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World War 2
Dr. Jay Maron


Nuclear fission

Fission chain reaction

A neutron triggers the fission of Uranium-235 and plutonium-239, releasing energy and more neutrons. The released neutrons trigger further fission.

Chain reaction simulation at phet.colorado.edu

Critical mass

Less than a
critical mass
Critical
mass
More than a
critical mass
Chain reaction in
a supercritical mass
Almost a critical
mass of plutonium

A fission of uranium-235 releases on average 1.86 neutrons, some of which trigger fission in nearby nuclei and some of which escape without triggering fission. If a sphere of uranium-235 is small then most of the neutrons escape before triggering fission and the sphere doesn't blow up. If the sphere is large then most of the neutrons trigger more fission, a chain reaction occurs and the sphere blows up. The threshold for a chain reaction is the "critical mass".

The nuclei that are capable of undergoing a chain reaction are:

           Protons  Neutrons  Critical   Halflife   Neutrons per
                              mass (kg)  (106 yr)     fission

Uranium-233    92     141        16         .160      2.48
Uranium-235    92     143        52      700          1.86
Plutonium-239  94     145        10         .024      2.16

Uranium detonation

Two pieces of uranium-235, each with less than a critical mass, are brought together in a cannon barrel.
If the uranium is brought together too slowly, the bomb fizzles.

If you bring two pieces of uranium-235 together too slowly, a chain reaction begins in the near side of each piece, generates heat, and blows the two pieces apart before they can come completely together. Only a small amount of uranium undergoes fission and this is referred to as a "fizzle". Using gunpowder and a cannon is fast enough to properly detonate uranium and this is technologically easy to do.


Plutonium detonation

Plutonium is more difficult to detonate than uranium. Simply bringing two pieces together, no matter how fast, results in a fizzle. To detonate plutonium you have to shape it as a sphere and implode it, which is technologically difficult.

In World War 2 the U.S. produced enough uranium for 1 bomb and enough plutonium for 2 bombs. One of the plutonium bombs was tested in the "Trinity" test before being used in the war, and the second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. The uranium bomb was dropped on Hiroshima without previously being tested.

When Hans Bethe, a physicist on the Manhattan project, was asked why they didn't test the uranium bomb he replied "Because we were perfectly sure it would work".


Separation of Uranium-235 from Uranium-238

Magnetic separation. Dark blue = uranium-235. Light blue = uranium-238. Yellow = magnetic field.
Magnetic separation machines during the Manhattan Project

Natural Uranium is .72% Uranium-235 and 99.3% Uranium-238. Only Uranium-235 undergoes a chain reaction and so it has to be separated from the Uranium-238. Several methods exist for doing this. In World War 2 the isotopes were separated magnetically with calutrons. Gas diffusion and centrifuges can also be used.


Centrifuge separation of uranium-235

UF6
UF6
Light blue: uranium-235. Dark blue: uranium-238
Centrifuges

Uranium is converted to gas form by forming uranium hexafluoride (HF6). HF6 is a gas above 64 Celsius. In a centrifuge, the lighter uranium-235 concentrates at the center and the heavier uranium-238 concentrates at the edge.


Nuclear isotopes relevant to fission energy

Abundance of elements in the sun, indicated by dot size

Blue elements are unstable with a half life much less than the age of the solar system and don't exist in nature.

The only elements heavier than Bismuth that can be found on the Earth are Thorium and Uranium, and these are the only elements that can be tapped for fission energy.

Natural thorium is 100% Thorium-232

Natural uranium is .7% Uranium-235 and the rest is Uranium-238.

Plutonium has a short half life and doesn't exist in nature. It can be created by subjecting uranium-238 to neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Fissionable uranium-233 can be created from thorium-232.

Uranium-238  +  Neutron  →  Plutonium-239
Thorium-232  +  Neutron  →  Uranium-233

Detail:

Uranium-238 + Neutron  →  Uranium-239
Uranium-239            →  Neptunium-239 + Electron + Antineutrino          Halflife = 23 minutes
Neptunium-239          →  Plutonium-239 + Electron + Antineutrino          Halflife = 2.4 days

Thorium-232 + Neutron  →  Thorium-233
Thorium-233            →  Protactinium-233 + Electron + Antineutrino       Halflife = 22 minutes
Protactinium-233       →  Uranium-233      + Electron + Antineutrino       Halflife = 27.0 days

Fusion bomb

Fusion bombs use the reactions:

Neutron    +  Lithium6  →  Tritium  +  Helium4  +   4.874 MeV
Deuterium  +  Tritium   →  Helium4  +  Neutron  +  17.56  MeV
Leaving out the neutron catalyst, this is
Deuterium  +  Lithium6  →  Helium4  +  Helium4  +  22.43  MeV

Fusion bomb design

Fusion of deuterium and lithium requires high temperature and pressure, which is achieved by compressing the fuel. This is done by detonating a fission bomb and using the generated X-rays to compress the fusion fuel. X-rays strike the outer layer and expel atoms, and the recoil compresses the fuel. This is called "ablation" and the design was developed by Teller and Ulam.

             X-ray     Plasma    Ablation
            pressure  pressure   pressure
              TPa       TPa        TPa

Ivy Mike       7.3       35        530
W-80         140        750       6400
Teller
Ulam
Ulam

Energy

The practical limit for the energy/mass of a fusion bomb = 25 TJoules/kg or .0062 Mtons of TNT per kg.

1 ton of TNT                        =   4⋅109  Joules
1 ton of gasoline                   =   4⋅1010 Joules
Massive Ordnance Air Blast bomb     =   .000011 MTons TNT  (Largest U.S. conventional bomb)
Trinity plutonium-239 test          =   .020 MTons TNT
Hiroshima uranium-235 fission bomb  =   .015 MTons TNT   "Little Boy". 60 kg Uranium-235
Nagasaki plutonium-239 fission bomb =   .021 MTons TNT   "Fat Man".     6 kg Plutonium-239
Ivy King fission bomb               =   .5   MTons TNT   Largest pure fission bomb
B83 fusion bomb                     =  1.2   MTons TNT   Largest bomb in active service
Castle Bravo fusion bomb            = 15     MTons TNT   Largest U.S. test
B41 fusion bomb                     = 25     MTons TNT   Largest U.S. bomb created
Tsar Bomba                          = 50     MTons TNT   Largest USSR test

History of nuclear physics

Leo Szilard
Enrico Fermi
Johnny von Neumann, Robert Oppenheimer, and the EDVAC computer
Niels Bohr

