  Mbarrels/day
Texas                     = 3.17 Mbarrels/day
Gulf                      = 1.40 Mbarrels/day
N. Dakota                 = 1.09 Mbarrels/day
California                =  .50 Mbarrels/day
Oil Jobs                  =  9 million
GDP fraction              = .07
Fraction from top 10 corps= .52
Texas, Eagle Ford         = 308.3 Bb/year
ND, Bakken Formation      = 123.8 Bb/year
Texas, Sprayberry         =  99.8 Bb/year
Alaska, Prudhole Bay      =  79.1 Bb/year
Gulf, Shenzi              =  35.3 Bb/year
Alaska, Kuparuk River     =  29.5 Bb/year
Cal, Midway-Sunset        =  28.8 Bb/year
Gulf, Atlantis            =  27.3 Bb/year
Texas, Sugarkane          =  25.8 Bb/year
Refinery pipeline fractiob=  .58   Fraction of crude arriving from pipelines
Refinery tanker ship frac =  .31
Refinery barge fraction   =  .057
Refinery rail fraction    =  .027
Refinery tanker truck frac=  .026
State revenue from 2007   =  2.0 billion
State take from fed land revenue  = .50
State take from offshore  = .27
```

Geography

Rain

Precipitation by month

Sun

Wind

Pacific islands

```                 km^2 / 1000
New Zealand        269
Solomon Islands     28.4
New Caledonia       19.1
Fiji                18.3
Hawaii              16.6      USA
Vanuatu Islands     12.2
French Polynesia     4.17     France
Samoa                2.94
Kiribati              .811
F.S. Micronesia       .702
Guam                  .549    USA
Northern Mariana Is.  .477    USA
Tonga                 .748
Palau                 .458
Wallis and Futuna     .274    France
American Samoa        .199    USA
Marshall Islands      .181
Easter Island         .164    Chile
Tuvalu                .026
Nauru                 .021
Pitcairn Islands      .005    UK
Wake Island           .002    USA
```

Bodele depresssion

The Dodele depression in Chad contains mineral-rich dust that is useful for plants. Wind carries the dust to the South America, which replenishes the minerals lost to rivers.

```Bodele dust carried away by wind       255 Gkg/yr
Bodele dust landing in South America    50 Gkg/yr
```

Lakes
```           Volume    Area      Ave    Residence time
(kkm^3)  (kkm^2)   depth     (years)
(m)
World      1335000  361.9k    3688
Pacific     669880  168.7k    3970
Atlantic    310411   85.1k    3646
Indian      264000   70.6k    3741
Antarctic    71800   22.0k    3270
Arctic       18800    156k    1205
Caspian Sea     78.2   371              250
Lake Baikal     23.6    31.7            330
Tanganyika      18.9    32.9
Superior        11.6    82.1            191
Malawi           7.72   29.6
Vostok           5.4    15.7          13300
Michigan         4.92   58.0             99
Huron            3.54   59.6
Victoria         2.7    68.8
Great Bear Lake  2.24   31.2            124
Issky-Kul        1.73    6.24
Ontario          1.71   19.0
Great Slave Lake 1.58   27.2
Lagoda            .918  18.1
Erie              .48   25.7
Winnipeg          .284  24.5
Nipigon           .248   4.85
Lake Tahoe        .151    .496          650
Great Salt Lake          5.48                 All lakes below this are in the USA
Lake of the Woods        3.85
Okeechobee               1.72
Pontchartrain            1.63
Sakakawea                1.35
Champlain                1.27
St. Claire               1.10
Red Lake                 1.11
Fort Peck Lake           1.12
Salton Sea                .899
Rainy Lake                .894
Devils Lake               .777
Toledo Bend Reservoir     .736
Lake Powell               .650
Winnebago                 .557
Mille Lacs Lake           .536
```
All lakes larger than 900 km^3 and 18000 km^2 are included. All US lakes larger than 500 km^2 are included.
Wind power

Ships can use wind power for propulsion. A "Flettner" rotor is a spinning cylinder that uses the magnus force for propulsion. This is the same effect that produces a curveball in baseball.

Cement
```CO2 emission                       =  .9 kg CO2 per 1 kg cement
CO2 fraction from buring fuel      =  .40
CO2 fraction from cement chemistry =  .50
```

Supercomputers

A Cray Supercomputer from the 1970s, now used as furniture

John von Neumann, Robert Oppenheimer, and the EDVAC computer (built in 1949)

The fastest supercomputers are:

