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Strategy for the United States

The principal strategic considerations are:

Oil and energy dominance
Military dominance
Space dominance
Industrial electricity for jobs and exports
Education reform

We expand on each of these below.


Military

Develop a Mach-6 ramjet air-to-air missile with a range of at least 300 km. Article

Develop a Mach-6 ramjet cruise missile. Article

Develop a Mach-15 hypersonic missile. Article

Build a fleet of solar-powered drones that fly at 25 km altitude and are equipped with 100 kg anti-missile missiles. Article

Advance the technology of anti-missile missiles.

Develop a turbojet drone with a speed of Mach 3. Article

Build a set of drone submarines with submarine detection equipment, to establish a perimeter of at least 200 km from the American coast.

Develop and manufacture an exportable electric submarine with the following properties:
Fuel cell engine, because this is the quietest possible engine.
Air independent propulsion, using liquid oxygen.
Quality lithium batteries, like the ones that are used in Tesla vehicles.
Pump jet propulusion, which is quieter than propeller propulsion.
Compact, so that the submarine is cheap and can operate at a deep depth.
An escort of drone submarines for sensing and for launching anti-torpedo torpedoes.
Submarine article

Encourage India to cease their project to develop a stealth aircraft with Russia and offer to sell them American stealth F-35 Lightenings. Article on stealth fighters.

Design a diesel-electric submarine that can be exported. Article


Oil and energy dominance

America and its allies should be self-sufficient in oil and energy. Suppose we define a list of allies as:

The Americas: All countries in North and South America.
Europe: All countries except Russia.
Asia: Japan, South Korea, India, Australia, New Zealand, Taiwan, The Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, South Africa. All other Asian allies are small enough to be neglected.

For America and its allies, hydrocarbon production and consumption is:

          Produce      Consume      Surplus    Energy/Mass
        MBarrel/day  MBarrel/day  MBarrel/day   MJoule/kg

Oil          36          63          -27         41.9       1 Barrel of oil  = 6120 MJoules =  140 kg
Natural gas  38.8        44.5         -5.7       55.5       1 meter^3 of gas =   54 MJoules =  .97 kg
Coal         32.4        29.1          2.6       32         1 ton of coal    =32000 MJoules = 1000 kg
Total       107.2       136.6        -30
Natural gas and coal are expressed in units of Mbarrels/day to compare them with oil. The total hydrocarbon energy shortfall is equivalent to 30 Mbarrels/day. Most of the shortfall is in oil.

Tackling the shortfall requires:

*) Expanding American oil production.
*) Reforming failed states such as Brazil so that they can increase production.
*) Expand the use of electric vehicles as a substitute for oil.
*) Expand natural gas and coal production to power the electric vehicles.

World energy production for 2015 in EJoules/year was:

Oil           188
Coal          172
Natural gas   127
Biomass        54
Hydro          23
Nuclear        16
Wind            2.3
Ethanol         2.0
Biodiesel        .9
Solar cells      .5
The only sources with enough capacity are coal, gas, biomass, and nuclear. The best hydro sources have already been tapped.
Nuclear power helps but it can only be used in the developed nations such as America, the UK, France, Germany, Japan, South Korea, and India.
We should increase solar cell and wind production but these have insufficient capacity.
Natural gas is 2.5 times better than coal in terms of energy produced per kg of CO2 emitted. Biomass and nuclear are carbon neutral.

Due to the above considerations, the focus lands upon gas and biomass. We should increase production for these by as much as possible and use coal to supply the rest.

Data from British Petroleum


Energy production

We list the contries countries with the capacity and reserves to increase energy production.

Natural gas:

           Produce  Consume  Reserves
             Bm3      Bm3      Tm3

USA              767  778   9.9
Canada           164  102   1.8
Norway           117   83   2.3
Turkmenistan      72   34  17.5
Australia         67   34   4.3
Uzbekistan        58   50   1.8
Netherlands       43   32   1.4
Venezuela         32   34   5.7
Azerbaijan        18   10   2.6
Kazakhistan       12    9   1.9
India             29   51   1.1
Ukraine                29   1.1
Rest of Americas 123  181   2.0
Rest of Europe    51  246    .3     (Everyone except Russia)
Rest of Asia      51  221    .3     (Asian allies)
Total           1604 1840
Coal:
            Produce  Consume  Reserve
            Bton/yr  Bton/yr   Tton

USA             455   396  237
India           284   407   61
Australia       275    47   76
S. Africa       143         30
Colombia         58          7
Poland           54    50
Kazakhistan      46    33   34
Germany          43    78   41
Ukraine          16    29   34
Serbia            7         13
Rest of Americas 45    62
Rest of Europe   57    83           (Everyone except Russia)
Rest of Asia     74   300           (Asian allies)
Total          1657  1485
Biomass production requires sun, water, and fertilizer. There are many countries with abundant sun and water that could increase production by fertilizing.
Space dominance

Use the Stratolaunch aircraft to launch rockets from an altitude of 15 km and a speed of Mach 0.9. Article

Develop a Mach 6 ramjet aircraft capable of launching a rocket into orbit. Article

Establish a base on the moon. Collect ice and iron and launch it into space. Use solar panels to convert the ice into hydrogen+oxygen rocket fuel. Send the fuel to the base station at Low Earth Orbit and use it to transer satellites from Low Earth Orbit into higher orbits.

Build a space station at the L2 Lagrange Point(4 times further than the moon) using fuel from the moon and assemble a telescope farm.Article on L2 telescopes

Use the L2 station to launch a manned mission to Mars. Article on a Manned mission to Mars

Asteroid mining: Bring an iron asteroid to the Earth, yielding trillions in platinum group metals and infinite iron energy (which is carbon-free).

Asteroid defense: Have a set of spacecraft equipped with hydrogen bombs deployed in space to defend against asteroids.

Article on rocket technology

Article on spaceship technology


Jobs

Energy begets exports

Energy is the key to jobs and exports. Energy produces raw materials such as metals, plastics, chemicals, and fertilizer, which is the foundation for manufacturing. Energy is also the principal cost for many kinds of manufacturing, usually in the form of industrial electricity. America has abundant energy and a low cost for industrial electricity, enabling it to be competitive in the global export market.


Raw materials

The energy required to produce a material is the "embodied energy". For metals this is the energy required to produce pure metal from ore. For plastics and chemicals this is the energy required for the synthesis plus the energy content of the input hydrocarbons. For fertilizer this is the energy required to produce ammonium nitrate from atmospheric nitrogen. The most significant materials in terms of the global energy budget are:

           EJoules  MJoules    $/kg
            /year     /kg

Steel         32       25       .3
Cement        12        4
Paper          9       25
Aluminum       7      150      1.7
Plastic, PE    5      150            Polyethylene
Plastic, PVC   4      150            Polyvinyl chloride
Plastic, PP    4      150            Polypropylene
NH4NO3         4                     Ammonium nitrate fertilizer
Polyester      3      150
Stainless      2.5     57
Butyl rubber   2
Titanium       1.5    800     10
Plastic, PS    1.5                   Polystyrene
Copper         1       42      6.2
Zinc           1       70      2
Gold            .5 200000  24000
Nickel          .5    150     15

EJoules/year:     World energy used in the synthesis of the material
MJoules/kg:       Energy requirement for synthesis
$/kg:             Price of the material

Price of industrial electricity

The price of industrial electricity in America is low compared to the rest of the world, giving America an edge in manufacturing and exports.