1885        Rontgen discovers X-rays
1899        Rutherford discovers alpha and beta rays
1903        Rutherford discovers gamma rays
1905        Einstein discovers that E=mc2. Matter is equivalent to energy
1909        Nucleus discovered by the Rutherford scattering experiment
1932        Neutron discovered
1933        Nuclear fission chain reaction envisioned by Szilard
1934        Fermi bombards uranium with neutrons and creates Plutonium
1938 Dec19  Hahn and Strassmann discover uranium fission
1939 Jan 6  Hahn and Strassmann publish uranium fission
1939 Jan25  Fermi begins conducting nuclear fission experiments at Columbia University
1939 Jan26  Bohr and Fermi report on uranium fission at the Washington Conference
            on theoretical physics
1939        Szilard and Zinn discover that bombarding uranium with neutrons produces
            new neutrons.
1939 Jul 4  Szilard, Wigner, and Einstein discuss nuclear fission
1939 Aug 2  Szilard, Teller, and Einstein discuss nuclear fission. Szilard drafts
            the the "Einstein letter" that is later delivered to President Roosevelt
1939 Oct11  Alexander Sachs briefs President Roosevelt on Einstein's letter.
1939 Oct12  Alexander Sachs meets again with President Roosevelt and this time
            Roosevelt gives the order to commence the development of a nuclear bomb.
1942 Dec 2  Fermi and Szilard achieve the first self-sustaining nuclear fission
            reactor at the University of Chicago
1942 Aug    Manhattan project commences
1942-1945   German nuclear bomb project goes nowhere
1945 Jul16  Trinity test of a plutonium bomb yields a 20 kTon TNT equivalent explosion
1945 Aug 6  A uranium bomb is deployed at Hiroshima, yielding 15 kTons TNT equivalent
1945 Aug 9  A plutonium bomb is deployed at Nagasaki, yielding 21 kTons TNT equivalent
Hans Bethe, a physicist on the Manhattan Project, was asked why the uranium type bomb was not tested before deployment and he replied "Because we were perfectly sure it would work".
World War 2

Trinity plutonium test
Trinity plutonium test
Little Boy
Little Boy
Hiroshima

The Enola Gay, the bomber that deployed "Little Boy"
Fat Man
Nagasaki


Nuclear fission products
               Parts    Halflife     Decay    Neutron   Result of      Halflife
                per     (thousand    energy   absorb    neutron        (thousand
              thousand  years)       (MeV)    (barns)   absorption     years)

Caesium-135     69      1500          .27       8.3     Barium-136     Stable
Caesium-137     63          .030    1.2          .11    Barium-138     Stable
Technetium-99   61       210         .29       20       Ruthenium-100  Stable
Zirconium-93    55      1500          .091      2.7     Niobium-94     20.3
Strontium-90    45          .029    2.8          .90    Zirconium-91   Stable
Palladium-107   12.5    6500          .033      1.8     Silver-108     .418
Iodine-129       8.4   15700          .194     18       Xenon-130      ?
Samarium-151     5.3        .097     .077   15200       Europium-152   .0135
Krypton-85       2.2        .011     .69        1.7
Tin-126          1.1     230        4.0        < .1
Selenium-79       .447   330         .15       < .1
Europium-155      .80       .0048    .25     3950
Cadmium-113       .008      .014     .32    20600
Tin-121           .0005     .044     .39        ?
"Neutron absorption" is the cross section for a nucleus to capture a thermal neutron.

All of the radioactive fission products decay by beta decay.

If the neutron cross section is 8 barnes or higher then the nucleus can potentially be transmuted into a nonradioactive nucleus.

Strontium-90 is ideal for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). www.jaymaron.com/rockets/rockets.html

The most troublesome fission products are the ones that can't be transmuted. Chief among these are Caesium-137, Zirconium-93, Niobium-94, Strontium-90, Zirconium-91, and Palladium-107.


World War 2 bombers

Avro Lancaster
B-29 Superfortress
Heinkel He 177

Handley Page Halifax
B-17 Flying Fortress
B-17 Flying Fortress

focke-Wulf Condor
Mitsubishi Ki-67
Mitsubishi G4M

Yokosuka Ginga
Tupolev Tu-2

                            Max    Mass   Max   Bombs  Max   Engine   Range    #    Year
                           speed          mass         alt                   Built
                            kph    ton    ton    ton   km    kWatt     km

UK       Avro Lancaster        454  16.6   32.7  10.0   6.5   4x 954   4073   7377  1942
USA      B-29 Superfortress    574  33.8   60.6   9.0   9.7   4x1640   5230   3970  1944
Germany  Heinkel He 177        565  16.8   32.0   7.2   8.0   2x2133   1540   1169  1942
UK       Short Stirling        454  21.3   31.8   6.4   5.0   4x1025   3750   2371  1939
UK       Handley Page Halifax  454  17.7   24.7   5.9   7.3   4x1205   3000   6176  1940
Germany  Fokke-Wulf Condor     360  17.0   24.5   5.4   6.0   4x 895   3560    276  1937
Soviet   Tupolev Tu-2          528   7.6   11.8   3.8   9.0   2x1380   2020   2257  1942
USA      B-17 Flying Fortress  462  16.4   29.7   3.6  10.5   4x 895   3219  12731  1938
Japan    Mitsubishi Ki-67      537   8.6   13.8   1.6   9.5   2x1417   3800    767  1942
Soviet   Petlyakov Pe-2        580   5.9    8.9   1.6   8.8   2x 903   1160  11427  1941
Japan    Yokosuka P1Y Ginga    547   7.3   13.5   1.0   9.4   2x1361   5370   1102  1944
Japan    Mitsubishi G4M        428   6.7   12.9   1.0   8.5   2x1141   2852   2435  1941

Curtis LeMay: Flying fighters is fun. Flying bombers is important.

World War 2 heavy fighters

A-20 Havoc
F7F Tigercat
P-38 Lightning

P-61
P-38
Airspeed chart

Fairey Firefly
Beaufighter
Mosquito
Fairey Fulmar
Defiant

Messerschmitt 410
Heinkel He-219
Junkers Ju-88

Do-217
Me-110

Kawasaki Ki-45
J1N

Gloster Meteor
Me-262 Swallow
Heinkel He-162

                       Max   Climb  Mass   Max   Bombs  Max   Engine   Range   #   Year
                      speed                mass         alt                  Built
                       kph    m/s   ton    ton    ton   km    kWatt     km

USA    P51 Black Widow  589  12.9  10.6   16.2   2.9   10.6  2x1680   982    706  1944
USA    A-20 Havoc       546  10.2   6.8   12.3    .9    7.2  2x1200  1690   7478  1941
USA    F7F Tigercat     740  23     7.4   11.7    .9   12.3  2x1566  1900    364  1944
USA    P-38 Lightning   667  24.1   5.8    9.8   2.3   13.0  2x1193        10037  1941
UK     Fairey Firefly   509   8.8   4.4    6.4    .9    8.5  1x1290  2090   1702  1943
UK     Mosquito         668  14.5   6.5   11.0   1.8   11.0  2x1103  2400   7781  1941
UK     Beaufighter      515   8.2   7.1   11.5    .3    5.8  2x1200  2816   5928  1940
UK     Fairie Fulmar    438         3.2    4.6    .1    8.3  1x 970  1255    600  1940
UK     Defiant          489   9.0   2.8    3.9   0      9.2  1x 768   749   1064  1939
Japan  Dragon Slayer    540  11.7   4.0    5.5   0     10.0  2x 783         1701  1941  Ki-45
Japan  Flying Dragon    537   6.9   8.6   13.8   1.6    9.5  2x1417  3800    767  1942  Ki-67
Japan  J1N Moonlight    507   8.7   4.5    8.2   0           2x 840  2545    479  1942
Ger.   Hornet           624   9.3   6.2   10.8   1.0   10.0  2x1287  2300   1189  1943
Ger.   Flying Pencil    557   3.5   9.1   16.7   4.0    7.4  2x1287  2145   1925  1941  Do-217
Ger.   Heinkel He-219   616               13.6   0      9.3  2x1324  1540    300  1943
Ger.   Junkers Ju-88    360        11.1   12.7   0      5.5  2x1044  1580  15183  1939
Ger.   Me-110           595  12.5          7.8   0     11.0  2x1085   900   6170  1937
SU     Petlyakov Pe-3   530  12.5   5.9    8.0    .7    9.1  2x 820  1500    360  1941
UK     Gloster Meteor   965  35.6   4.8    7.1    .9   13.1   Jet     965   3947  1944
Ger.   Me-262 Swallow   900 ~25     3.8    7.1   1.0   11.5   Jet    1050   1430  1944
Ger.   Heinkel He-162   840  23.4   1.7    2.8   0     12.0   Jet     975    320  1945