```         Speed   Memory  Cores  Gflops  Disk    M\$  MWatts  Gflops  Gflops   Year
Pflops  PByte          /core   PByte               /Watt     /\$

Summit     150    1.74                          325   10     15.0     .46    2018   USA
TiahuLight  93    1.31   10.6    8.8            273   15      6.2     .34    2016   China
Tianhe-2    33.9  1.375   3.12  10.9    12400   390   17.6    1.9     .087   2013   China
Titan       17.6   .694    .30  58.7    40000    97    8.2    2.1     .18    2012   USA
Sequoia     17.2  1.50    1.57  11.0                   7.9    2.2            2013   USA
K computer  10.5           .71  14.8                  12.6     .9            2011   Japan
Shoubu       1.05  .082   1.18    .9                    .15   7.0            2015   Japan

Flops= Floating point operations per second (adds or multiplies)
Cores= Processing units (CPUs)
Exa  = 1018
Peta = 1015
Tera = 1012
Giga = 109
Mega = 106
```
The Shoubu supercomputer is not among the fastest but it is included because it has the highest value for Gflops/Watt. The list of supercomputers with high values for Gflops/Watt is the "Green 500".

The number for "Gflops/core" can be misleading because the cores are equipped with GPUs (vector graphical processing units) that enhance the Gflops.

Crowd computing
```                       1015 flops   Type

Protein folding            39.7    Crowd   Folding@home
Collatz conjecture          2.3    Crowd
Protein structure           1.65   Grid    GPUGRID
Prime number search         1.23   Grid
Einstein pulsar search       .90   Crowd
Search for alien signals     .82   Crowd
World Community Grid         .47   Grid    Drug development
Protein structure            .53   Crowd
Milky Way star distances     .40   Crowd
Asteroid finding             .22   Crowd
Crack the RC5 cipher         .21   Crowd
Mersenne primes              .17   Crowd