           Cents/kWh

Bhutan       2.0
Russia       2.4
Canada       5.4
USA          6.4
China        7.5
Australia   15
Brazil      16.2
Mexico      19.3
Japan       20

U.S. industrial electricity
                      %

Machine drive        50
Chemical synthesis    7.8
Petroleum refining    7.3
Nonmanufacturing      4.1
Other manufacturing   3.8
Forest products       3.3
Iron and steel        1.9
Food processing       1.6
Nonmetallic minerals  1.4
Aluminum               .9
Fabricated metals      .7
Plastic and rubber     .7

Steel

Input energy fractions for the production of steel:

Electricity    .18
Natural gas    .33
Coal           .01
Coke           .18
Other          .27
Residual       .02

U.S. electricity
             U.S.   Cents      $/kg   Produce   MJ/$
             frac   /kWh              Bkg/year

Coal         .388      9.0    .045    900       490*
Natural gas  .274      7.0    .117    574       527*
Crude                         .29     530
Uranium      .195     10.0
Hydro        .06       7.0
Wind         .044      7.4
Wood         .0102    10.0
Biomass      .0052
Solar cell   .0042    11.0
Solar therm
Geothermal   .0038     4.8


USA electricity                    =   4200 TWh/year
USA per capita electricity         =   13.0 MWh/year/person
USA oil production                 =   9.40 Mbarrels/day  (2015)
1 short ton                        =  .9072 tons
1 BTU                              =   1055 Joules
1 Barrel of oil                    =     42 gallons  =  158.99 liters  =  6.12⋅109 Joules
1 Gallon                           =  4.546 litres

U.S. electricity use
             Fraction  Cents/kWh

Residential     .339    12.5       10932 kWh/person/year,  1368 $/month
Commercial      .326    10.7
Industrial      .241     6.4
Transport       .0019
Transsion loss  .092
Industrial electricity is cheaper than residential electricity because it is delivered at higher voltage and closer to the generator.
Enterprise city

Establish new cities from scratch on cheap land to take advantage of electric driverless cars and prefabricated housing. The properties of such a city might be:

A centralized zone with a K-12 school, a university, a pub district, and a shopping district. Houses radiate outward from the center.
Housing is structured so that everyone gets a yard adjacent to a park. Prefabricated housing and mobile housing is used as appropriate.
The street system is computer controlled for fast travel by electric car.
Factories where you can manufacture stuff for yourself, such as electric cars, prefabricated houses, furniture, electronics, etc.
Greenhouses for urban agriculture plus nearby land for farming.
Ideally there should be a cheap and abundant source of fresh water.
A freeway next to the city leading to nearby cities.
An airport not far from the city center.


Natural resources

Rare Earth elements are vital to technology. The Batou mine in China produces 95% of world supply and China controls exports. Increase production at the Mountain Pass Rare Earth Mine in California. Article.

Build the Keystone pipeline. Article.

Expand American oil production by exploring and developing new reserves. Article.


Science

Full list of articles on the future of science and technology. *


Teaching

Establish an online set of free textbooks and lecture visuals that are flexible so that teachers can adapt them to their courses. Website of online textbooks

Establish a set of institutes of technology where STEM is taught.


Immigration

Establish a fee for the privilige non-citizens to work in the United States, say, $5000 per year. If the cumulative contribution reaches a given value, say, $100000, then award citizenship.

Establish preferential immigration for countries that are allies of the United States, and establish immigration exchange programs.

Establish economic zones in other countries so that prosperity is possible there.

Build the wall.


United Nations

The United Nations is dysfunctional but you still want it in New York City rather than somewhere else. Designate a building near the United Nations as the headquarters of the "Group of Generosity" (GG). To qualify to join, nations should:

Have a stable uncorrupt democracy.
Be non-belligerent and respectful of international borders.
Be willing to work with other nations to use intelligence to find deals that are beneficial to all parties.

The GG is a nexus for deal making and is intended to supersede the UN. Belligerent nations that have been excluded from the GG will have incentive to reform and join, lest they be left out of the good deals.


Health Care

Measures that can be taken to reduce the price of health care:

Change the struture of patents (especially drug patents) so that the rewards for innovators are for fixed terms, and then anyone can use the knowledge. Permanent patents are harmful. Article

Expand the consumer's choices by subdividing costs. At present, you pay one fee to one insurance provider and the costs are bundled. You have no control over the component costs to eliminate inefficient elements.

Eliminate the monopolies that are held by the American Medical Association, the American Optometric Association, the American Psychiatric American Physical Therapy Association, etc. They gouge prices and exclude competition. There exist many forms of therapy that are effective that are forbidden by these associations, such as The Feldenkrais Method and Alexander Technique.

The Feldenkrais Method, Alexander Technique, and Cranosacral Technique are vastly more powerful than physical therapy. They can solve problems that conventional medicine cannot, and the physics behind these techniques is well understood. Textbook on the physics of the mind-body arts.

Reduce regulations.

For people needing long-term care, establish communites so that resources can be shared.

Reduce the requirements to get a drug approved, and expand the list of approved drugs.


Electricity

World electricity, 2008
        Sum    Coal  Gas   Oil  Nuclear Hydro  Bio  Wind  Solar  Solar  Geo
                                               mass       PV     therm  therm
World   20261  8263  4301  1111  2731   3288   271   219   12     1      65
USA      4369  2133  1011    58   838    282    73    56    2     1      17
China    3457  2733    31    23    68    585     2    13    0     0       0
Japan    1082   288   283   139   258     83    22     3    2     3       3
Russia   1040   197   495    16   163    167     2     0    0     0       0
India     830   569    82    34    15    114     2    14    0     0       0
Canada    651   112    41    10    94    383     8     4    0     0       0
Germany   637
Units of TWh/year. Data from 2008.
World electricity, 2014
          Sum   Coal  Gas  Oil  Nuke  Hydro  Wind  Sol  Wood  Bio  Geo  Pop    Per person
                                                              mass      (mil)  (kWh/yr)
World    23537
China     5583  4350   201      124    896   140     9
USA       4297  1582  1139  30  797    259   182    18   42   22   16   319   13005
EU        3166
India     1271   836    41   1   36    129          28
Russia    1064   202   511      170    170
Japan     1061   318   456 149   11     85    50
Canada     615
Germany    614
Brazil     583
France     556
S. Korea   518
UK         357
Mexico     294
S. Arabia  292
Italy      288
Indonesia  216
Units of TWh/year unless otherwise noted. Data for 2014.
Energy sources
           Energy  Energy   Density  Carbon
            /kg     /CO2              frac
           MJ/kg   MJ/kg    g/cm^3

Oil                  48
Natural gas  44      20.2    .0008    .76
Coal         24       8.5    .85      .67
Crude        43              .81      .89
Diesel       44.8            .83
Gasoline     47.3            .76
Cane begase  15    >100
Biomass      14    >100               .42
Wood         14    >100      .4       .42
Uranium    28e6      80    19.1
Hydro power        >100
Wind power         >100
Solar cells        >100
Thorium                    11.7
LNG          48.6            .45             Liquid natural gas
LPG          46.6                     .81    Liquid petroleum gas (propane and butane)

U.S. electricity
             U.S.   Cents      $/kg   Produce   MJ/$
             frac   /kWh              Bkg/year

Coal         .388      9.0    .045    900       490*
Natural gas  .274      7.0    .117    574       527*
Crude                         .29     530
Uranium      .195     10.0
Hydro        .06       7.0
Wind         .044      7.4
Wood         .0102    10.0
Biomass      .0052
Solar cell   .0042    11.0
Solar therm
Geothermal   .0038     4.8


USA electricity                    =   4200 TWh/year
USA per capita electricity         =   13.0 MWh/year/person
USA oil production                 =   9.40 Mbarrels/day  (2015)
1 short ton                        =  .9072 tons
1 BTU                              =   1055 Joules
1 Barrel of oil                    =     42 gallons  =  158.99 liters  =  6.12⋅109 Joules
1 Gallon                           =  4.546 litres

U.S. electricity use
             Fraction  Cents/kWh

Residential     .339    12.5       10932 kWh/person/year,  1368 $/month
Commercial      .326    10.7
Industrial      .241     6.4
Transport       .0019
Transsion loss  .092
Industrial electricity is cheaper than residential electricity because it is delivered at higher voltage and closer to the generator.
Power transmission


Mining

Red:     low price
Yellow:  medium price
White:   high price
Blue:    not naturally occuring because there are no long-lived isotopes
Dot size inversely scales with abundance in the Earth's crust.