Me-262 Swallow jet  =  2x 8.8 kNewtons
Heinkel He-162 jet  =  1x 7.8 kNewtons
Gloster Meteor jet  =  2x16.0 kNewtons

World War 2 light fighters

P-39 Airacobra
P-40 Warhawk
P-43 Lancer

P-47 Thunderbolt
P-51 Mustang
P-63 Kingcobra

F2A Buffalo
F4F
F4U

F6F Hellcat
F8F Bearcat

Ki-27
Ki-43
Ki-44

Ki-61
Ki-84
Ki-100

A5M
Mitsubishi A6M Zero
A6M2

J2M
N1K

Hawker Tempest
Hawker Hurricane
Hawker Typhoon

Submarine Seafire
Submarine Spitfire

Fw-190
Bf-109

YaK-1
Yak-7
Yak-9
Polykarpov I-16

MiG-3
LaGG-3
La-5
La-7

                       Max   Climb  Mass   Max   Bombs  Max   Engine   Range   #    Year
                      speed                mass         alt                  Built
                       kph    m/s   ton    ton    ton   km    kWatt     km

USA    P-39 Airacobra   626  19.3   3.0    3.8    .2   10.7  1x 894   840   9588  1941
USA    P-63 Kingcobra   660  12.7   3.1    4.9    .7   13.1  1x1340   725   3303  1943
USA    F2A Buffalo      517  12.4   2.1    3.2   0     10.1  1x 890  1553    509  1939
USA    P-40 Warhawk     580  11.0   2.8    4.0    .9    8.8  1x 858  1100  13738  1939
USA    P-51 Mustang     703  16.3   3.5    5.5    .5   12.8  1x1111  2755 >15000  1942
USA    F4F Wildcat      515  11.2   2.7    4.0   0     10.4  1x 900  1337   7885  1940
USA    F6F Hellcat      629  17.8   4.2    7.0   1.8   11.4  1x1491  1520  12275  1943
USA    F8F Bearcat      730  23.2   3.2    6.1    .5   12.4  1x1678  1778   1265  1945
USA    P-43 Lancer      573  13.0   2.7    3.8   0     11.0  1x 895  1046    272  1941
USA    P-47 Thunderbolt 713  16.2   4.5    7.9   1.1   13.1  1x1938  1290  15677  1942
USA    F4U Corsair      717  22.1   4.2    5.6   1.8   12.6  1x1775  1617  12571  1942
Japan  Zero             534  15.7   1.7    2.8    .3   10.0  1x 700  3104  10939  1940
Japan  N1K Strong Wind  658  20.3   2.7    4.9    .5   10.8  1x1380  1716   1532  1943
Japan  Ki-84 "Gale"     686  18.3   2.7    4.2    .7   11.8  1x1522  2168   3514  1943
Japan  Ki-61            580  15.2   2.6    3.5    .5   11.6  1x 864   580   3078  1942
Japan  Ki-100           580  13.9   2.5    3.5   0     11.0  1x1120  2200    396  1945
Japan  A5M              440         1.2    1.8   0      9.8  1x 585  1200   1094  1936
Japan  A6M2             436  12.4   1.9    2.9    .1   10.0  1x 709  1782    327  1942
Japan  J2M Thunderbolt  655  23.4   2.8    3.2    .1   11.4  1x1379   560    671  1942
Japan  Ki-27            470  15.3   1.1    1.8    .1   12.2  1x 485   627   3368  1937
Japan  Ki-43            530         1.9    2.9    .5   11.2  1x 858  1760   5919  1941
Japan  Ki-44            605  19.5   2.1    3.0   0     11.2  1x1133         1225  1942
UK     Hawker Hurricane 547  14.1   2.6    4.0    .5   11.0  1x 883   965  14583  1943
UK     Hawker Tempest   700  23.9   4.2    6.2    .9   11.1  1x1625  1190   1702  1944
UK     Hawker Typhoon   663  13.6   4.0    6.0    .9   10.7  1x1685   821   3317  1941
UK   Submarine Seafire  578  13.4   2.8    3.5          9.8  1x1182   825   2334  1942
UK   Submarine Spitfire 595  13.2   2.3    3.0   0     11.1  1x1096   756  20351  1938
Ger.   Fw-190           685  17.0   3.5    4.8    .5   12.0  1x1287   835 >20000  1941
Ger.   Bf-109           640  17.0   2.2    3.4    .3   12.0  1x1085   850  34826  1937
SU     MiG-3            640  13.0   2.7    3.4    .2   12.0  1x 993   820   3172  1941
SU     Yak-1            592  15.4   2.4    2.9   0     10.0  1x 880   700   8700  1940
SU     Yak-3            655  18.5   2.1    2.7   0     10.7  1x 970   650   4848  1944
SU     Yak-7            571  12.0   2.4    2.9   0      9.5  1x 780   643   6399  1942
SU     Yak-9            672  16.7   2.5    3.2   0     10.6  1x1120   675  16769  1942
SU     LaGG-3           575  14.9   2.2    3.2    .2    9.7  1x 924  1000   6528  1941
SU     La-5             648  16.7   2.6    3.4    .2   11.0  1x1385   765   9920  1942
SU     La-7             661  15.7   3.3           .2   10.4  1x1230   665   5753  1944
SU     Polykarpov I-16  525  14.7   1.5    2.1    .5   14.7  1x 820   700   8644  1934

World War 2 aircraft carriers

U.S. Essex Class
U.S. Independence Class

Shokaku Class
Hiyo Class
Chitose Class

Unryu Class
Zuiho Class

       Class        Speed   Power  Length  Displace  Planes     #     Year
                     kph    MWatt    m       kton             built

USA    Essex         60.6   110     263      47       100      24     1942
USA    Independence  58      75     190      11        33       9     1942
Japan  Shokaku       63.9   120     257.5    32.1      72       2     1941
Japan  Hiyo          47.2    42     219.3    24.2      53       3     1944
Japan  Unryu         63     113     227.4    17.8      65       3     1944
Japan  Chitose       53.5    42.4   192.5    15.5      30       2     1944
Japan  Zuiho         52      39     205.5    11.4      30       2     1940

World War 2

1943 July 1
1943 December 1
1944 May 1

1944 November 1
1945 March 1
1945 August 1

1943 July 1
1943 November 1
1944 July 1

1944 September 1
1944 December 15
1945 May 1


Curtis LeMay

LeMay received a degree in civil engineering from Ohio State University.