Crowd computing:  Run on home computers
Grid computing:   Run on specialized supercomputers
```

Water
```          People    Land   People   Rain    Rain    Rain  Irrigate  Kg of fertilizer
(106)  (106 km2)   /Ha     (m)  tons/prsn (km3)     (km2)     /person/yr
/year)
World       7254   148.9      .49    .990   20.2  107000
China       1371     9.57    1.42    .645    4.54   6173  .546      13.6
India       1275     3.17    3.97   1.083    2.73   3433  .558
USA          322     9.53     .33    .715   21.7    6814  .224       28.3
Indonesia    258.7   1.905   2.70   2.702   10.0    5147  .0450
Brazil       205     8.52     .24   1.761   73.4   15004  .0292       8.3
Pakistan     191      .882   2.37    .494    2.08    436  .182
Nigeria      187      .924   1.93   1.150    5.96   1060  .0028
Bangladesh   159      .148  10.7    2.666    2.49    395  .0472
Russia       146    17.10     .46    .460   10.0    7865  .0460
Japan        127      .378   3.37   1.668    4.95    631  .0259
Mexico       121.7   1.96     .61    .758   12.2    1489  .0632     10.7
Philippines  102.8    .300   3.43   2.348    6.85    704  .0155
Ethiopia      92.2   1.064    .83    .848    9.78    902
Vietnam       91.7    .331   2.68   1.821            603
Egypt         90.4   1.002    .90    .051             51
D.R. Congo    85.0   2.345    .30   1.543           3618
Germany       80.8    .357   2.26    .700    3.09    250            24.8
Iran          79.0   1.648    .48    .228    4.75    376  .0765
Turkey        78.7    .784   1.02    .593    5.81    465  .0522
Thailand      65.2    .513   1.31   1.622            832  .0499
UK            64.1    .243   2.62   1.220    4.60    295            20.3
France        64.1    .641   1.18    .867    8.67    556            39.0
Italy         60.8    .301   2.02    .832    4.11    250
South Africa  55.0   1.221    .50    .495            604
Myanmar       54.4    .677    .76   2.091           1416
South Korea   50.4    .100   5.05   1.274    2.52    127
Colombia      48.5   1.142    .43   3.240   75.3    3700
Spain         46.6    .506    .93    .636    6.91    322            25.8
Argentina     43.4   2.78     .59   2.780   47.1    1643             9.2
Ukraine       42.8    .604    .75    .565            341
Poland        38.5    .313   1.23    .600            188
Iraq          36.6    .434    .83    .216    2.60     94
Canada        35.7   9.09     .04    .537  137.0    4883  .0078     44.8
Saudi Arabia  32.2   2.150    .06    .059    9.8     127
Peru          31.5   1.285   1.74   1.738   10.0    2233  .0012
Venezuela     31.0    .916   2.04   2.044   60.4    1872  .0056
Malaysia      30.9    .331    .93   2.875   30.9     952
Nepal         28.4    .147   1.80   1.500            220
North Korea   25.3    .123   2.05
Australia     23.9   7.69     .03    .534  172.0    4106
Taiwan        23.5    .036   6.47
Sri Lanka     20.7    .066   3.09   1.712    5.54    112
Romania       19.9    .238    .84    .637            152
Syria         18.5    .185   1.15    .252    2.19     47
Chile         18.2    .756   1.52   1.522   10.0    1151
Netherlands   17.0    .042   4.09    .778
Ecuador       16.3    .256    .63   2.274   36.1
Guatemala     16.2    .109   1.45   1.996   13.8
Cambodia      15.6    .181    .84   1.904
Belgium       11.3    .0305  3.70    .847
Cuba          11.2    .110   1.02   1.335   13.1
Haiti         11.1    .027   4.03   1.440    3.57
Bolivia       11.0   1.099    .095  1.146  120.6
Greece        10.8    .132    .84    .652
Czech Repub.  10.5    .0789  1.33    .677
Portugal      10.4    .092   1.15    .854
Domin.Repub.  10.1    .048   2.20   1.410    6.41
U.A.E.         9.86   .084           .078              6.6
Hungary        9.85   .093   1.06
Sweden         9.85
Jordan         9.53   .089   1.07
Belarus        9.50
Austria        8.70
Honduras       8.7    .112    .75   1.976   26.3
Israel         8.46   .0221  3.84
Switzerland    8.31
Papua N.G.     8.08   .463    .16   3.142  196      1455
Hong Kong      7.32
Bulgaria       7.20
Serbia         7.11
Paraguay       6.85   .407    .16   1.130
Laos           6.47
El Salvador    6.40   .021   3.01   1.784
Nicaragua      6.20   .121    .50   2.280
Lebanon        5.94
Denmark        5.71   .0431  1.31
Singapore      5.54
Finland        5.50
Slovakia       5.42
Norway         5.06   .324    .16   1.414   90.5     458
Costa Rica     4.77   .051    .91   2.926
Palestine      4.68
Ireland        4.64   .0703   .65
New Zealand    4.61   .270    .17   1.732  102.0     468
Croatia        4.23   .0565   .76
Kuwait         4.18   .0178  2.01    .121              2.2
Bosnia & H.    3.79
Panama         3.76   .074    .46   2.928
Georgia        3.73
Uruguay        3.48  1.76     .19   1.300
Puerto Rico    3.47   .0089  4.00   2.054
Mongolia       3.07
Jamaica        2.72   .0110  2.47   2.051
Trinidad & T.  1.35   .0052  2.58   2.200
Bhutan          .77                 2.200
The Bahamas     .39   .0139   .25   1.292
Belize          .37   .023    .14   1.704
Qatar                 .0116          .074               .86
Libya                1.76            .056             98.6
Morocco               .447           .346            155

