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Batman gadgets
Dr. Jay Maron


Electronic propulsion

Tesla Model S

                         Mass     Battery   Battery  Battery   Power   Power   Flight  Price
                                  energy     mass                      /mass    time
                          kg      MJoule      kg      MJ/kg    Watt    W/kg    minutes   $

Jetjat Nano     Drone        .011     .00160                     3.3    303      8      40
ByRobot Fighter Drone        .030     .0040                      6.7    222     10     120
XDrone Zepto    Drone        .082     .0067                      4.6     56     24      40
Walkera QRY100  Drone        .146     .0213    .0413   .52      17.8    122     20     100
DJI Mavic Pro   Drone        .725     .157     .24     .65     109      150     24    1000
DJI Phantom 4   Drone       1.38      .293     .426    .69     174      126     28    1000
JYU Spider X    Drone       2.1       .360     .812    .44     200       95     30     155
MD4-1000        Drone       2.65     1.039                     197       74     88    2000
Walkera QRX800  Drone       3.9       .799    1.134    .70     222       57     60    2700
AEE F100        Drone       6.0      1.598                     380       63     70   58000
Ehang 184       Drone     200       51.8                     37500      188     23  300000
Hammacher       Skate       6.4                                100       16            700
Zero            Scooter     7.0       .899                     450       64            500
Racing bike     Bike        6.8      0        0       0          0        0
Revelo          Bike       15        1.35                      250       17
Seagull         Bike       26.3      2.25                     1000       38           2000
Wolverine       Bike       38.6      8.64                     7000      181          10450
Mitsubishi MiEV Car      1080       58      201        .29   47000       44          16300
Tesla S P85D    Car      2239      306      540        .57  568000      254         115000
Barska TC1200   Flashlight   .41      .032     .45     .71      15       37            120
Violet laser    Laser        .182     .009     .0152   .62        .1       .55          20
RAVPower        Battery      .590     .414     .590    .70                              60
Samsung S5      Phone        .145     .039     .038   1.03
"Drone power" is the power to hover for drones and the maximum engine power for cars and bikes.

For non-electronic racing bikes, the rules state a minimum mass of 6.8 kg. This is an effective minimum mass for an electric bike.

Battery energy is often given in "Watt hours" or "Ampere hours".

Voltage          =  V         Volts
Electric current =  I         Amperes 
Electric power   =  P  =  VI  Watts 
Time             =  T         seconds
Energy           =  E  =  PT  Joules 
1 Watt hour = 1 Watt * 3600 seconds = 3600 Joules
A battery with a voltage of 3.7 Volts that delivers 1 Ampere for 1 hour has an energy of
Energy = 1 Ampere * 3.7 Volts * 3600 seconds = 13320 Joules
Top speed
Top speed  =  V
Power      =  P  =  Constant * V3

                       Power  Top speed  Wheel
                       Watts   km/hour   inches

Action R10      Skate     110    19
Swagtron        Scooter   250    24
Zero            Scooter   450    25
ZoomAir 2       Scooter   250    26
Revelo          Bike      250    28
Daedalus        Bike      350    32
Radrover        Bike      750    32
Seagull         Bike     1000    45
Super Mundo     Bike     3000    48       26
Stealth F37     Bike     3700    60
Stealth H52     Bike     5200    80
Wolverine       Bike     7000   105       26
Mitsubishi MiEV Car     47000   130
Tesla S         Car    568000   249

Energy and power

Energy          =  E  =  F X  Joules
Time            =  T          seconds
Power           =  P  =  E/T  Watts
Mass            =  M          kilograms
Energy/Mass     =  e  =  E/M  Joules/kilogram
Power/Mass      =  p  =  P/M  Watts/kilogram

Engines and energy sources

Tesla Roadster

                       Energy/Mass   Power/mass  Energy/$
                        MJoule/kg     Watt/kg    MJoule/$