Robert McNamara described LeMay's character, in a discussion of a report into high abort rates in bomber missions during World War II:

"One of the commanders was Curtis LeMay, a Colonel in command of a B-24 group. He was the finest combat commander of any service I came across in war. He said, 'I will be in the lead plane on every mission. Any plane that takes off will go over the target, or the crew will be court-martialed.' The abort rate dropped overnight. Now that's the kind of commander he was."

When his crews were not flying missions, they were subjected to relentless training, as he believed that training was the key to saving their lives. Throughout his career, LeMay was widely and fondly known among his troops as "Old Iron Pants" and the "Big Cigar". LeMay once said: "Flying fighters is fun. Flying bombers is important."

In 1951, Gen. Curtis Lemay appointed Emilio "Mel" Bruno, his Judo teacher and a former national American Athletic Union Wrestling champion and fifth degree black belt in Judo, to direct a command-wide Judo and combative measures program.

Curtis LeMay is credited with designing and implementing an effective bombing campaign in the Pacific theater of World War II, including a crippling minelaying campaign in Japan's internal waterways. The war was effectively over long before the nuclear strike because of the success of the naval blockade.

LeMay piloted one of three specially modified B-29s flying from Japan to the U.S. in September 1945, in the process breaking several aviation records at that date, including the greatest USAAF takeoff weight, the longest USAAF non-stop flight, and the first ever non-stop Japan-Chicago flight. One of the pilots was of higher rank: Lieutenant General Barney M. Giles. The other two aircraft used up more fuel than LeMay's in fighting headwinds, and they could not fly to Washington, D.C., the original goal. Their pilots decided to land in Chicago to refuel. LeMay's aircraft had sufficient fuel to reach Washington, but he was directed by the War Department to join the others by refueling at Chicago. The order was ostensibly given because of borderline weather conditions in Washington, but according to First Lieutenant Ivan J. Potts who was on board, the order came because LeMay had one fewer general's stars and should not be seen to outperform his superior.

In 1947, he returned to Europe as commander of USAF Europe, heading operations for the Berlin Airlift in 1948 in the face of a blockade by the Soviet Union and its satellite states that threatened to starve the civilian population of the Western occupation zones of Berlin. Under LeMay's direction, Douglas C-54 Skymasters that could each carry 10 tons of cargo began supplying the city on July 1. By the fall, the airlift was bringing in an average of 5,000 tons of supplies a day with 500 daily flights. The airlift continued for 11 months (213000 flights) that brought in 1.7 million tons of food and fuel to Berlin. Faced with the failure of its blockade, the Soviet Union relented and reopened land corridors to the West. Though LeMay is sometimes publicly credited with the success of the Berlin Airlift, it was, in fact, instigated by General Lucius D. Clay when General Clay called LeMay about the problem. LeMay initially started flying supplies into Berlin, but then decided that it was a job for a logistics expert and he found that person in Lt. General William H. Tunner, who took over the operational end of the Berlin Airlift.

In 1948, he returned to the U.S. to head the Strategic Air Command (SAC). When LeMay took over command of SAC, it consisted of little more than a few understaffed B-29 bombardment groups left over from World War II. Less than half of the available aircraft were operational, and the crews were undertrained. Base and aircraft security standards were minimal. Upon inspecting a SAC hangar full of US nuclear strategic bombers, LeMay found a single Air Force sentry on duty, unarmed. After ordering a mock bombing exercise on Dayton, Ohio, LeMay was shocked to learn that most of the strategic bombers assigned to the mission missed their targets by one mile or more. "We didn't have one crew, not one crew, in the entire command who could do a professional job" noted LeMay.

A meeting in November, 1948 with Air Force Chief of Staff, Hoyt Vandenberg, found the two men agreeing the primary mission of SAC should be the capability of delivering 80% of the nation's atomic bombs in one mission. Towards this aim, LeMay delivered the first SAC Emergency War Plan in March 1949 which called for dropping 133 atomic bombs on 70 cities in the USSR within 30 days. Air power strategists called this type of pre-emptive strike, "killing a nation." However, the Harmon committee, released their unanimous report two months later stating such an attack would not end a war with the Soviets and their industry would quickly recover. This committee had been specifically created by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to study the effects of a massive nuclear strike against the Soviet Union. Nevertheless, within weeks, an ad hoc Joint Chiefs committee recommended tripling America's nuclear arsenal, and Chief of Staff Vandenberg called for enough bombs to attack 220 targets, up from the previous 70.

Upon receiving his fourth star in 1951 at age 44, LeMay became the youngest four-star general in American history since Ulysses S. Grant and was the youngest four-star general in modern history as well as the longest serving in that rank. In 1956 and 1957 LeMay implemented tests of 24-hour bomber and tanker alerts, keeping some bomber forces ready at all times. LeMay headed SAC until 1957, overseeing its transformation into a modern, efficient, all-jet force. LeMay's tenure was the longest over an American military command in nearly 100 years.

General LeMay was instrumental in SAC's acquisition of a large fleet of new strategic bombers, establishment of a vast aerial refueling system, the formation of many new units and bases, development of a strategic ballistic missile force, and establishment of a strict command and control system with an unprecedented readiness capability. All of this was protected by a greatly enhanced and modernized security force, the Strategic Air Command Elite Guard. LeMay insisted on rigorous training and very high standards of performance for all SAC personnel, be they officers, enlisted men, aircrews, mechanics, or administrative staff, and reportedly commented, "I have neither the time nor the inclination to differentiate between the incompetent and the merely unfortunate."

A famous legend often used by SAC flight crews to illustrate LeMay's command style concerned his famous ever-present cigar. LeMay once took the co-pilot's seat of a SAC bomber to observe the mission, complete with lit cigar. When asked by the pilot to put the cigar out, LeMay demanded to know why. When the pilot explained that fumes inside the fuselage could ignite the airplane, LeMay reportedly growled, "It wouldn't dare."

Despite his uncompromising attitude regarding performance of duty, LeMay was also known for his concern for the physical well-being and comfort of his men. LeMay found ways to encourage morale, individual performance, and the reenlistment rate through a number of means: encouraging off-duty group recreational activities, instituting spot promotions based on performance, and authorizing special uniforms, training, equipment, and allowances for ground personnel as well as flight crews.

On LeMay's departure, SAC was composed of 224,000 airmen, close to 2,000 heavy bombers, and nearly 800 tanker aircraft.

LeMay was appointed Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force in July 1957, serving until 1961. He advocated the introduction of satellite technology and pushed for the development of the latest electronic warfare techniques.