People           Total population in units of millions
People/Ha        People per hectare
Rain             Precipitation in meters of rain per meter^2 of land per year
Rain/person      Rainwater per person in units of 10^4 meters3/person/year
This is obtained by taking the "Rain" column and dividing it by the
"People/Ha" column.
Rain             Volume of rain falling on the country in km3 per year
```
The abundance of rainwater per person per year is reflected by the column "rain/person".
Birds
```                   Bird deaths per GWh of electricity

Wind turbines             .269
Nuclear                   .416
Fossil fuel plants       5.18
```
Bird deaths per year

Oil pipelines

Keystone pipeline

```USA oil production        = 9.40 Mbarrels/day  (2015)
Keystone pipeline capacity=  .59 Mbarrels/day
Keystone proposed upgrade = +.7  Mbarrels/day
Texas                     = 3.17 Mbarrels/day
Gulf                      = 1.40 Mbarrels/day
N. Dakota                 = 1.09 Mbarrels/day
California                =  .50 Mbarrels/day
Oil Jobs                  =  9 million
GDP fraction              = .07
Fraction from top 10 corps= .52
Texas, Eagle Ford         = 308.3 Bb/year
ND, Bakken Formation      = 123.8 Bb/year
Texas, Sprayberry         =  99.8 Bb/year
Alaska, Prudhole Bay      =  79.1 Bb/year
Gulf, Shenzi              =  35.3 Bb/year
Alaska, Kuparuk River     =  29.5 Bb/year
Cal, Midway-Sunset        =  28.8 Bb/year
Gulf, Atlantis            =  27.3 Bb/year
Texas, Sugarkane          =  25.8 Bb/year
Refinery pipeline fractiob=  .58   Fraction of crude arriving from pipelines
Refinery tanker ship frac =  .31
Refinery barge fraction   =  .057
Refinery rail fraction    =  .027
Refinery tanker truck frac=  .026
State revenue from 2007   =  2.0 billion
State take from fed land revenue  = .50
State take from offshore  = .27
```

Geography

Rain

Precipitation by month

Sun

Wind

Pacific islands

```                 km^2 / 1000
New Zealand        269
Solomon Islands     28.4
New Caledonia       19.1
Fiji                18.3
Hawaii              16.6      USA
Vanuatu Islands     12.2
French Polynesia     4.17     France
Samoa                2.94
Kiribati              .811
F.S. Micronesia       .702
Guam                  .549    USA
Northern Mariana Is.  .477    USA
Tonga                 .748
Palau                 .458
Wallis and Futuna     .274    France
American Samoa        .199    USA
Marshall Islands      .181
Easter Island         .164    Chile
Tuvalu                .026
Nauru                 .021
Pitcairn Islands      .005    UK
Wake Island           .002    USA
```

Bodele depresssion

The Dodele depression in Chad contains mineral-rich dust that is useful for plants. Wind carries the dust to the South America, which replenishes the minerals lost to rivers.