Antimatter           90000000000
Fusion bomb            250000000                            Max for fusion bomb
Fission bomb            83000000                            Max for uranium bomb
Nuclear battery, Pu-238  2265000          10       7.6
Nuclear battery, Sr-90    589000          10      59
Methane                       55.5                          Natural gas
Gasoline                      47
Diesel                        46
Fat                           37
Coal                          32
Ethanol                       29
Wood                          22
Sugar                         17
Protein                       17
Plastic explosive              8.0
Smokeless powder               5.2                          Modern gunpowder
Black powder                   2.6                          Medieval gunpowder
Battery, aluminum-air          4.68      130
Battery, lithium sulfur        1.44      670
Battery, lithium ion            .8       750        .007
Battery, lithium polymer        .6      4000
Battery, alkaline               .4
Battery, lead acid              .15      150
Lithium supercapacitor          .054   15000
Supercapacitor                  .016    8000        .00005
Aluminum capacitor              .010   10000        .0001
Human                                     20
Solar cell, space station                 77
Fuel cell                               1000
Gasoline engine                         8200
Electric motor                         10000
Jet engine                             10000
Rocket engine                        3200000
Batteries take an hour to recharge and capacitors charge instantly. Batteries can only be charged 1000 times whereas capacitors can be charged an infinite number of times. All batteries are rechargeable except the aluminum air battery.
Helicopter drones

The flight time of a drone is determined by:
*) The battery energy/mass.
*) The power/mass required to hover.
*) The ratio of the battery mass to the drone mass.

Typical parameters for a drone are:

Drone mass         =  M          =  1.0 kg
Battery mass       =  Mbat        =  .5 kg           (The battery is the most vital component)
Battery energy     =  E          =  .38 MJoules
Battery energy/mass=  ebat= E/Mbat=  .75 MJoules/kg   (Upper range for lithium batteries)
Drone energy/mass  =  e  =  E/M  =  .38 MJoules/kg
Drone power/mass   =  p  =  P/M  =   60 Watts/kg    (Practical minimum to hover. Independent of mass)
Drone power        =  P  =  p M  =   60 Watts       (Power required to hover)
Flight time        =  T  =  E/P  = 6250 seconds  =  104 minutes
The flight time in terms of component parameters is
T  =  (ebat/p) * (Mbat/M)


                Drone  Battery  Drone  Battery  Battery  Drone  Drone  Flight  Price  Wireless
                mass   energy           mass             power          time           range
                 kg    MJoule   MJ/kg    kg      MJ/kg   Watt    W/kg  minutes   $      km

Mota Jetjat Nano .011    .00160  .145                     3.3    303      8      40    .02
ByRobot Fighter  .030    .0040   .133                     6.7    222     10     120    .1
Blade mQX        .0751   .0067   .089                    11.2    149     10     115
XDrone Zepto     .082    .0067   .081                     4.6     56     24      40    .05
Walkera QR Y100  .146    .0213   .146   .0413    .52     17.8    122     20     100    .1
MJX Bugs 3       .485    .0480   .099                    44.4     92     18     100    .5
DJI Mavic Pro    .725    .157    .217   .24      .65    109      150     24    1000   7.0
XK Detect X380C 1.18     .216    .183                   120      102     30     522   1.0
Xiaomi Mi       1.376    .319    .214                   197      143     27     380   1.0
DJI Phantom 4   1.38     .293    .212   .426     .69    174      126     28    1000   5.0
XK X500         1.8      .288    .160                   160       89     30     303   1.0
JYU Spider X    2.1      .360    .171   .812     .44    200       95     30     155   4.0
MD4-1000        2.65    1.039    .392                   197       74     88    2000    .5
DJI Inspire     2.935    .360    .123   .67      .54    333      114     18    2000   7.0
Altura Zenith   3.5     1.327    .379                   491      140     45    2000   1.0
Walkera QR X800 3.9      .799    .205  1.134     .70    222       57     60    2700   2.0
AEE F100        6.0     1.598    .266                   380       63     70   58000  10.0
Chaos HL48      6.8     1.758    .259                   651       96     45   20000  20.0
MD4-3000       10.4     2.80     .269                  1037      100     45           4.0
Ehang 184     200      51.8      .259                 37500      188     23  300000   3.5
Airbus EFan                                              60
The minimum power requirement for quadcopter flight is of order 60 Watts/kg.
1 MJ = 1 MJoule = 106 Joules

Electric power outperformes gasoline power in all categories except energy density. Electric motors are lighter, simpler, cheaper, more flexible, and more reliable than combustion motors.