The memorandum from LeMay, Chief of Staff, USAF, to the Joint Chiefs of Staff, January 4, 1964, illustrates LeMay's reasons for keeping bomber forces alongside ballistic missiles: "It is important to recognize, however, that ballistic missile forces represent both the U.S. and Soviet potential for strategic nuclear warfare at the highest, most indiscriminate level, and at a level least susceptible to control. The employment of these weapons in lower level conflict would be likely to escalate the situation, uncontrollably, to an intensity which could be vastly disproportionate to the original aggravation. The use of ICBMs and SLBMs is not, therefore, a rational or credible response to provocations which, although serious, are still less than an immediate threat to national survival. For this reason, among others, I consider that the national security will continue to require the flexibility, responsiveness, and discrimination of manned strategic weapon systems throughout the range of cold, limited, and general war."

LeMay was a Heathkit customer and active amateur radio operator. He was famous for being on the air on amateur bands while flying on board SAC bombers. LeMay became aware that the new single sideband (SSB) technology offered a big advantage over amplitude modulation (AM) for SAC aircraft operating long distances from their bases. In conjunction with Heath engineers and Art Collins, he established SSB as the radio standard for SAC bombers in 1957.

LeMay was also a sports car owner and enthusiast (he owned an Allard J2). LeMay loaned out facilities of SAC bases for use by the Sports Car Club of America. He was awarded the Woolf Barnato Award, SCCA's highest award, for contributions to the Club, in 1954. In November 2006, it was announced that General LeMay would be one of the inductees into the SCCA Hall of Fame in 2007.

The dumbasses: The Press

LeMay enthusiastically supported racial integration in the U.S. military publicly and privately. In 1968 LeMay was the running mate to George Wallace in the presidential election, and he was dismayed to find himself attacked in the press as a racial segregationist because he was running with Wallace; he had never considered himself a bigot.

The quotation "we should bomb them back to the stone age" was falsely attributed to LeMay by the press. In an interview LeMay said: "I never said we should bomb them back to the Stone Age. I said we had the capability to do it."


Kelly Johnson

Aircraft designed by Kelly Johnson include:

P-38 Lightning. Fastest aircraft at the time. 1941
P-80 Shooting star, first jet fighter. Mach .76. 1945
AQM-60 Kingfisher, Mach 4.3 ramjet. 1951
U-2. 21.3 km altitude. 1957

F-104 Starfighter, first Mach 2 fighter. 1958
SR-71 Blackbird, Mach 3.3. 1966
F-117 Nighthawk, first stealth aircraft. 1983

Hall Hibbard: "That damned Swede can actually see air."


Leo Szilard, Genius in the Shadows

Leo Szilard was a Hungarian-American physicist and inventor. He conceived the nuclear chain reaction in 1933, patented the idea of a nuclear reactor with Enrico Fermi, and in late 1939 wrote the letter for Albert Einstein's signature that resulted in the Manhattan Project that built the atomic bomb.

From 1908 to 1916 he attended Realiskola high school in his home town. Showing an early interest in physics and a proficiency in mathematics, in 1916 he won the Eotvos Prize, a national prize for mathematics. In Hungary this is a big deal, where mathematics is as prestigious as wrestling is in the rural Midwest. Other Hungarian physicists from this age include von Neumann, Erdos, Teller, Wigner, von Karman, Eotvos, and Lanczos. Such was the might of Hungarian physicists that it was speculated they were aliens.

von Neuman
Erdos
von Karman
Wigner
Eotvos
Teller
Dr. Strangelove

Szilard attended Friedrich Wilhelm University, where he attended lectures given by Albert Einstein, Max Planck, Walter Nernst, James Franck and Max von Laue. He also met fellow Hungarian students Eugene Wigner, John von Neumann and Dennis Gabor. His doctoral dissertation on thermodynamics (On The Manifestation of Thermodynamic Fluctuations), praised by Einstein, won top honors in 1922. It involved a long-standing puzzle in the philosophy of thermal and statistical physics known as Maxwell's demon, a thought experiment originated by the physicist James Clerk Maxwell. The problem was thought to be insoluble, but in tackling it Szilard recognized the connection between thermodynamics and Information theory.

In September 12, 1933, Szilard read an article in The Times summarizing a speech given by Lord Rutherford in which Rutherford rejected the feasibility of using atomic energy for practical purposes. The speech remarked specifically on the recent 1932 work of his students, John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton, in "splitting" lithium into alpha particles, by bombardment with protons from a particle accelerator they had constructed. Rutherford went on to say:

"We might in these processes obtain very much more energy than the proton supplied, but on the average we could not expect to obtain energy in this way. It was a very poor and inefficient way of producing energy, and anyone who looked for a source of power in the transformation of the atoms was talking moonshine. But the subject was scientifically interesting because it gave insight into the atoms."

Szilard was so annoyed at Rutherford's dismissal that he conceived of the idea of nuclear chain reaction (analogous to a chemical chain reaction), using recently discovered neutrons. The idea did not use the mechanism of nuclear fission, which was not yet discovered, but Szilard realized that if neutrons could initiate any sort of energy-producing nuclear reaction, such as the one that had occurred in lithium, and could be produced themselves by the same reaction, energy might be obtained with little input, since the reaction would be self-sustaining.

In November 1938, Szilard moved to New York City. In 1939, Niels Bohr brought news to New York of the discovery of nuclear fission in Germany by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann, and its theoretical explanation by Lise Meitner, and Otto Frisch. When Szilard found out about it on a visit to Wigner at Princeton University, he immediately realized that uranium might be the element capable of sustaining a chain reaction.

Szilard and Zinn conducted a simple experiment on the seventh floor of Pupin Hall at Columbia, using a radium-beryllium source to bombard uranium with neutrons. They discovered significant neutron multiplication in natural uranium, proving that a chain reaction might be possible. Szilard later described the event: "We turned the switch and saw the flashes. We watched them for a little while and then we switched everything off and went home". He understood the implications and consequences of this discovery, though. "That night, there was very little doubt in my mind that the world was headed for grief"

Szilard persuaded Fermi and Herbert L. Anderson to try a larger experiment using 500 pounds (230 kg) of uranium. To maximize the chance of fission, they needed a neutron moderator to slow the neutrons down. Hydrogen was a known moderator, so they used water. The results were disappointing. It became apparent that hydrogen slowed neutrons down, but also absorbed them, leaving fewer for the chain reaction. Szilard then suggested Fermi use carbon, in the form of graphite. He felt he would need about 50 tonnes (49 long tons; 55 short tons) of graphite and 5 tonnes (4.9 long tons; 5.5 short tons) of uranium. As a back-up plan, Szilard also considered where he might find a few tons of heavy water; deuterium would not absorb neutrons like ordinary hydrogen, but would have the similar value as a moderator. Such quantities of materiel would require a lot of money.

Szilard drafted a confidential letter to the President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, explaining the possibility of nuclear weapons, warning of German nuclear weapon project, and encouraging the development of a program that could result in their creation. With the help of Wigner and Edward Teller, he approached his old friend and collaborator Einstein in August 1939, and convinced him to sign the letter, lending his fame to the proposal. The Einstein-Szilard letter resulted in the establishment of research into nuclear fission by the U.S. government, and ultimately to the creation of the Manhattan Project. Roosevelt gave the letter to his aide, Brigadier General Edwin M. "Pa" Watson with the instruction: "Pa, this requires action!"

The Shadow knows!