The "rare Earth elements" are the elements in the bottom two rows of the above table. Many are not rare. They are vital to the electronics industry.


         Price   Production   Reserves   Price
         $/kg     109 kg/yr    109 kg     109 $/yr

Iron           .3 1700          ∞     510      Sold as steel
Aluminum      1.7   49.3        ∞      84      Produced from electricity
Copper        6.2   18.7        ∞     116
Zinc          2     11.2   200000      22
Manganese     2.3   11.0    20000      25
Magnesium     2.85   5.96       ∞      17
Lead          2      3.9                7.8
Nickel       15      2.1               32
Tantalum    100      1.0                1.0
Zirconium    20       .9       60      18
Chromium      2.3     .75               1.7    Sold as stainless steel
Molybdenum   24       .25               6.0
Tin          22       .25               5.5
Titanium     10       .137      ∞       1.4
Antimony      6       .135               .8
Cobalt       30       .11               3.3
Thorium      25       .01       1.9      .25
Vanadium     12       .079               .95
Uranium      75       .070              5.2
Niobium      40       .063              2.5
Tungsten     50       .061              3.0
Lithium     200       .036     40       7.2
Cadmium       1.9     .03                .06
Strontium     5       .03                .15
Silver      590       .026             15
Arsenic       1.9     .02
Neodymium    25       .01                .25
Yttrium      45       .0071     9
Mercury      16       .003
Bismuth      18       .009
Gold      24000       .0028            67
Selenium     60       .002       .093    .12
Indium      750       .0005      .006
Beryllium   805       .0004      .4
Tellurium    50       .0002              .01
Gallium     280       .000273   1        .076
Palladium 13600       .00025            3.4
Platinum  88000       .000245          22
Germanium  1950       .000118            .23
Hafnium     500       .0001              .05   Extracted from zirconium ore
Rhenium    6200       .00005             .3
Rhodium   88000       .000030           2.6
Iridium   13000       .000012            .16
Ruthenium  5600       .000012    .005    .07
Lutetium 100000       .000010           1.0
Thallium    480       .000010            .005  Byproduct of Cu, Zn, and Pb production
Scandium  14000       .000002            .03
Osmium    12000       .000001            .012

Rare Earth:
Cerium        2.5    ~.1                 .25
Lanthanum     3       .0125              .04
Samarium      3       .0007     2        .002
Gadolinium   20       .0004     1        .008
Dyspros      80       .0001              .008
Praseo       30       ?
Europium    300       ?
Terbium     600       ?
Erbium     5400       ?
Holmium    8600       ?          .4
Ytterbium 14000       .00005    1        .7
Thulium   70000       .00005     .1     3.5
Prometh    Huge       .000000001               No stable isotopes. Created in nuclear reactors

Argon         5       .7                3.5
Helium       50       .030              1.5    169e6 million meters3 of gas at .179 kg/m3
Xenon      1200       .00006             .07
Neon        330       ?
Krypton     330       ?

Carbon            7900          ∞              Coal
Nitrogen           158          ∞              450e9 kg/yr of NH3NO3, 95% for fertilizer
Sulfur              69          ∞              Byproduct of oil refining.
Phosphorus          63      24000              Sold as phosphate, P mass fraction = 1/3.
Potassium      .6   18       4700              Sold as potash (KCl) for .31 $/kg.  Assume potash is 1/2 K.
Boron                1.2
Chlorine             ?
Fluorine   2000       .017
Selenium              .002
Synth diamonds        .000080                  Synthesized in a laboratory
Rough diamonds        .000020                  Mined diamonds, unsuitable for gemstones
Gem diamonds          .000004                  Mined diamonds, suitable for gemstones
The world total rare Earth ore mined is .14 Gkg/yr.

Neodymium magnets supporting steel spheres
Composition of a neodymium magnet: Nd2Fe14B.


Elements as currency

Metals are useful for currency because they are uncounterfeitable and immutable. 1 trillion dollars of metals are mined per year. The elements are listed below sorted by $/year mined. The metals that have the largest value are steel, copper, aluminum, and copper.

            $/kg    Bkg/year   B$/year

Steel           .3 1700         516
Copper         6.2   18.7       116
Aluminum       1.7   49.3        84
Gold       24000       .0028     67
Nickel        15      2.1        32
Manganese      2.3   11.0        25
Platinum   88000       .000245   22
Zinc           2     11.2        22
Zirconium     20       .9        18
Magnesium      2.8    5.96       17
Silver       264       .026       6.9
Lithium      200       .036       7.2
Molybdenum    24       .25        6.0
Tin           22       .25        5.5
Uranium       75       .070       5.2
Thulium    70000       .00005     3.5
Palladium  13600       .00025     3.4
Cobalt        30       .11        3.3
Tungsten      50       .061       3.0
Rhodium    88000       .000030    2.6
Niobium       40       .063       2.5
Titanium      10       .137       1.4
Lutetium  100000       .000010    1.0
Tantalum     100      1.0         1.0
Neodymium     25       .01         .25
Selenium      60       .004        .24
Germanium   1950       .000118     .23
Gallium      280       .000273     .076
Tellurium     50       .0002       .01
Indium       750       .0005       .006

Elements for electronics

Elements of interest to electronics are:

            $/kg    Produce    Produce  Electronics  Solar  Invest  Jewelry  Catalyst
                    (109 kg/yr) (109 $/yr)

Copper         6.2  18.7       116         .16       .08
Gold       24000      .0028     67         .08                .36     .53
Platinum   88000      .000245   22         .02                .06     .35      .40
Lithium      200      .036       7.2       .23
Silver       264      .026       6.9       .26       .06      .28     .22
Neodymium     25      .01         .25      .88                                 .01
Germanium   1950      .000118     .23      .72                                 .20

Rare Earth elements

The rare Earth elements are the ones in the row from Lanthanum to Lutetium and they tend to occur together in minerals. They are vital to electronics and 95% of the world's supply comes from the Bayan Obo deposit in China. Uranium and thorium are often found in rare Earth ore.