Fixed-wing drones
            Drone  Battery  Drone  Drone  Drone  Flight  Cost  Wireless  Wing  Wing  Cruise   Max   Flight
            mass   energy    E/M   power          time          range    area  span  speed   speed  range
             kg    MJoule   MJ/kg  Watts  W/kg   minutes  $       km      m2    m     m/s     m/s    km

Sky Hawk       .355  .0346  .097    19.2  54.1     30     400    1.0           1.0
Chaipirinha    .62   .088   .142                          154                   .85
AgDrone       2.25   .639   .284   161    71.7     66            4.5            .124  46.7     82    50
Trimble UX5   2.5    .320   .128   107    42.7     50   10000    2.5     .34    .10   80             60
Airbus E-Fan 450  104.4     .232 29000    64.4     60                          9.5    44.4     61.1 160
Sun Flyer   1225

Hover efficiency

The goal of a propeller is to maximize the power/mass ratio.

A propeller test consists of measuring the lift force, the power, and the tip speed (F,P,V), and this can be used to determine the rotor quality parameters (Q,q,W).

Mass             =  M
Rotor radius     =  R
Rotor lift/drag  =  Q  =  F / Fd
Air density      =  D  =  1.22 kg/meter3
Rotor lift param =  W  =  F D-1 R-2 V-2
Rotor tip speed  =  V
Rotor lift force =  F  =  D W R2 V2
Rotor drag force =  Fd
Rotor power      =  P   =  Fd V  =  F V / Q
Rotor quality    =  q   =  Q W½ D½
                        =  F3/2 P-1 R-1
Rotor force/power=  Z   =  F / P
                        =  Q / V
                        =  D½ W½ Q R F
                        =  q R F


Rotor           Radius    Z    Force   Power  Rotors  Blades  Freq   V     q    W     Q
                  m      N/W     N       W            /rotor   Hz   m/s

10 inch           .127   .078     2.94    37.5  1       2     72    57.5  1.06  .045  4.48
10 inch           .127   .056     9.8    176    1       2    131   104.5  1.37  .046  5.85
 9x47SF           .114   .129     1.06     8    1       2     50    35.8  1.17  .052  4.62
 9x47SF           .114   .0427   11.5    269    1       2    166.7 119.4  1.27  .051  5.10
10x47SF           .127   .186      .696    4    1       2     33.3  26.6  1.22  .050  4.95
10x47SF           .127   .0405   16.8    414    1       2    166.7 133.0  1.31  .048  5.39
11x47SF           .140   .161      .960    6    1       2     33.3  29.3  1.13  .047  4.72
11x47SF           .140   .0381   23.1    607    1       2    166.7 146.6  1.45  .045  5.59
12x38SF           .152   .160     1.20     7    1       2     33.3  31.8  1.15  .042  5.09
12x38SF           .152   .0381   28.4    745    1       2    166.7 159.2  1.34  .040  6.07
13 inch           .165   .081     5.81    72    1       2                 1.18
Walkera QR X800   .193   .172     9.56    55.5  4       2                 2.76
Chaos HL48        .203   .102     8.33    81.4  8       3                 1.45
Ehang             .80    .052   245     4688    8       2                 1.02
Phurba           1.6     .115  1200    10435    4       2                 1.4
For drones, the force and power are for one propeller.
Propeller data #1 #2
Propellers
    Radius   Mass
      m      grams

     .12     11
     .127     6.5
     .171    39.7
     .193    40

Power

For a typical drone,

Drone mass             =  M
Battery mass           =  Mbat
Payload mass           =  Mpay
Climbing speed         =  Vcli
Max horizontal speed   =  Vmax
Hover constant         =  H            =  60 Watts/kg       Power/mass required to hover
Hover power            =  Phov=  H M
Hover power for payload=  Ppay=  H Mpay
Gravity constant       =  g            =  9.8 m/s
Power to climb         =  Pcli=  M g V
Drag coefficient       =  C
Air density            =  D            = 1.22 kg/meter3
Drone cross-section    =  A
Drag power             =  Pdrag= ½ C D A V3
If the climbing power is equal to the hover power,
V = H / g  =  6 meters/second
If the climbing power is equal to the drag power,
M g V = ½ C D A V3

V  =  [2Mg/(CDA)]½  =  4.0 [M/(CA)]½ meters/second
              Drone  Battery  Load   Hover  Load  Climb   Power   P/M  Climb Speed  Thrust
               kg      kg      kg    Watt   Watt  Watt    Watt    W/kg  m/s   m/s   Newtons