```Bodele dust carried away by wind       255 Gkg/yr
Bodele dust landing in South America    50 Gkg/yr
```

Lakes
```           Volume    Area      Ave    Residence time
(kkm^3)  (kkm^2)   depth     (years)
(m)
World      1335000  361.9k    3688
Pacific     669880  168.7k    3970
Atlantic    310411   85.1k    3646
Indian      264000   70.6k    3741
Antarctic    71800   22.0k    3270
Arctic       18800    156k    1205
Caspian Sea     78.2   371              250
Lake Baikal     23.6    31.7            330
Tanganyika      18.9    32.9
Superior        11.6    82.1            191
Malawi           7.72   29.6
Vostok           5.4    15.7          13300
Michigan         4.92   58.0             99
Huron            3.54   59.6
Victoria         2.7    68.8
Great Bear Lake  2.24   31.2            124
Issky-Kul        1.73    6.24
Ontario          1.71   19.0
Great Slave Lake 1.58   27.2
Lagoda            .918  18.1
Erie              .48   25.7
Winnipeg          .284  24.5
Nipigon           .248   4.85
Lake Tahoe        .151    .496          650
Great Salt Lake          5.48                 All lakes below this are in the USA
Lake of the Woods        3.85
Okeechobee               1.72
Pontchartrain            1.63
Sakakawea                1.35
Champlain                1.27
St. Claire               1.10
Red Lake                 1.11
Fort Peck Lake           1.12
Salton Sea                .899
Rainy Lake                .894
Devils Lake               .777
Toledo Bend Reservoir     .736
Lake Powell               .650
Winnebago                 .557
Mille Lacs Lake           .536
```
All lakes larger than 900 km^3 and 18000 km^2 are included. All US lakes larger than 500 km^2 are included.
Wind power

Ships can use wind power for propulsion. A "Flettner" rotor is a spinning cylinder that uses the magnus force for propulsion. This is the same effect that produces a curveball in baseball.

Cement
```CO2 emission                       =  .9 kg CO2 per 1 kg cement
CO2 fraction from buring fuel      =  .40
CO2 fraction from cement chemistry =  .50
```

Supercomputers

A Cray Supercomputer from the 1970s, now used as furniture

John von Neumann, Robert Oppenheimer, and the EDVAC computer (built in 1949)

The fastest supercomputers are:

```         Speed   Memory  Cores  Gflops  Disk    M\$  MWatts  Gflops  Gflops   Year
Pflops  PByte          /core   PByte               /Watt     /\$

Summit     150    1.74                          325   10     15.0     .46    2018   USA
TiahuLight  93    1.31   10.6    8.8            273   15      6.2     .34    2016   China
Tianhe-2    33.9  1.375   3.12  10.9    12400   390   17.6    1.9     .087   2013   China
Titan       17.6   .694    .30  58.7    40000    97    8.2    2.1     .18    2012   USA
Sequoia     17.2  1.50    1.57  11.0                   7.9    2.2            2013   USA
K computer  10.5           .71  14.8                  12.6     .9            2011   Japan
Shoubu       1.05  .082   1.18    .9                    .15   7.0            2015   Japan

Flops= Floating point operations per second (adds or multiplies)
Cores= Processing units (CPUs)
Exa  = 1018
Peta = 1015
Tera = 1012
Giga = 109
Mega = 106
```
The Shoubu supercomputer is not among the fastest but it is included because it has the highest value for Gflops/Watt. The list of supercomputers with high values for Gflops/Watt is the "Green 500".

The number for "Gflops/core" can be misleading because the cores are equipped with GPUs (vector graphical processing units) that enhance the Gflops.

Crowd computing
```                       1015 flops   Type

Protein folding            39.7    Crowd   Folding@home
Collatz conjecture          2.3    Crowd
Protein structure           1.65   Grid    GPUGRID
Prime number search         1.23   Grid
Einstein pulsar search       .90   Crowd
Search for alien signals     .82   Crowd
World Community Grid         .47   Grid    Drug development
Protein structure            .53   Crowd
Milky Way star distances     .40   Crowd
Asteroid finding             .22   Crowd
Crack the RC5 cipher         .21   Crowd
Mersenne primes              .17   Crowd

Crowd computing:  Run on home computers
Grid computing:   Run on specialized supercomputers
```

Superconductors

Levitating superconductor cooled by liquid nitrogen
Liquid helium

```                 Critical    Critical  Type
temperature  field
(Kelvin)    (Teslas)

Magnesium-Boron2     39        55           MRI machines
Niobium3-Germanium   23.2      37           Field for thin films.  Not widely used
Niobium3-Tin         18.3      30       2   High-performance magnets.  Brittle
Niobium-Titanium     10        15       2   Cheaper than Niobium3-Tin.  Ductile