            Protons   $/kg

Scandium      21    14000      Alloys
Lanthanum     57        3      Glass, catalysts, lighters
Cerium        58        2.5    Lighters
Praseodymium  59       30      Magnets, alloys
Neodymium     60       25      Magnets, lasers, glass
Promethium    61        -      No stable isotopes
Samarium      62        3      Magnets, catalysts, lighters
Europium      63      300      Phosphors, lasers
Gadolinium    64       20      Alloys, phosphors, fuel cells
Terbium       65      600      Fuel cells, magnetomechanical transducers, phosphors
Dyspros       66       80      Magnets, hard drive memory, LEDs
Holmium       67     8600      Magnets, lasers
Erbium        68     5400      Fiber optics
Thulium       69    70000      Lasers
Ytterbium     70    14000      Lasers, steel alloy
Lutetium      71   100000      Catalysts, X-ray phosphors
Thorium       90       25      Nuclear fuel
Uranium       92       75      Nuclear fuel

Monazite

Monazite quartz
Monazite reserves

Monazite ore contains 55-60% rare earth metal oxides along with 24 to 29% P2O5, 5 to 10% ThO2, and 0.2 to .04% U3O8. Due to the alpha decay of thorium and uranium, monazite contains a significant amount of helium, which can be extracted by heating. Some monazite ores have a thorium fraction in the range of 0.25.

The density of monazite ore is between 4.6 and 5.7 g/cm3. Because of their high density, monazite minerals will concentrate in alluvial sands when released by the weathering of pegmatites. These so-called placer deposits are often beach or fossil beach sands and contain other heavy minerals of commercial interest such as zircon and ilmenite. Monazite can be isolated as a nearly pure concentrate by the use of gravity, magnetic, and electrostatic separation.

Among the metals found in mozanite, a typical fractional distribution is

            Fraction

Cerium        .46
Lanthanum     .24
Neodymium     .17
Phosphorus    .10
Thorium       .08
Praseodymium  .05
Uranium       .002
Samarium      .001
Gadolinium    .001
Yttrium       .001
Europium      .0005
Thorium reserves in units of 109 kg.
World total  1.91
India         .963
USA           .44
Australia     .30
Canada        .10
South Africa  .035
Brazil        .016
Malaysia      .0045
Other         .090
The total energy of thorium reserves is
Energy  =  1.91e9 kg * 8.e12 J/kg  =  15.3e21 Joules

Mountain Pass Mine

The Californian Mountain Pass mine close in 2002. In 2010 China restricted rare Earth exports, prompting subsidies from the U.S. Government to reopen the mine. Mining resumed in 2015 and then ceased in 2016 when the mining corporation went bankrupt.


Precious metal

The metals sorted by price/kg are:

         Price   Production   Reserves   Price
         $/kg     109 kg/yr    109 kg     109 $/yr

Lutetium 100000       .000010           1.0
Platinum  88000       .000245          22
Rhodium   88000       .000030           2.6
Thulium   70000       .00005     .1     3.5
Gold      24000       .0028            67
Scandium  14000       .000002            .03
Ytterbium 14000       .00005    1        .7
Palladium 13600       .00025            3.4
Iridium   13000       .000012            .16
Osmium    12000       .000001            .012
Holmium    8600       ?          .4
Rhenium    6200       .00005             .3
Ruthenium  5600       .000012    .0005   .07
Erbium     5400       ?
Fluorine   2000       .017
Germanium  1950       .000118            .23
Xenon      1200       .00006             .07
Beryllium   805       .0004      .4
Indium      750       .0005      .006
Terbium     600       ?
Silver      590       .026             15
Hafnium     500       .0001              .05   Extracted from zirconium ore
Thallium    480       .000010            .005  Byproduct of Cu, Zn, and Pb production
Neon        330       ?
Krypton     330       ?
Europium    300       ?
Gallium     280       .000273
Lithium     200       .036              7.2
Tantalum    100      1.0                1.0
Dyspros      80       .0001              .008
Uranium      75       .070              5.2
Selenium     60       .002       .093    .12
Tellurium    50       .0002              .01
Tungsten     50       .061              3.0
Helium       50       .030              1.5
Yttrium      45       .0071     9
Niobium      40       .063              2.5
Praseo       30       ?
Cobalt       30       .11               3.3
Thorium      25       .01       1.9      .25
Neodymium    25       .01                .25
Molybdenum   24       .25               6.0
Tin          22       .25               5.5

Noble gases

Noble gases are obtained by cooling air to a liquid and then distilling it, except for helium, which is obtained from natural gas.

            Atmosphere    Boil    Price   Atomic   Liquid     Gas
                %        Kelvin   $/kg     mass    density  density
                                                   g/cm3     g/cm3
Argon     Ar   .934       87.3       5      40     1.395    .00178
Neon      Ne   .001818    27.1     280      20     1.207    .000900
Helium    He   .000524     4.23     50       4      .125    .000179
Krypton   Kr   .000114   119.7     330      84     2.413    .00375
Xenon     Xe   .0000087  165.1    2100     131     2.94     .00589

Metal production

The metals that are produced in the largest quantities, in units of 1 billion kg per year:

           Steel   Al    Cu     Zn     Mn    Mg    Ni

World      1600   49.3  18.5   11.2   18.5  6.97  2.45
USA          79    1.7   1.36    .74    -    -     -
China       804   23.3   1.76   3.10   2.9  4.9    .102
Canada       12    2.9    .70    .70    -    -     .240
Australia     5    1.7    .97   1.29   3.0   .13   .234
Russia       71    3.5    .74    .22    -    .4    .240
India        90    2.1    -      .70    .95  .60   -
Brazil       33    1.0    -      .17   1.0   .15   .110

Production of rare metals

Rare metals in units of millions of kg per year:

            Cu    Au    Pt     Ag    Li    Ti   Sn

World     18500   .99   .161  26.0  36.0  222  296
USA        1360   .21   .004   1.1        
China      1760   .09          4.0        100
Canada      700   .15   .007    .7               ?
Australia   970   .27          1.7  13.0         6
Russia      740   .25   .025   1.7         45
S. Africa         .15   .110
Mexico      520   .12          5.4
Chile      5750                1.2  12.9
Peru       1380   .14          3.5              24
Data
Potassium

"Potash" is mostly potassium chloride.

         Potash   Potash reserves
       (109 kg/yr)  (109 kg)

World      37.0    9500
Canada     11.2    4400
Russia      7.4    3300
Belarus     5.5     750
Germany     3.3     150
China       3.3     210
Israel      2.0      40
Jordan      1.4      40
USA         1.1     130
Chile        .8      70
UK           .43     22
Spain        .42     20
Brazil       .4     300
Other                50

Phosphate (P2O5)
        MTons/yr  MTons

World     225     71000
China     100      3700
Morocco    30     50000
USA        27.1    1400
Russia     10      1300
Brazil      6.8     310
Egypt       6       715
Jordan      6      1300
Tunisia     5       100
Israel      3.6     130
Australia   2.6    1030
Peru        2.6     240
Iraq               5800
Algeria            2200
Syria              1800
S. Africa          1500
http://investingnews.com/daily/resource-investing/agriculture-investing/phosphate-investing/top-phosphate-producing-countries
Platinum group metals


American element deficiencies

Strategic elements are elements that are vital for technology and for which America doesn't have enough ore. The elements in order of importance are:

Phosphorus
Rare Earths
Platinum group metals:  Platinum, osmium, iridium, ruthenium, rhodium, and palladium.
Scandium
Mercury
Carbon:  Oil, natural gas, and coal.
Phosphorus is a major component of fertilizer and half the world's reserves are in Morocco. Biomass energy hinges on phosphorus. The other components of fertilizer, potassium and nitrogen, are abundant.
Mining

Red:     low price
Yellow:  medium price
White:   high price
Blue:    not naturally occuring because there are no long-lived isotopes
Dot size inversely scales with abundance in the Earth's crust.

The "rare Earth elements" are the elements in the bottom two rows of the above table. Many are not rare. They are vital to the electronics industry.