Fermi and Szilard met with representatives of National Carbon Company, who manufactured graphite, where Szilard made another important discovery. By quizzing them about impurities in their graphite, he found that it contained boron, a neutron absorber. He then had graphite manufacturers produce boron-free graphite. Had he not done so, they might have concluded, as the German nuclear weapon project did, that graphite was unsuitable for use as a neutron moderator. Like the German project, Fermi and Szilard still believed that enormous quantities of uranium would be required for an atomic bomb, and therefore concentrated on producing a controlled chain reaction. Fermi determined that fissioning uranium atom produced 1.73 neutrons on average. It was enough, but a careful design was call for to minimize losses. Szilard worked up various designs for a nuclear reactor. "If the uranium project could have been run on ideas alone," Wigner later remarked, "no one but Leo Szilard would have been needed."

The Shadow rap

After the war, Szilard switched to biology. He invented the chemostat, discovered feedback inhibition, and was involved in the first cloning of a human cell. He publicly sounded the alarm against the development of the cobalt bomb, a new kind of nuclear weapon that might destroy all life on the planet. He helped found the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, where he became a resident fellow.

In 1960, Szilard was diagnosed with bladder cancer. He underwent cobalt therapy at New York's Memorial Sloan-Kettering Hospital using a cobalt 60 treatment regimen that he designed himself. He knew the properties of this isotope also from his estimates about the salted bombs with cobalt. A second round of treatment with an increased dose followed in 1962. The doctors tried to tell him that the increased radiation dose would kill him, but he said it wouldn't, and that anyway he would die without it. The higher dose did its job and his cancer never returned. This treatment became standard for many cancers and is still used.

1930-      The Shadow
1938-1950  Golden Age of Comic Books
1939-      Batman
1956-1970  Silver Age of Comic Books
1963       X-Men
1970-1985  Bronze Age of Comic Books
1985-      Modern Age of Comic Books
1986       Watchmen


Flight


Lift

Air density            =  D
Velocity               =  V
Wing area              =  Awing
Wing drag coefficient  =  Cwing
Drag force on the wing =  Fdrag = ½ CWing Awing D V2


             Cwing

F-4 Phantom   .021     (subsonic)
Cessna 310    .027
Airbus A380   .027
Boeing 747    .031
F-4 Phantom   .044     (supersonic)

Lift-to-drag ratio
Flift  =  Lift force (upward)
Fdrag  =  Drag force (rearward)
Qlift  =  Lift-to-drag coefficient  =  Flift / Fdrag

              Qlift

U-2            23     High-altitude spy plane
Albatross      20     Largest bird
Gossamer       20     Gossamer albatross, human-powered aircraft  
Hang glider    15
Tern           12
Herring Gull   10
Airbus A380     7.5
Concorde        7.1
Boeing 747      7
Cessna 150      7
Parachute       5
Sparrow         4
Wingsuit        2.5
Flying lemur    ?     Most capable gliding mammal.  2 kg max
Flying squirrel 2.0

Gliding

A glider is an airplane without an engine. The more efficient the glider, the smaller the glide angle. The minimum glide angle is determined by the wing lift/drag coefficient.

Wing lift/drag coefficient =  Qlift  =  Flift / Fdrag
Glider horizontal velocity =  Vx
Glider vertical velocity   =  Vz
Drag force                 =  Fdrag
Gravitational force        =  Fgrav
Lift force                 =  Flift  =  Fgrav
Drag power                 =  Pdrag  =  Fdrag Vx
Power from gravit          =  Pgrav  =  Fgrav Vz
If the glider descends at constant velocity,
Pdrag  =  Pgrav
The goal of a glider is to maximize the glide ratio Vx / Vz.
Vx / Vz  =  (Pdrag / Fdrag)  /  (Pgrav / Fgrav)
         =  Fgrav / Fdrag
         =  Qlift
The glide ratio is equal to the lift coefficient Qlift.

Level flight

D    =  Air density
Awing =  Wing area
Cwing =  Wing drag coefficient
Fdrag =  Drag force on the wing   =  ½ Cwing D Awing V^2
Qwing =  Wing lift coefficient    =  Flift / Fdrag
Flift =  Lift force from the wing =  Qwing Fdrag
M    =  Aircraft mass
Feng  =  Engine force
Fgrav =  Gravity force            =  M g
Pdrag =  Drag power               =  Fdrag V  =  ½ Cwing D Awing V3
V    =  Cruising speed
Agility= Power-to-weight ratio    =  Pdrag / M  =  V g / Q      (derived below)
For flight at constant velocity,
Feng  =  Fdrag              Horizontal force balance

Flift =  Fgrav              Vertical force balance

Agility =  Pdrag   / M
        =  Fdrag V / M
        =  Flift V / M / Q
        =  M g  V / M / Q
        =  V g / Q
We can use this equation to solve for the minimum agility required to fly.
Pdrag  =  M g V / Q  =  ½ Cwing D Awing V3

Agility  =  g3/2 M½ Q-3/2 (½ C D A)
If we assume that mass scales as size cubed and wing area scales as size squared, then
Awing   ~  M2/3

Agility ~  g3/2 M1/6 Q-3/2 C D

Aircraft data

Cessna 150
Boeing 747
Airbus 380

SR-71 Blackbird
U-2 spy plane
Concorde
Concorde temperature at Mach 2

         Vcruise  Vmax  Mass  Takeoff  Ceiling  Density  Force  Wing   Len   Wing   Range
           m/s   m/s   ton    ton      km      kg/m3     kN     m2     m     m      km

Cessna 150    42   56     .60     .73  4.3   .79      1.34   15     7.3  10.1    778
Boeing 747   254  274  178.1   377.8  11.0   .36   1128     525    70.6  64.4  14200
Boeing 787-9 251  262  128.9   254.0  13.1   .26    640     360.5  62.8  60.1  14140
Airbus A380  243  262  276.8   575    13.1   .26   1360     845    72.2  79.8  15200
Concorde     599  605   78.7   190.5  18.3   .115   560     358.2  61.7  25.6   7223
F-22 Raptor  544  740   19.7    38.0  19.8   .091   312      78.0  18.9  13.6   2960
U-2          192  224    6.49   18.1  21.3   .071    84.5    92.9  19.2  31.4  10308
SR-71        954  983   30.6    78.0  25.9   .034   302     170    32.7  16.9   5400
Mach 1 = 298 m/s.

Altitude

Commercial airplanes fly at high altitude where the air is thin. The thinner the air, the less the drag force and the less the energy required to travel a given distance.

                Altitude   Density
                  (km)     (kg/m3)

Sea level          0       1.22
Cessna 150         3.0      .79
Boeing 747        11.0      .36
Airbus A380       13.1      .26
Concorde          18.3      .115
F-22 Raptor       19.8      .091
U-2               21.3      .071
SR-71 Blackbird   25.9      .034

Solar powered aircraft
                Cruise  Max  Ceiling  Mass  Cruise  Motor  Solar  Cells  Battery
                 m/s    m/s    kW     tons    kw     kW    cells   m2     tons
                                                            kW

Aquila           35.8          27.4     .40   5.0                          .2
Solar Impulse 2  25.0   38.9   12      2.3           52     66    269.5    .633

The Loon balloon is 15 meters wide, 12 meters, tall, and .076 mm thick. The solar panels generate 100 Watts and the payload is 10 kg. It is too large to be self-propelled and relies and buoyancy modulation and air currents to maneuver.