Nihui NH-010     .0168  .0047    -       6.7                 6.7  1426   -     -
Walkera QR Y100  .146   .0413    -      17.8         35.5   53.3  1291   -     -
DJI Mavic Pro    .725   .24      -     109                 109     454   5    18
DJI Phantom 4   1.38    .426     .462  174    58     81    232     545   6    20
JYU Spider X    2.1     .812    2.3    200   219    103    419     516   5     8
MD4-1000        2.65            1.2    197    89    195    286           7.5  12     118
DJI Inspire 1   2.935   .67     1.7    333   193    144    526     785   5    22
AEE F100        6.0             2.5    300                 380                28
Chaos HL48      6.8             6.8    651   651          1302
MD4-3000       10.4             4.6   1037         1019   1496          10           280
Ehang         200             100    37500                                    28

Drone   kg     Drone mass without payload
Battery kg     Battery mass
Load    kg     Maximum payload for hovering
Hover   Watt   Power required to hover without payload
Load    Watt   Power used for the payload only
Climb   Watt   Climbing power  =  Mass * ClimbVelocity * Gravityconstant
Power   Watt   Total power  =  Hover power + Load power
P/M     W/kg   Power/Mass for the battery
Climb   m/s    Maximum climbing speed
Speed   m/s    Maximum horizontal speed
Thrust  Newton Maximum thrust
The JYU Spider X has the largest value for (payload mass) / (drone mass). The battery power/mass is
Battery power/mass  =  Phov ⋅ (M + Mpay) / M / Mbat  =  516 Watts/kg

Noise

Noise power is proportional to the rotor tip speed to the fifth power. The more rotors and the more blades per rotor, the less noise produced.


Flying electric car

We give a sample design for a flying electric car based on current technological capabilities. We choose a design with 4 rotors mounted on a cross above the car, with a forward, aft, left, and right rotor. The forward-aft rotor distance is larger than the left-right rotor distance. The left-right cross section is a wing, and it has an interior telescoping sections that extend the length of the wing when flying. The elements of a 1-person flying car are:

                    kg

Passenger
Cabin
Battery
Motors
Rotors
Cross structure
Wing
Car axels
Wheels

Battery energy/mass =  e        =  .8 MJoules/kg
Battery power/mass  =  p        =  2000 Watts/kg
Rotor quality       =  q        =  1.25
Mass                =  M        =  400 kg
Gravity constant    =  g
Force               =  F  = Mg  =  4000 Newtons
Number of rotors    =  N
Rotor radius        =  R        =  1.5 meters
Hover force/power   =  Z  =qR(F/N)=  .0593
Hover power         =  P        =  67450 Watts
Hover power/mass    =  p        =  169 Watts/kg
Rotors         =    4
Blades/Rotor   =    3
Rotor radius   =  1.6 meters
Payload        =  100 kg             One person plus luggage
Fuselage mass  =  125 kg
Battery mass   =   75 kg
Total mass     =  300 kg
Hover          =  100 Watts/kg
Hover power    =30000 Watts
Total power    =60000 Watts
Battery        =  800 Watts/kg
Battery mass   =   75 kg

Beam strength

The maximum force on a beam is:

Beam length     =  L
Beam height     =  H
Beam width      =  W
Shear strength  =  S
Density         =  D
Mass            =  M
Breaking force  =  F  =  (2/3) W H2 S / X





Lasers
       Power    $  Diameter  Length  Beam  Beam
       Watts          mm       mm    mrad   mm

Violet   .075   70   16.5     170     .5    4   wicked nano
Violet   .1     10   16.2                       lasers-pointers
Violet   .2     20   20       112               laserpointerpro
Violet   .5     30   24       148               laserpointerpro
Violet  1.0    100   24       180               laserpointerpro
Blue     .2     65                              freemascot.com
Blue    1.0     70                              freemascot.com


Color   Wavelength (nm)

Violet    405
Blue      445
Green     532
Yellow    589
Red       635

Flashlights
                   $  Lumens  Diameter  Mass    Lumens per
                                inch    ounce     inch2