         Price   Production   Reserves   Price
         $/kg     109 kg/yr    109 kg     109 $/yr

Iron           .3 1700          ∞     510      Sold as steel
Aluminum      1.7   49.3        ∞      84      Produced from electricity
Copper        6.2   18.7        ∞     116
Zinc          2     11.2   200000      22
Manganese     2.3   11.0    20000      25
Magnesium     2.85   5.96       ∞      17
Lead          2      3.9                7.8
Nickel       15      2.1               32
Tantalum    100      1.0                1.0
Zirconium    20       .9       60      18
Chromium      2.3     .75               1.7    Sold as stainless steel
Molybdenum   24       .25               6.0
Tin          22       .25               5.5
Titanium     10       .137      ∞       1.4
Antimony      6       .135               .8
Cobalt       30       .11               3.3
Thorium      25       .01       1.9      .25
Vanadium     12       .079               .95
Uranium      75       .070              5.2
Niobium      40       .063              2.5
Tungsten     50       .061              3.0
Lithium     200       .036     40       7.2
Cadmium       1.9     .03                .06
Strontium     5       .03                .15
Silver      590       .026             15
Arsenic       1.9     .02
Neodymium    25       .01                .25
Yttrium      45       .0071     9
Mercury      16       .003
Bismuth      18       .009
Gold      24000       .0028            67
Selenium     60       .002       .093    .12
Indium      750       .0005      .006
Beryllium   805       .0004      .4
Tellurium    50       .0002              .01
Gallium     280       .000273   1        .076
Palladium 13600       .00025            3.4
Platinum  88000       .000245          22
Germanium  1950       .000118            .23
Hafnium     500       .0001              .05   Extracted from zirconium ore
Rhenium    6200       .00005             .3
Rhodium   88000       .000030           2.6
Iridium   13000       .000012            .16
Ruthenium  5600       .000012    .005    .07
Lutetium 100000       .000010           1.0
Thallium    480       .000010            .005  Byproduct of Cu, Zn, and Pb production
Scandium  14000       .000002            .03
Osmium    12000       .000001            .012

Rare Earth:
Cerium        2.5    ~.1                 .25
Lanthanum     3       .0125              .04
Samarium      3       .0007     2        .002
Gadolinium   20       .0004     1        .008
Dyspros      80       .0001              .008
Praseo       30       ?
Europium    300       ?
Terbium     600       ?
Erbium     5400       ?
Holmium    8600       ?          .4
Ytterbium 14000       .00005    1        .7
Thulium   70000       .00005     .1     3.5
Prometh    Huge       .000000001               No stable isotopes. Created in nuclear reactors

Argon         5       .7                3.5
Helium       50       .030              1.5    169e6 million meters3 of gas at .179 kg/m3
Xenon      1200       .00006             .07
Neon        330       ?
Krypton     330       ?

Carbon            7900          ∞              Coal
Nitrogen           158          ∞              450e9 kg/yr of NH3NO3, 95% for fertilizer
Sulfur              69          ∞              Byproduct of oil refining.
Phosphorus          63      24000              Sold as phosphate, P mass fraction = 1/3.
Potassium      .6   18       4700              Sold as potash (KCl) for .31 $/kg.  Assume potash is 1/2 K.
Boron                1.2
Chlorine             ?
Fluorine   2000       .017
Selenium              .002
Synth diamonds        .000080                  Synthesized in a laboratory
Rough diamonds        .000020                  Mined diamonds, unsuitable for gemstones
Gem diamonds          .000004                  Mined diamonds, suitable for gemstones
The world total rare Earth ore mined is .14 Gkg/yr.

Neodymium magnets supporting steel spheres
Composition of a neodymium magnet: Nd2Fe14B.


Elements as currency

Metals are useful for currency because they are uncounterfeitable and immutable. 1 trillion dollars of metals are mined per year. The elements are listed below sorted by $/year mined. The metals that have the largest value are steel, copper, aluminum, and copper.

            $/kg    Bkg/year   B$/year

Steel           .3 1700         516
Copper         6.2   18.7       116
Aluminum       1.7   49.3        84
Gold       24000       .0028     67
Nickel        15      2.1        32
Manganese      2.3   11.0        25
Platinum   88000       .000245   22
Zinc           2     11.2        22
Zirconium     20       .9        18
Magnesium      2.8    5.96       17
Silver       264       .026       6.9
Lithium      200       .036       7.2
Molybdenum    24       .25        6.0
Tin           22       .25        5.5
Uranium       75       .070       5.2
Thulium    70000       .00005     3.5
Palladium  13600       .00025     3.4
Cobalt        30       .11        3.3
Tungsten      50       .061       3.0
Rhodium    88000       .000030    2.6
Niobium       40       .063       2.5
Titanium      10       .137       1.4
Lutetium  100000       .000010    1.0
Tantalum     100      1.0         1.0
Neodymium     25       .01         .25
Selenium      60       .004        .24
Germanium   1950       .000118     .23
Gallium      280       .000273     .076
Tellurium     50       .0002       .01
Indium       750       .0005       .006

Elements for electronics

Elements of interest to electronics are:

            $/kg    Produce    Produce  Electronics  Solar  Invest  Jewelry  Catalyst
                    (109 kg/yr) (109 $/yr)

Copper         6.2  18.7       116         .16       .08
Gold       24000      .0028     67         .08                .36     .53
Platinum   88000      .000245   22         .02                .06     .35      .40
Lithium      200      .036       7.2       .23
Silver       264      .026       6.9       .26       .06      .28     .22
Neodymium     25      .01         .25      .88                                 .01
Germanium   1950      .000118     .23      .72                                 .20

Chemical synthesis
                  109 kg/year

Polyethylene        80
Nitrogen            50     Synthesized as ammonium nitrate.  95% becomes fertilizer
Polypropylene       50
Polyvinyl chloride  40     Corrosion-resistant pipes
Polystyrene         15

Rare Earth elements

The rare Earth elements are the ones in the row from Lanthanum to Lutetium and they tend to occur together in minerals. They are vital to electronics and 95% of the world's supply comes from the Bayan Obo deposit in China. Uranium and thorium are often found in rare Earth ore.

            Protons   $/kg

Scandium      21    14000      Alloys
Lanthanum     57        3      Glass, catalysts, lighters
Cerium        58        2.5    Lighters
Praseodymium  59       30      Magnets, alloys
Neodymium     60       25      Magnets, lasers, glass
Promethium    61        -      No stable isotopes
Samarium      62        3      Magnets, catalysts, lighters
Europium      63      300      Phosphors, lasers
Gadolinium    64       20      Alloys, phosphors, fuel cells
Terbium       65      600      Fuel cells, magnetomechanical transducers, phosphors
Dyspros       66       80      Magnets, hard drive memory, LEDs
Holmium       67     8600      Magnets, lasers
Erbium        68     5400      Fiber optics
Thulium       69    70000      Lasers
Ytterbium     70    14000      Lasers, steel alloy
Lutetium      71   100000      Catalysts, X-ray phosphors
Thorium       90       25      Nuclear fuel
Uranium       92       75      Nuclear fuel

Monazite

Monazite quartz
Monazite reserves

Monazite ore contains 55-60% rare earth metal oxides along with 24 to 29% P2O5, 5 to 10% ThO2, and 0.2 to .04% U3O8. Due to the alpha decay of thorium and uranium, monazite contains a significant amount of helium, which can be extracted by heating. Some monazite ores have a thorium fraction in the range of 0.25.

The density of monazite ore is between 4.6 and 5.7 g/cm3. Because of their high density, monazite minerals will concentrate in alluvial sands when released by the weathering of pegmatites. These so-called placer deposits are often beach or fossil beach sands and contain other heavy minerals of commercial interest such as zircon and ilmenite. Monazite can be isolated as a nearly pure concentrate by the use of gravity, magnetic, and electrostatic separation.