Technetium           11.2               2
Niobium               9.26       .82    2
Lanthanum             6.3               1
Tantalum              4.48       .09    1
Mercury               4.15       .04    1
Tungsten              4                 1    Not BCS
Tin                   3.72       .03    1
Indium                3.4        .028
Rhenium               2.4        .03    1
Thallium              2.4        .018
Thallium              2.39       .02    1
Aluminum              1.2        .01    1
Gallium               1.1
Protactinium          1.4
Thorium               1.4
Thallium              2.4
Molybdenum             .92
Zinc                   .85       .0054
Osmium                 .7
Zirconium              .55
Ruthenium              .5
Titanium               .4        .0056
Iridium                .1
Lutetium               .1
Hafnium                .1
Uranium                .2
Beryllium              .026
Tungsten               .015

HgBa2Ca2Cu3O8       134                 2
HgBa2Ca Cu2O6       128                 2
YBa2Cu3O7            92                 2
C60Cs2Rb             33                 2
C60Rb                28         2       2
C60K3                19.8        .013   2
C6Ca                 11.5        .95    2    Not BCS
Diamond:B            11.4       4       2    Diamond doped with boron
In2O3                 3.3       3       2
```
The critical fields for Niobium-Titanium, Niobium3-Tin, and Vanadium3-Gallium are for 4.2 Kelvin.

All superconductors are described by the BCS theory unless stated otherwise.

Fluids that are useful for cooling superconductors are:

```         Boiling point (Kelvin)

Water      273
Ethane     185
Xenon      165.1
Krypton    119.7
Methane    111.7
Argon       87.3
Nitrogen    77.4     Threshold for cheap superconductivity
Neon        27.1
Hydrogen    20.3     Cheap MRI machines
Helium-4     4.23    High-performance magnets
Helium-3     3.19
```
The record for Niobium3-Tin is 2643 Amps/mm2 at 12 T and 4.2 K.

Titan has a temperature of 94 Kelvin, allowing for superconducting equipment. The temperature of Mars is too high at 210 Kelvin.

Superconducting critical current

The maximum current density decreases with temperature and magentic field.

Maximum current density in kAmps/mm2 for 4.2 Kelvin (liquid helium):

```
Teslas               16    12     8      4    2

Niobium3-Tin         1.05  3
Niobium3-Aluminum           .6   1.7
Niobium-Titanium            -    1.0    2.4   3
Magnesium-Boron2-C          .06   .6    2.5   4
Magnesium-Boron2            .007  .1    1.5   3

```
Maximum current density in Amps/mm2 for 20 Kelvin (liquid hydrogen):
```
Teslas               4     2

Magnesium-Boron2-C   .4   1.5
Magnesium-Boron2     .12  1.5
```

Wikipedia articles

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_energy_resources
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_uranium_reserves
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thorium-based_nuclear_power
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cost_of_electricity_by_source
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Iron asteroid fuel

Iron metal reacts with oxygen to form mostly Fe3O4, otherwise known as rust or red barn paint. No carbon dioxide is produced. Bringing a 1 km3 iron asteroid to the Earth can satisfy the world's energy demand. The iron can also be used to produce steel, saving on the need to use energy to smelt iron ore.

```Mass of 1 mole of iron =   .0558 kg
Gibbs energy of Fe     =  0      MJoules/mole
Gibbs energy of O2     =  0      MJoules/mole
Gibbs energy of Fe3O4  =  1.014  MJoules per mole of Fe3O4
=   .338  MJoules per mole of Fe
=  6.06   MJoules per kg of Fe
World energy production=   .57   ZJoules/year
Iron mass              =  9.4e13 kg     Mass of iron required to produce the world's annual energy
Iron density           =  7900   kg/meter3
Iron volume            =  1.19e9 meters3       Volume of iron required to produce the world's annual energy
Iron cube side length  =  1060   meters            A cube with this side length has a volume of 1.19e9 meters3
```
The kinetic energy of the asteroid impact can be harnessed as geothermal energy. If we assume that the asteroid strikes at a speed just above the escape speed,
```Earth escape speed     =        11.2 km/s
Asteroid impact speed  =  V  =  12   km/s
Asteroid energy/mass   =  ½ V2  =  72 MJoules/kg
```
The energy/mass of the impact is more than 10 times larger than the energy yielded from burning the iron.

The impact can be softened by dividing the asteroid into small pieces (50 meters in size) and having the pieces impact one by one.

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