Thrunite Ti4T       36   300    .55               1260
Thrunite Ti4        24   252    .55
ThorFire PF4        20   210    .6
Nitecore MT06       23   165    .55
Revtronic pocket    14   105    .6
Thrunite Archer 2A  36   500    .87     2.1        840
Revtronic 650       35   650   1.0
Fenix UC35          90   960   1.0
Barska TC1200      106  1200   1.0                1530
Fenix TK16          92  1000   1.3
Streamlight HL3     78  1100   1.6      7.1
Litecore TM03      158  2800   1.6                1390

MicroSD memory
           $   GB

Sandisk   20   64      Amazon
Sandisk   42  128      Amazon
Sandisk   76  200      Amazon
PNY       87  256      Amazon

Laptops
                $  RAM  Drive  Size Thick CPUs GHz    Pixels   Pounds  Op

Asus T100HA     183   4    64  10.1   .7   4  1.4     1280  800  2.2  W10 Newegg  Detach
Asus T100HA     220   4    64  10.1   .7   4  1.4     1280  800  2.2  W10 Amazon  Detach
Asus T100HA     260   4    64  10.1   .7   4  1.4     1280  800  2.2  W10 Shopamerica
Asus T100TAF
Asus T101HA     300   4   128  10.1   .74     1.4                     W10 Adorama Detach
Asus T102HA     390   4   128  10.1        4  ?       1280  800  1.7  W10
Asus E200HA     200   4    32  11.5   .7   4  1.4     1366  768  2.2  W10 Amazon
Asus TP200SA    250   4    64  11.6   .73                             W10         Convert
Asus T200SA     350   4    64  11.6   .73  4  1.6                     W10 Asus
Asus TP201SA                   11.6

HP 11-y020wm    240   4    32   ?    thin     1.6                     W10 Amazon refurb
Lenovo x120e    140   4+4 128  11.6  brick    1.5     1366  768       W10 Newegg
Toshiba         210   4   128  11.6        4  2.7                         Amazon
Lenovo N22      194   4    64  11.6   .9   2  1.6     1366  768  2.7      Amazon
HP Elitebook    320   8   128  11.6               3i5                     Best Buy

HP 2740P        102   4    64  12.1           2.5  i5                     Newegg
HP Elitebook    210   8   120  12.1  1.1      2.1                2.6      Amazon
Asus Zenbook 3 1100  16  1024  12.5   .46     2.0                         Asus UX390UA

Dell Latitude   205   8   128  12.5           2.7                         Amazon
HP Elitebook    252   8   256  12.5           2.5  i5                     Newegg
Dell Latitude   350  16   256  12.5        2  2.5 2i5 1366  768  3.2      Best Buy
Dell Latitude   380  16   256  12.5               3i5                     Best Buy

Dell Latitude   303   8   240  13.3               2i5                     Best Buy
Dell Latitude   407  16   256  13.3               3i5                     Best Buy

Asus UX360CA    745   8   512  13.3   .54    M6Y75               2.9  W10
Asus UX303UA    750   8   256  13.3   .8   2  2.3
Asus UX305CA    730   8   512  13.3   .5              1920 1080  2.6  W10
Asus UX306UA   1000  16   512  13.3                              2.9  W10
Asus UX305UA          8   512  13.3   .63    i7 6500U 1920 1080  2.9  W10
Asus UX303UB   1050  16   512  13.3   .76
*: ebay
Drone power system

One has to choose a wise balance for the masses of the motor, battery, fuselage, and payload. The properties of the electrical components are:

                    Energy/Mass  Power/mass  Energy/$  Power/$  $/Mass
                     MJoule/kg    kWatt/kg   MJoule/$  kWatt/$   $/kg

Electric motor          -         10.0        -        .062     160
Lithium-ion battery     .75        1.5        .009     .0142    106
Lithium supercapacitor  .008       8          .0010    .09       90
Aluminum capacitor      .0011    100
If the battery and motor have equal power then the battery has a larger mass than the motor.
Mass of motor            =  Mmot
Mass of battery          =  Mbat
Power                    =  P             (Same for both the motor and the battery)
Power/mass of motor      =  pmot  =  P/Mmot  =   8.0 kWatt/kg
Power/mass of battery    =  pbat  =  P/Mbat  =   1.5 kWatt/kg
Battery mass / Motor mass=  R    =Mbat/Mmot  =  pmot/pbat  =  5.3
The "sports prowess" of a drone is the drone power divided by the minimum hover power. To fly, this number must be larger than 1.
Drone mass               =  Mdro
Motor mass               =  Mmot
Motor power/mass         =  pmot =  8000 Watts/kg
Hover minimum power/mass =  phov =    60 Watts/kg
Drone power              =  Pdro =  pmot Mmot
Hover minimum power      =  Phov =  phov Mdro
Sports prowess           =  S   =  Pdro/Phov  =  (pmot/phov) * (Mmot/Mdro)  =  80 Mmot/Mdro
If S=1 then Mmot/Mdro = 1/80 and the motor constitutes a negligible fraction of the drone mass. One can afford to increase the motor mass to make a sports drone with S >> 1.

