Linux is High Valyria" for computers.
Open a command line terminal and try the following commands.
> cd ~ # Change directory to your home directory > pwd # Show current directory > ls # Show contents of the directory > ls -sxp # Fancy version of ls > man ls # Shows the manual page for ls > mkdir badger # Create a subdirectory called "badger" > cp -r badger badger2 # Copy directory "badger" to "badger2" > rmdir badger2 # Remove directory "badger2" > cd badger # Change directories into "badger" > cd .. # Go up one directory > du badger # Print the total amount of bytes taken up by files in the directory "badger" > df # Show the amount of space taken up on each disk > date > hawkeye # Print the date and put the output into the file "hawkeye" > less hawkeye # Print the contents of the file "hawkeye" > cat hawkeye # Print the contents of the file "hawkeye" without screen pauses > cp hawkeye hawkeye2 # Copy the file "hawkeye" to "hawkeye2" > cat hawkeye hawkeye2 > hawkeye3 # Print files "hawkeye" and "hawkeye2" and place the contents # in the file "hawkeye3" > grep "2015" hawkeye # Search for occurances of the string "2015" in the file "hawkeye" > python # Open a python session. From here, see www.jaymaron.com/python/python.html >>> exit() # Exit the python session > emacs hawkeye # Edit the file "hawkeye" with the mighty "Emacs" editor. # To exit, type "Control-c", "Control-x". > rm hawk* # The "*" character is a wildcard. This removes both "hawkeye" and "hawkeye2". > screen # This activates the "GNU Screen" utility, which allows you to pack multiple # sessions into one terminal. > open musicfile.mp4 # The "open" command will find the appropriate utility for the given filetype. > ls -l # Show the priviliges of the files the directory > chmod u+r filename # Make "filename" readable by the user > chmod u+w filename # Make "filename" writable by the user > chmod u+x filename # Make "filename" executable by the user. > ./filename # Execute the unix commands in "filename" # These commands will execute as though they were typed from the terminal. > ./filename & # Execute the unix commands in "filename", with the process running in # the background. > uptime # Show how long the system has been running. > top # Show the jobs that are being run by the CPU > scp -r filename email@example.com: # Copy "filename" to the remote computer "hostname" > scp -r firstname.lastname@example.org:filename . # Copy "filename" from the remote computer "hostname" to the # local directory.
GNU Screen is a utility that packs 10 virtual terminals into one real terminal.
GNU Screen commands:
> C-a, c # Stands for "Control-a", "c". This creates a new window. # There is no limit to the number of windows you can create. > C-a, w # List all windows and show which is the current window. > C-a, 0 # Change to window 0 > C-a, 1 # Change to window 1 > screen -d # Detatch the screen into the background > screen -r # Re-attach the screen to the present terminal > C-a, k # Kill current window. To exit screen, kill all windows.