History
1961  Piggott accomplishes the first human-powered flight, covering a distance
      of 650 meters.
1977  The "Gossomer Condor 2" flies 2172 meters in a figure-eight and wins
      the Kremer Prize.  It was built by Paul MacCready and piloted by amateur
      cyclist and hang-glider pilot Bryan Allen. 
      It cruised at 5.0 m/s with a power of 260 Watts.
1988  The MIT Daedalus 88 piloted by Kanellos Kanellopoulos flies from Crete
      to Santorini (115.11 km), setting the distance record, which still stands.
Human-powered helicopters can only reach a height of 3 meters and can only hover for 20 seconds.

Agility
               Mass    Power   Agility
               (kg)    (kW)   (Watts/kg)

Human             75    2500     33
BMW i8          1485     170    114
Cessna 150       600      75    125
Airbus A380   276000   49000    178
Formula-1 car    642     619    964
SR-71          30600   33000   1078
F-22 Raptor    19700   33000   1675
If you put a wing on a BMW i8, it would be able to go fast enough to take off.
Wing shape
Xwing =  Length of the wing, from the fuselage to the tip
Ywing =  Wing dimension in the direction of flight,
        measured along the point of attachment with the fuselage
Awing =  Wing area
Rwing =  Wing aspect ratio   =  Xwing / Ywing
Qlift =  Wing lift-drag ratio


         QLift  Rwing     Wing     Xwing
                           area
                           (m2)        (m)
U-2         23     10.6                        High-altitude spy plane
Albatros    20                       1.7       Largest bird
Gossamer    20             41.34    14.6       Gossamer albatross, human-powered aircraft  
Airbus A380  7.5    7.5   845       36.3
Concorde     7.1          358.2     11.4
Boeing 747   7      7.9   525       29.3
Cessna 150   7             15        4.5
Wingsuit     2.5    1       2        1.0
QLift tends to be proportional to Rwing.

Wingtip vortex

A wingtip creates a vortex as it moves. Birds fly in a "V" formation to use the updraft from their neighbor's wingtip vortex.


Flight on other worlds

The minimum agility required to fly scales as

Agility  ~  g3/2 M1/6 Q-3/2 Cwing D
We can normalize the Earth to 1 and estimate the minimum agility for other planets. For example,
MarsAgility / EarthAgility  =  (MarsGravity / EarthGravity)3/2 * (MarsDensity / EarthDensity)


        Gravity  Atmosphere   Agility     Power/     Maximum
                  density     normalized   mass      mass for
        (m/s^2)   (kg/m^3)    to Earth   (Watts/kg)  flight (kg)

Earth     9.78      1.22       1.0        400              20
Mars      3.8        .020      1.89       756                .44
Titan     1.35      5.3         .025       10        >1000000
Venus     8.87     67           .12        48        >1000000
Pandora   7.8       1.46        .65       261             265
For the "Power/mass" column we assume that the power required for human flight is 400 Watts and estimate the power required for flight on other planets.

On Titan you can fly with a wingsuit. A creature as massive as a whale can fly.

"Pandora" is the fictional moon from the film "Avatar".

The largest flying birds on the Earth have a mass of 20 kg. We can use the agility scaling to estimate the maximum mass for flight on other planets.

Agility ~  g3/2 M1/6 Q-3/2 Cwing D

M       ~  g-9  D3

Downforce

The wing on a Formula-1 car is an upside-down aircraft wing that generates downforce, to help with friction.

M   =  Mass
V   =  Velocity
A   =  Acceleration (in any direction)
Cfri=  Friction coefficient
C  =  Wing coefficient for downforce
Fgrav=  Gravitational force on the car
                =  M g
F  =  Downforce from the wing
    =  M g C V2
Ffri=  Maximum friction force
    =  Cfri (Fgrav + F)
    =  Cfri M g (1 + C V2)
A formula-1 car generates 1 g of downforce at 50 m/s, hence C = 1/502. At the top speed of 100 m/s the downforce is 4 g. The maximum accelerations incurred by the driver are of order 5 g.

The maximum cornering speed for a circle of radius R is:

Ffri  =  M V2/R  =  M g Cfri (1 + V2/Cfri2)

V2 = g R Cfri / (1 - R/Cfri2)

Angle of attack

The angle of attack is the angle of the plane's noze with respect to level fight. As the angle of attack increases the lift increases, with an accompanying increase in drag. If the angle of attack is too high then lift drops and the plane stalls.


Combat aircraft

F-22 Raptor
F-35 Lightning
F-15 Eagle

F-15 Eagle cockpit
F-16 Falcon
MiG-25 Foxbat

               Speed  Mass  Takeoff  Ceiling  Thrust  Range  Cost  Number Year Stealth
               Mach   ton     ton      km       kN     km     M$

SR-71 Blackbird  3.3   30.6   78.0     25.9    302    5400          32   1966
MiG-25 Foxbat    2.83  20.0   36.7     20.7    200.2  1730        1186   1970
MiG-31 Foxhound  2.83  21.8   46.2     20.6    304    1450         519   1981
F-22A Raptor     2.51  19.7   38.0     19.8    312    2960   150   195   2005   *
F-15 Eagle       2.5   12.7   30.8     20.0    211.4  4000    28   192   1976
MiG-29 Fulcrum   2.25  11.0   20.0     18.0    162.8  1430    29  1600   1982
Su-35            2.25  18.4   34.5     18.0    284    3600    40    48   1988
F-4 Phantom II   2.23  13.8   28.0     18.3           1500        5195   1958
Chengdu J-10     2.2    9.8   19.3     18.0    130    1850    28   400   2005
F-16 Falcon      2.0    8.6   19.2     15.2    127    1200    15   957   1978
Chengdu J-7      2.0    5.3    9.1     17.5     64.7   850        2400   1966
Dassault Rafale  1.8   10.3   24.5     15.2    151.2  3700    79   152   2001
Euro Typhoon     1.75  11.0   23.5     19.8    180    2900    90   478   2003
F-35A Lightning  1.61  13.2   31.8     15.2    191    2220    85    77   2006   *
B-52              .99  83.2  220       15.0    608   14080    84   744   1952
B-2 Bomber        .95  71.7  170.6     15.2    308   11100   740    21   1997   *
A-10C Warthog     .83  11.3   23.0     13.7     80.6  1200    19   291   1972
Drone RQ-180          ~15              18.3          ~2200               2015   *
Drone X-47B       .95   6.4   20.2     12.2           3890           2   2011   *  Carrier
Drone Avenger     .70          8.3     15.2     17.8  2900    12     3   2009   *
Drone RQ-4        .60   6.8   14.6     18.3     34   22800   131    42   1998
Drone Reaper      .34   2.2    4.8     15.2      5.0  1852    17   163   2007
Drone RQ-170                           15                           20   2007   *

India HAL AMCA   2.5   14.0   36.0     18.0    250    2800     ?     0   2023   *
India HAL FGFA   2.3   18.0   35.0     20.0    352    3500     ?     0  >2020   *
Mitsubishi F-3   2.25   9.7     ?        ?      98.1  3200     ?     1   2024   *
Chengdu J-20     2.0   19.4   36.3       ?     359.8     ?   110     4   2018   *
Sukhoi PAK FA    2.0   18.0   35.0     20.0    334    3500    50     6   2018   *
Shenyang J-31    1.8   17.6   25.0       ?     200    4000     ?     0   2018   *

Mach 1 = 295 m/s
5th generation fighters: F-22, F-35, X-2, HAL AMCA, J-20, J-31, Sukhoi PAK FA

An aircraft moving at Mach 2 and turning with a radius of 1.2 km has a g force of 7 g's.