If the motor and battery generate equal power then the sports prowess is

S  =  (pbat/phov) * (Mbat/Mdro)  =  25 Mbat/Mdro
If Mbat/Mdro = ½ then S=12.5, well above the minimum required to hover.

Suppose a drone has a mass of 1 kg. A squash racquet can have a mass of as little as .12 kg. The fuselage mass can be much less than this because a drone doesn't need to be as tough as a squash racquet, hence the fuselage mass is negligible compared to the drone mass. An example configuration is:

              kg

Battery       .5
Motors        .1   To match the battery and motor power, set motor mass / battery mass = 1/5
Rotors       <.05
Fuselage      .1
Camera        .3
Drone total  1.0
Supercapacitors can generate a larger power/mass than batteries and are useful for extreme bursts of power, however their energy density is low compared to batteries and so the burst is short. If the supercapacitor and battery have equal power then
Battery power/mass         =  pbat  =  1.5 kWatts/kg
Supercapacitor power/mass  =  psup  =  8.0 kWatts/kg
Battery power              =  P
Battery mass               =  Mbat  =  P / pbat
Supercapacitor mass        =  Msup  =  P / psup
Supercapacitor/Battery mass=  R     =Msup/ Mbat  =  pbat/psup  =  .19
The supercapacitor is substantially ligher than the battery. By adding a lightweight supercapacitor you can double the power. Since drones already have abundant power, the added mass of the supercapacitor usually makes this not worth it.

If a battery and an aluminum capacitor have equal powers,

Aluminum capacitor mass  /  Battery mass  =  .015
If a battery or supercapacitor is operating at full power then the time required to expend all the energy is
Mass          =  M
Energy        =  E
Power         =  P
Energy/Mass   =  e  =  E/M
Power/Mass    =  p  =  P/M
Discharge time=  T  =  E/P  =  e/p

                     Energy/Mass  Power/Mass   Discharge time   Mass
                      MJoule/kg    kWatt/kg       seconds        kg

Lithium battery         .75          1.5          500           1.0
Supercapacitor          .008         8.0            1.0          .19
Aluminum capacitor      .0011      100               .011        .015
"Mass" is the mass required to provide equal power as a lithium battery of equal mass.
Energy

Energies in MJoules = 106 Joules

1 Watt hour                             .0036      1 Watt * 3600 seconds
1 food calorie                          .00419
Sprinting person                        .004       (80 kg moving at 10 m/s)
Battery, lithium, AAA                   .0047
Battery, lithium, AA                    .0107
Battery, iPhone                         .018       ( 5 Watt hours)
Battery, laptop                         .180       (50 Watt hours)
1 kg of supercapacitors                 .02
1 kg of Lithium battery                1.0
1 kg of TNT                            4.2
1 kg of sugar                         20     =  5000 Food Calories
1 kg of protein                       20     =  5000 Food Calories
1 kg of alcohol                       25     =  7000 Food Calories
1 kg of fat                           38     =  9000 Food Calories
1 kg of gasoline                      48     = 13000 Food Calories
Uranium fission bomb (Little boy)    7⋅107    = 16 kilotons of TNT
Plutonium fission bomb (Trinity)     8⋅107    = 20 kilotons of TNT
Uranium fission bomb (Fat man)       9⋅107    = 22 kilotons of TNT
Fusion bomb                          4⋅1010   = 10 megatons of TNT
1 kg of antimatter                   9⋅1010   = 20 megatons of TNT
Krakatoa volcano, 1883               8⋅1011
World energy production in 1 year    6⋅1014
Dinosaur-extinction asteroid         5⋅1017
Typical energy of a supernova        1⋅1038
Intense gamma ray burst              1⋅1041