Among the metals found in mozanite, a typical fractional distribution is

            Fraction

Cerium        .46
Lanthanum     .24
Neodymium     .17
Phosphorus    .10
Thorium       .08
Praseodymium  .05
Uranium       .002
Samarium      .001
Gadolinium    .001
Yttrium       .001
Europium      .0005
Thorium reserves in units of 109 kg.
World total  1.91
India         .963
USA           .44
Australia     .30
Canada        .10
South Africa  .035
Brazil        .016
Malaysia      .0045
Other         .090
The total energy of thorium reserves is
Energy  =  1.91e9 kg * 8.e12 J/kg  =  15.3e21 Joules

Mountain Pass Mine

The Californian Mountain Pass mine close in 2002. In 2010 China restricted rare Earth exports, prompting subsidies from the U.S. Government to reopen the mine. Mining resumed in 2015 and then ceased in 2016 when the mining corporation went bankrupt.


Precious metal

The metals sorted by price/kg are:

         Price   Production   Reserves   Price
         $/kg     109 kg/yr    109 kg     109 $/yr

Lutetium 100000       .000010           1.0
Platinum  88000       .000245          22
Rhodium   88000       .000030           2.6
Thulium   70000       .00005     .1     3.5
Gold      24000       .0028            67
Scandium  14000       .000002            .03
Ytterbium 14000       .00005    1        .7
Palladium 13600       .00025            3.4
Iridium   13000       .000012            .16
Osmium    12000       .000001            .012
Holmium    8600       ?          .4
Rhenium    6200       .00005             .3
Ruthenium  5600       .000012    .0005   .07
Erbium     5400       ?
Fluorine   2000       .017
Germanium  1950       .000118            .23
Xenon      1200       .00006             .07
Beryllium   805       .0004      .4
Indium      750       .0005      .006
Terbium     600       ?
Silver      590       .026             15
Hafnium     500       .0001              .05   Extracted from zirconium ore
Thallium    480       .000010            .005  Byproduct of Cu, Zn, and Pb production
Neon        330       ?
Krypton     330       ?
Europium    300       ?
Gallium     280       .000273
Lithium     200       .036              7.2
Tantalum    100      1.0                1.0
Dyspros      80       .0001              .008
Uranium      75       .070              5.2
Selenium     60       .002       .093    .12
Tellurium    50       .0002              .01
Tungsten     50       .061              3.0
Helium       50       .030              1.5
Yttrium      45       .0071     9
Niobium      40       .063              2.5
Praseo       30       ?
Cobalt       30       .11               3.3
Thorium      25       .01       1.9      .25
Neodymium    25       .01                .25
Molybdenum   24       .25               6.0
Tin          22       .25               5.5

Noble gases

Noble gases are obtained by cooling air to a liquid and then distilling it, except for helium, which is obtained from natural gas.

            Atmosphere    Boil    Price   Atomic   Liquid     Gas
                %        Kelvin   $/kg     mass    density  density
                                                   g/cm3     g/cm3
Argon     Ar   .934       87.3       5      40     1.395    .00178
Neon      Ne   .001818    27.1     280      20     1.207    .000900
Helium    He   .000524     4.23     50       4      .125    .000179
Krypton   Kr   .000114   119.7     330      84     2.413    .00375
Xenon     Xe   .0000087  165.1    2100     131     2.94     .00589

Metal production

The metals that are produced in the largest quantities, in units of 1 billion kg per year:

           Steel   Al    Cu     Zn     Mn    Mg    Ni

World      1600   49.3  18.5   11.2   18.5  6.97  2.45
USA          79    1.7   1.36    .74    -    -     -
China       804   23.3   1.76   3.10   2.9  4.9    .102
Canada       12    2.9    .70    .70    -    -     .240
Australia     5    1.7    .97   1.29   3.0   .13   .234
Russia       71    3.5    .74    .22    -    .4    .240
India        90    2.1    -      .70    .95  .60   -
Brazil       33    1.0    -      .17   1.0   .15   .110

Production of rare metals

Rare metals in units of millions of kg per year:

            Cu    Au    Pt     Ag    Li    Ti   Sn

World     18500   .99   .161  26.0  36.0  222  296
USA        1360   .21   .004   1.1        
China      1760   .09          4.0        100
Canada      700   .15   .007    .7               ?
Australia   970   .27          1.7  13.0         6
Russia      740   .25   .025   1.7         45
S. Africa         .15   .110
Mexico      520   .12          5.4
Chile      5750                1.2  12.9
Peru       1380   .14          3.5              24
Data
Potassium

"Potash" is mostly potassium chloride.

         Potash   Potash reserves
       (109 kg/yr)  (109 kg)

World      37.0    9500
Canada     11.2    4400
Russia      7.4    3300
Belarus     5.5     750
Germany     3.3     150
China       3.3     210
Israel      2.0      40
Jordan      1.4      40
USA         1.1     130
Chile        .8      70
UK           .43     22
Spain        .42     20
Brazil       .4     300
Other                50

Phosphate (P2O5)
        MTons/yr  MTons

World     225     71000
China     100      3700
Morocco    30     50000
USA        27.1    1400
Russia     10      1300
Brazil      6.8     310
Egypt       6       715
Jordan      6      1300
Tunisia     5       100
Israel      3.6     130
Australia   2.6    1030
Peru        2.6     240
Iraq               5800
Algeria            2200
Syria              1800
S. Africa          1500
http://investingnews.com/daily/resource-investing/agriculture-investing/phosphate-investing/top-phosphate-producing-countries
American metal production

The cost of metal production is dominated by the cost of electricity and heat. If you can produce cheap electricity then you can be competitive for metal exports, and you can manufacture goods that use metals as raw materials.

The most significant metals mined in America are copper, gold, and iron. Materials mined in America are:

            Billion $/year

Coal             31.3
Sand and gravel  15.5
Crushed rock     13.8
Cement            9.8
Copper            7.6
Gold              7.6
Iron ore          3.8
America has abundant ore for most metals. In the table below, "American mining %" is the fraction of the world's supply that is mined in America.
      Available   American  Source of ore in America
      in America  mining %

Lithium     *     -         Nevada brine, Wyoming Rock Springs Uplift
Beryllium   *    88         The Utah Spor Mountain Mine dominates world production
Magnesium   *     -         Utah brine
Aluminum          3.4       America mines negligible aluminum
Scandium          -         America mines negligible scandium
Titanium    *     -         Titanium-rich sands in Florida and Virginia
Vanadium          1         America produces negligible vanadium
Chromium    *     -         Montana Stillwater igneous complex
Manganese         -         America produces negligible manganese
Steel       *     4.9       Iron ore is everywhere
Cobalt            -         America has negligible cobalt mining
Nickel            -         America has one nickel mine, the Michigan Eagle Mine
Copper      *     7.4       Utah Bingham Canyon Mine, New Mexico El Chino Mine
Zinc        *     6.6       The Alaskan Red Dog mine dominates world production
Arsenic           -
Zirconium   *     -         Available in titanium-rich sands in Florida and Virginia
Niobium           -         America mines negligible niobium
Molybdenum  *    24         Colorado Henderson mine and Climax mine. Utah Bingham Canyon Mine
Ruthenium   *     -         Platinum group. Montana Stillwater igneous complex
Rhodium     *     -         Platinum group. Montana Stillwater igneous complex
Palladium   *     6         Platinum group. Montana Stillwater igneous complex
Silver      *     4.2       The Alaskan Red Dog mine and Greens Creek mine are world silver heavyweights
Indium      *     -         Obtained from the Alaskan Red Dog zinc mine
Cadmium     *     -         Obtained from the Alaskan Red Dog zinc mine
Tin               -         There are no American tin mines. The last mine closed in 1993
Antimony          -
Rare Earths *     2         California Mountain Pass Mine
Hafnium     *     -         Mined from zirconium ore, such as the titanium-rich stands of Florida and Virginia
Tantalum          -         America mines negligible tantalum
Tungsten    *     -         California Mountain Pass Mine
Rhenium     *    15
Osmium      *     -         Platinum group. No good source in the U.S.A.
Iridium     *     -         Platinum group. No good source in the U.S.A.
Platinum    *     2.5       Platinum group. No good source in the U.S.A.
Gold        *    21.2       Nevada gold mine
Mercury           -         The last U.S. mine (Nevada McDermitt) closed in 1992
Lead        *    11
Bismuth           -
Thorium     *     -         America has 1/4 of the world's thorium reserves
Uranium     *     3.4       America has many uranium mines