Drones

X-47B
X-47B

RQ-170 Sentinel
MQ-9 Reaper


Missiles

Air to air missiles

F-22 and the AIM-120
AIM-9
Astra
Predator and Hellfire
Helfire in a transparent case

                Mach   Range  Missile  Warhead  Year  Engine
                        km      kg       kg

Russia  R-37      6      400    600      60    1989   Solid rocket
Japan   AAM-4     5      100    224       ?    1999   Ramjet
India   Astra     4.5+   110    154      15    2010   Solid rocket
EU      Meteor    4+     200    185       ?    2012   Ramjet
Russia  R-77-PD   4      200    175      22.5  1994   Ramjet
USA     AIM-120D  4      180    152      18    2008   Solid rocket
Israel  Derby-IR  4      100    118      23           Solid rocket
Israel  Rafael    4       50    118      23    1990   Solid rocket
France  MICA      4       50    112      12    1996   Solid rocket
Israel  Python 5  4       20    105      11           Solid rocket
Russia  K-100     3.3    400    748      50    2010   Solid rocket
UK      ASRAAM    3+      50     88      10    1998   Solid rocket
Germany IRIS-T    3       25     87.4          2005   Solid rocket
USA     AIM-9X    2.5+    35     86       9    2003   Solid rocket
USA     Hellfire  1.3      8     49       9    1984   Solid rocket  AGM-114

Ground to air missiles

David's Sling
Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD)

SM-3
SM-3
Chu-SAM
RIM-174

                 Mach   Range  Missile  Warhead  Year  Engine     Stages   Anti
                         km      kg       kg                              missile

USA     SM-3      15.2   2500   1500       0    2009   Solid rocket  4       *
Israel  Arrow      9      150   1300     150    2000   Solid rocket  2
USA     THAAD      8.24   200    900       0    2008   Solid rocket          *
USA     David      7.5    300                   2016   Solid rocket          *
Russia  S-400      6.8    400   1835     180    2007   Solid rocket          *
India   Prithvi    5     2000   5600            2006   Solid, liquid 2       *
India   AAD Ashwin 4.5    200   1200       0    2007   Solid rocket  1
Taiwan  Sky Bow 2  4.5    150   1135      90    1998   Solid rocket
China   HQ-9       4.2    200   1300     180    1997   Solid rocket  2
USA     Patriot 3  4.1     35    700      90    2000   Solid rocket          *
China   KS-1       4.1     50    900     100    2006   Solid rocket          *
USA     RIM-174    3.5    460   1500      64    2013   Solid rocket  2
India   Barak 8    2      100    275      60    1015   Solid rocket  2
Japan   Chu-SAM                  570      73    2003   Solid rocket
Korea   KM-SAM             40    400            2015   Solid rocket

Ground to ground missiles

Tomahawk
Tomahawk

                Mach   Range  Missile  Warhead  Year  Engine        Launch
                        km      kg       kg                         platform

USA     Tomahawk   .84  2500   1600     450    1983   Turbofan      Ground
USA     AGM-129    .75  3700   1300     130    1990   Turbofan      B-52 Bomber
USA     AGM-86     .73  2400   1430    1361    1980   Turbofan      B-52 Bomber

Hypersonic missiles

HTV-2
X-51
DARPA Falcon HTV-3

                   Speed   Mass  Payload  Range  Year
                   mach    tons   tons     km

USA      SR-72         6                          Future. Successor to the SR-71 Blackbird
USA      HSSW          6                    900   Future. High Speed Strike Weaspon
USA      HTV-2        20           5500   17000   2 Test flights
USA      X-41          8           450            Future
USA      X-51          5.1  1.8             740   2013    Tested. 21 km altitude. Will become the HSSW
Russia   Object 4202  10                          Tested
India    HSTDV        12                          Future
China    Wu-14        10                          2014   7 tests.  also called the DZ-ZF
The SR-72 has two engines: a ramjet for below Mach 3 and a ramjet/scramjet for above Mach 3. The engines share an intake and thrust nozzle.
Intercontinental ballistic missiles

First ICBM: SM-65 Atlas, completed in 1958
Titan 2
Peacekeeper
Minuteman 3
Minuteman 3

Trident 2
Peacekeeper
Minuteman 3

                     Payload  Paylod   Range  Mass    Launch   Year
                     (tons)   (Mtons)  (km)   (tons)

USA     Titan 2               9        15000   154     Silo    1962   Inactive
USA     Minuteman 3            .9      13000    35.3   Silo    1970
USA     Trident 2              .95     11300    58.5   Sub     1987
USA     Titan                 3.75     10200   151.1   Silo    1959   Inactive
USA     Peacekeeper           3         9600    96.8   Silo    1983   Inactive
Russia  RS-24                 1.2      12000     49    Road    2007
Russia  Voevoda         8.7   8        11000    211.4  Silo    1986
Russia  Layner                         11000     40    Sub     2011
Russia  RS-28 Sarmat   10              10000   >100    Silo    2020   Liquid rocket
Russia  Bulava                 .9      10000     36.8  Sub     2005
France  M51.1                 1        10000    52     Sub     2006
China   DF-5B                 8        15000    183    Silo    2015
China   DF-5A                 4        15000    183    Silo    1983
China   JL-2                  6        12000     42    Sub     2001
China   DF-5                  5        12000    183    Silo    1971
China   DF-31A                3        12000     42    Road
China   DF-31                 1         8000     42    Road    1999
China   DF-4                  3.3       7000     82    Silo    1974
India   Surya          15              16000     70    Road    2022
India   Agni-VI        10              12000     70    Road    2017
India   Agni-V          6               8000     50    Road    2012
India   K-4             2.5             3500     17    Sub     2016   Solid. Arihant nuclear sub
India   K-15           ~6.5              750      1.0  Sub     2010   Solid. 2 stages. Arihant nuclear sub
Israel  Jericho 3        .75           11500     30    Road    2008
N. Kor. Taepodong-2                     6000     79.2  Pad     2006
Pakis.  Shaheen 3                       2750           Road    2015   Solid. 2 stages.
Pakis.  Shaheen 2                       2000     25    Road    2014   Solid. 2 stages.
Pakis.  Ghauri 2        1.2             1800     17.8  Road
Pakis.  Ghauri 1         .7             1500     15.8  Road    2003   Liquid. 1 stage.
Iran    Shabab 3        1.0             1930                   2003
Payload in "tons" represents the mass of the payload.
Payload in "Mtons" is the nuclear detonation payload in terms of tons of TNT.
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