                 Energy    Mass   Velocity
                 (Joule)   (kg)    (m/s)

Ping pong ball        2.2    .0027     40
Squash ball          43      .024      60
Golf ball           230      .046     100
Tennis ball         104      .058      60
Baseball ball       116      .146      40
Soccer ball         778      .432      60
Bullet, 5.6 mm      277      .0020    530
Bullet, 7.6 mm      240      .0050    318
Bullet, 9 mm        338      .0065    323
Bullet, 13 mm     18940      .045     908
Bullet, 20 mm     51500      .102    1005
Cannonball      1900000    14         518     220 mm diameter
Human sprint       4000    80          10
Car, freeway     540000  1200          30
Forms of energy:
Distance         =  X          meters
Force            =  F          Newtons
Mass             =  M          kg
Velocity         =  V          meters/second
Gravity constant =  g  =  9.8  meters/second2
Pressure         =  P          Pascals
Volume           =  U          meters3
Mechanical energy=  Ew =  F X  Joules
Gravity energy   =  Eg =  MgX  Joules    (X = height above ground)
Kinetic energy   =  Ek =  ½MV2 Joules
Pressure energy  =  Ep =  P U  Joules

Power
                         Watts

Human cell                 10-12
Laptop computer            10
Human brain                20
Incandescent Light bulb    60
Human at rest             100
1 horsepower              746
Strenuous exercise       1000
Maximum human power      1600
World power per person   2500
Tesla S Ludicrous      397000       532 horsepower
Wind turbine               1⋅106
Blue whale               2.5⋅106
Boeing 747               1.4⋅108
Hoover Dam               2.1⋅109
U.S. power consumption   3.4⋅1012
World power consumption  1.5⋅1013
Earth geologic heat      4.4⋅1013
World photosynthesis     7.5⋅1013
Hurricane                1.0⋅1014
Earth solar power        1.7⋅1017    Total solar power falling on the Earth

Force    =  F
Velocity =  V
Power    =  F V

Fuel

Most fuels are combinations of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and are collectively called "hydrocarbons".

Black: Carbon        White: Hydrogen        Red: Oxygen

Methane (Natural gas)
Ethane
Propane
Butane (Lighter fluid)
Octane (gasoline)
Dodecane (Kerosene)

Hexadecane (Diesel)
Palmitic acid (fat)
Ethanol (alcohol)

Glucose (sugar)
Fructose (sugar)
Galactose (sugar)
Lactose = Glucose + Galactose
Starch (sugar chain)
Leucine (amino acid)

ATP (Adenosine triphosphate)
Phosphocreatine
Nitrocellulose (smokeless powder)
TNT
HMX (plastic explosive)

Lignin (wood)
Coal

Medival-style black powder
Modern smokeless powder
Capacitor
Lithium-ion battery
Nuclear battery (radioactive plutonium-238)
Nuclear fission
Nuclear fusion
Antimatter


Energy per mass

           Energy per mass   Carbons
             (MJoule/kg)

Antimatter   90000000000
Fusion bomb    250000000                Maximum for a deuterium+tritium fusion bomb
Fission bomb    83000000                Maximum for a uranium bomb
Nuclear battery   589000                Strontium-90, beta decay, 29 year half life
Hydrogen             141.8     0
Methane               55.5     1
Ethane                51.9     2
Propane               50.4     3
Butane                49.5     4
Octane                47.8     8
Gasoline              47       8±2
Kerosene              46      12±2
Diesel                46      16±3
Lubricating oil       46      36±16
Fat                   37      20±10     9 Calories/gram
Ethanol               29       2        7 Calories/gram
Sugar                 17       6        4 Calories/gram
Protein               17                4 Calories/gram
Coal                  32
Wood                  22
Pure carbon           32.8     1
Plastic explos.        8.0
Smokeless powder       5.2              Modern gunpowder
TNT                    4.7
Black powder           2.6              Medieval gunpowder
ATP                     .057            Adenosine triphosphate
Phosphocreatine         .137
Lithium battery        1.0
Supercapacitor          .020
Spring                  .0003
The energy cost to convert water to hydrogen and oxygen is 13.16 MJ/kg. If hydrogen and oxygen are reacted to produce one kg of water, the energy produced is equivalent to a 1 kg mass moving at 5.13 km/s.


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