"-" means that American production is less than 1% of world production.
The rare Earth metals are the ones from lanthanum to lutetium and they can all be obtained from the California Mountain Pass Mine.

For aluminum, ore is imported and then extracted with electricity in America.

America can produce metals such as aluminum, titanium, and zinc even though ore is not available, because the ore has a high fraction of the metal and is easily transported. In this case America produces the electricity and hydrocarbon energy required to extract the metal.

For some metals, America possesses high quality ore that can be sold to other countries that have cheap energy available for extraction. These metals are berylium, zinc, molybdenum, copper, and silver.

U.S. Geological Survey


Platinum group metals


American element deficiencies

Strategic elements are elements that are vital for technology and for which America doesn't have enough ore. The elements in order of importance are:

Phosphorus
Rare Earths
Platinum group metals:  Platinum, osmium, iridium, ruthenium, rhodium, and palladium.
Scandium
Mercury
Carbon:  Oil, natural gas, and coal.
Phosphorus is a major component of fertilizer and half the world's reserves are in Morocco. Biomass energy hinges on phosphorus. The other components of fertilizer, potassium and nitrogen, are abundant.
Improving education

We identify ways to improve education and we expand on each in the sections below.

*   Professors: Make professors independent of universities and departments. If they can get students then they're in business.

*   Tuition: Most of the money should go directly from the student to the professor that's teaching the student.

*   Textbooks: Break the monopoly of price gouging textbook manufacturers by creating a complete set of free online textbooks.

*   Private school: Make it possible to have a mix of public and private teachers. All teachers, public and private, can teach in the public school as long as they can get students. This eliminates the overhead of creating a private school.

*   Student center: Have a large and comfortable student center. Hold classes in the student center rather than in remote departments.

*   Grades: Find better ways than grades to benchmark skill.

*   Majors: De-emphasize majors and emphasize skill. Make it possible to customize a curriculum as long as it is rigorous. Eliminate deadweight majors.

*   Administration: Eliminate unncessary administration and have students fulful as many administrative functions as possible.

*   Private universities: the only private universities costing less than $40000/year are BYU and the College of the Ozarks. Your only options for low tuition are these universities and state schools. Establish cheap private universities.

*   Multiple universities: Make it possible to construct a curriculum from multiple universities, including online universities. Make it possible to work and study at the same time. Deemphasize the concept of bundled "full time tuition".

*   Data on America universities.


Tuition and administrative bloat

Professors should be independent of the university and the department, and classes should be organized directly with the professor. This enables professors with unique style to exist, as long as they can attract students. Don't try to build a costly research powerhouse. If researchers are included, encourage researchers that bring in grant money or have projects that can be tackled by undergrads.

Minimize administrators.

Hire students for administrative jobs such as librarians, registrars, and security.

Don't try to build an endowment. Spend the money now.

Professors decide the content, not administrators.

The emphasis should be on courses rather than the degree.

Small classes to enable discussion.

Don't assign expensive textbooks. Content should be available online for free.

Grades

Textbooks

The textbook market does not operate in the same manner as most consumer markets. The end consumers (students) do not select the product, and the product is not purchased by faculty or professors. Therefore, price is removed from the purchasing decision, giving the publishers disproportionate market power to set prices high.

This situation is exacerbated by the lack of competition in the textbook market. Consolidation has reduced the number of major textbook companies from around 30 to just a handful, reducing competition and inhibiting startups.

Publishers also "bundle" supplemental items into a textbook, such a online problem sets. Students do not always have the option to purchase these items separately, and often the one-time-use supplements destroy the resale value of the textbook. A 2005 Government Accountability Office (GAO) Report found that the production of these supplemental items was the primary cause of rapidly increasing prices.


Student center

The most important building is the student center, which should have:

Classrooms, rehearsal space
Lounges, TV rooms, game rooms
Gym, lockers, etc.
Kitchen, dining rooms, refrigerators.
Temorary offices that professors can use as needed.

Most universities segment their classrooms by department building, which is a poor use of space. The laboratories should be sepqrate from the classroom building.


Tuition

Suppose students paid tuition directly to professors.

Classes taken per year by a student     =   10
Students per class                      =   20
Classes taught per year by a professor  =    8
Students taught per year by a professor =  160
Tuition per student per class           =  500 $
Tuition per student per year            = 5000 $
Tuition received per professor per year =80000 $
It is possible to construct a university where the annual tuition is less than $10000 and where the professors are well paid.
Dream classroom

Carpet
Comfortable chairs
Flexible lighting with a centralized control panel next to the computer
Whiteboard
Projector that doesn't interfere with the whiteboard
Speaker system


Grades

Under the current system, a bad grade cannot be undone. As an alternative to grades,

The only grade is "pass" and there is a high standard for passing. If you don't pass then no record is kept that would disrupt your transcript. You can take as long as needed to achieve a pass.

Have professors write letters of recommendation that are posted on a website that a student can link to. This enables a student's unique achievements to be recorded. The emphasis should be on the professors and the student's achievements, rather than the university and the degree. Chuck Norris's letter of recommendation

Institute flexibility so that credit can be earned by tests, howework, projects, labs, or any combination of the above.


High school curriculum

I you want to be badass, these are the kinds of courses you should take.

                   Semesters

Algebra               2
Precalculus           2
Calculus I            1       Calculus should appear as early as possible
Calculus, multivar    1
Differential eq. I    1
Differential eq. II   1       You can never have too much mathematics
Science fundamentals  1       Units and fundamentals of science
Physics I             1
Physics II            1       You can never have too much physics
Chemistry I           1
Chemistry II          1
Biology I             1
Biology II            1
Earth science         1
Astronomy             1
History, American     1
History, European     1
History, Ancient      1       Ancient Greek and Ancient Roman
History of Science    1
History, Modern       1
Writing I             1
Writing II            1
Literature            4
Python programming    2
Foreign language      4
Team sports           8       Team sports build cameraderie
Orchestra             8       Being able to play in a chamber ensemble is important
Theatre               1       Being able to produce a play is important
Total                51

Sports:  Wrestling, soccer, tennis.

College curriculum

Courses should be emphasized over majors.

Physics         Mechanics, Electromagnetism
Mathematics     Calculus, Multivariable calculus
Shemistry
Biology
Earth science
Astronomy
Anatomy
History         Greco-Roman, European, American
Programming     Python, Computer graphics, Audio & video editing
Orchestra
Theatre

Style

Professors should be at liberty to have style, and students should have a diversity of professor styles to choose from.

Your defenses must be as flexible and inventive as the arts you seek to undo
If you do not study, you shall not pass!
It's my job to think as dark wizards do. When it comes to the dark arts i believe in a practical approach. You need to know what you're up against.
Do you really believe that just because you downloaded a kung fu program that you can do kung fu?

Things should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler

Much to learn, you still have
Complex problems have simple, easy to understand, wrong answers


Careers

Feldenkrais Technique. Training is 40 days per year for 3.5 years, at a cost of 4200 $/year. 26th Street. http://feldenkraisinstitute.org

Craniosacral Therapy


CUNY survival

Do not get a degree. Degrees costs unnecessary money, course time, and administrative hoop-jumping. Focus on professors and courses instead.

Search out the most badass professors and courses among all the CUNY schools. For each course, work hard and obtain a letter of recommendation. On your CV least each course, the professor, and the content of each course.

Don't take an excessive course load so that you can work a job while taking courses.

Worthy courses:
Mathematics: Calculus I & II. Differential equations. Applied mathematics.
Physics: Mechanics, Electromagnetism, Quantum Mechanics, Advanced classical physics
Chemistry: Chemistry I & II. Organic chemistry.
Biology: Biology I & II. Anatomy
Astronomy
Earth science
Orchestra
History: Western Civilization. America. Science history. Modern international.
Programming: Python. Java. Computer art and animation. App making.
Foreign language
Drawing
Theatre
Audio and video production


Rank, tuition, and endowment, full table

         Rank   In    Out of  Students  Endow  Endow/    SAT   Free
               state  state     (k)     (B$)   student         (k$)
               (k$)    (k$)                    (M$/prsn)

Princeton     1   -     40     8.1    22.7    2.81       1500    60
Harvard       2   -     42    21.0    36.4    1.74       1505    65
Yale          3   -     44    12.3    25.6    2.07       1505    65
Columbia      4   -     49    29.9     9.6     .32       1480    60
Stanford      4   -     44    16.8    22.2    1.32       1475   125
Chicago       4   -     48    15.2     7.5     .50       1510
MIT           7   -     43    11.3    13.5    1.19       1495
Duke          8   -     49    14.8     7.3     .49       1460
U. Penn       9   -     46    21.3    10.1     .48       1455
Caltech      10   -     42     2.21    2.2    1.00       1550
J. Hopkins   11   -     49    21.7     3.4     .16       1445
Dartmouth    12   -     47     6.3     4.7     .74       1455   100
Northwestern 12   -     49    20.3    10.2     .50       1475
Brown        14   -     49     9.2     3.1     .34       1440
Cornell      15   -     45    21.8     6.0     .28       1420
Vanderbilt   15   -     44    12.7     4.1     .33       1465
Wash. U      15   -     48    14.5     6.8     .47       1465
Rice         18   -     42     6.6     5.6     .84       1470
Notre Dame   18   -     48     8.4      .83    .68       1465
UC Berkeley  20  13     38    37.6     1.5     .041      1390
Emory        21   -     46    14.8     6.7     .45
Georgetown   22   -     49    17.9     1.53    .086      1420
UCLA         23  13     36    43.2     1.86    .043
Carnegie Mel 23   -     50    13.3     1.74    .13       1440
USC          23   -     50    42.5     4.7     .111
Virginia     26  15     44    23.7     6.2     .26
Wake Forest  27   -     48     7.8     1.17    .15
Tufts        27   -     51    10.9     1.6     .15       1440         30
Michigan     29  14     43    43.6    10.0     .23       1380
Boston Col   30   -     49    14.1     2.22    .16                    72
UNC          30   8.6   34    29.1     3.0     .103
NYU          32   -     46    57.2     3.6     .062
Rochester    33   -     48    11.1     2.0     .18
Brandeis     34   -     50     5.9
William Mary 34  17     41     8.4
Georgia Tech 36  12     32    23.1     1.9     .080
UCSB         37  14     39    23.1
Case Western 37   -     45    10.8     1.8     .16
UC Irvine    39  15     37    30.1
UCSD         39  14     38    29.9
UC Davis     41  14     39    34.5
Illinois     41  16     31    45.1
Wisconsin    41  10     30    43.2     2.47
Penn State   47  18     31    47.0
Florida      47   6     29    50.4
Ohio State   52  10     27    64.9     3.6     .056
Texas        52  10     35    51.3
Washington   52  12     34    44.8
Yeshiva      52   -     40     6.4     1.06
Syracuse     61   -     43    21.5     1.17    .054
BYU          62   -      5    30.5
Fordham      66   -     44    15.2
Iowa         82   8     28    31.4
Stony Brook  89   9     24    24.6
Hoffstra    135   -     44    11.0
New School  135   -     42    10.2
SanDiego St 149   7     18
Wyoming     161   5     15    12.8
Hawaii      168  11     29    19.5
CUNY City         6
CUNY BMCC         5
CUNY York         6     13
CooperUnion       -     41                               1375
Harvey Mudd       -     49                               1494
Pomona            -                                      1460
Claremont         -                                      1435
Boston U.    41   -     48             1.6
Rensselaer   41   -     49
Tulane       41   -     50             1.22
Lehigh       47   -     46             1.2
Northeastern 47   -     46                               1420
Miami        51   -     46
Pepperdine   52   -     48
Amherst                                2.2               1450
Swathmore                              1.8               1450
Williams                               2.4               1455
UCSF                           4.9     1.16    .24
Bowdoin                                1.4               1445

Rank             Rank according to US News
In state         In-state tuition
Out of state     Out-of-state tuition
Endow            Endowment
Endow/student    Endowment per student
Free             Free if your parents make less than the given amount

Common Core

Wikipedia: The Common Core standards are copyrighted by NGA Center for Best Practices (NGA Center) and the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO), which controls use of and licenses the standards. The NGA Center and CCSSO do this by offering a public license which is used by State Departments of Education. The license states that use of the standards must be "in support" of the Common Core State Standards Initiative. It also requires attribution and a copyright notice, except when a state or territory has adopted the standards "in whole".

In other words, if you teach in a Common Core state, you do not have the discretion to modify the standards or to improve them. The standards should be public domain to empower teachers.

Wikipedia: U.S. President Barack Obama and U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan announced the Race to the Top competitive grants on July 24, 2009, as a motivator for education reform. Though states could adopt other college and career-ready standards and still be eligible, they were awarded extra points in their Race to the Top applications if they adopted the Common Core standards by August 2, 2010.

In other words, Federal money was used to compel states to conform to the Common Core.


Climate solutions

The Earth's climate can be customized, with a variety of geoengineering options available.

                    CO2   Sea    Fresh  Albedo  Article
                         level   water

Biomass & biochar     *                            *
Solar farm            *                            *
Wind farm             *                            *
Hydro power           *                            *
Bamboo biomass        *                            *
Tidal power           *                            *
Antarctic ice shelf        *              *        *
Iceberg freshwater                 *               *
Iceberg ocean cooling      *              *        *
Seawater greenhouses  *    *       *               *
Island building            *              *        *
Reservoirs                 *       *               *
Electric cars         *                            *
Electric cities       *                            *
Ocean iron            *                            *
Rogue forestry        *                            *
Agriculture tech      *                            *
Space mirror                              *        *
Algae biomass         *                            *
Natural gas           *                            *
Thorium power         *                            *
Iron asteroid fuel    *                            *
Earth albedo                              *        *
Amery glacier dam          *                       *

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